programmed instruction


Summary: Works consisting of sequenced self-correction texts.

Top Publications

  1. Srinivas P, Gusfield D, Mason O, Gertz M, Hogarth M, Stone J, et al. Neuroanatomical term generation and comparison between two terminologies. Neuroinformatics. 2003;1:177-92 pubmed
  2. Laidlaw J, Harden R, Robertson L, Anne Hesketh E. The design of distance-learning programmes and the role of content experts in their production. Med Teach. 2003;25:182-7 pubmed
    ..The use made of the enhancements varies in the different modules. This project was challenging and ambitious but our objectives were met with all 39 authors satisfactorily producing the 42 SELECT Units. ..
  3. Lee V. Problems with eating and nutrition: geriatric self-learning module. Medsurg Nurs. 2004;13:405-8 pubmed
    ..The Problems With Eating and Nutrition: Geriatric Self-Learning Module is published here, along with a post test. This is the second in a four-part publication of self-learning modules. ..
  4. Frölich J, Dopfner M, Berner W, Lehmkuhl G. [Treatment effects of combined cognitive behavioral therapy with parent training in hyperkinetic syndrome]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2002;51:476-93 pubmed
    ..PMT is a useful adjunct to CBT due to its effectiveness in situations where children still have problems of self guidance. ..
  5. Lynch B, Einspruch E, Nichol G, Becker L, Aufderheide T, Idris A. Effectiveness of a 30-min CPR self-instruction program for lay responders: a controlled randomized study. Resuscitation. 2005;67:31-43 pubmed
    ..If properly distributed, this type of training could produce a significant increase in the number of lay responders who can perform CPR. ..
  6. Akers L, Gordon J, Andrews J, Barckley M, Lichtenstein E, Severson H. Cost effectiveness of changing health professionals' behavior: training dental hygienists in brief interventions for smokeless tobacco cessation. Prev Med. 2006;43:482-7 pubmed
    ..Self-study may be a more cost effective method than workshops to achieve behavior change among motivated health professionals. ..
  7. Collier A, Heilig L, Schilling L, Dellavalle R. Clinical questions asked by medical students: a learning tool for dermatology rotations. Dermatology. 2007;214:108-11 pubmed
    ..5). Medical students report increased knowledge, confidence and patient care skills after completing a self-directed formal exercise consisting of formulating and answering a patient-specific clinical question. ..
  8. Johnson C, Hurtubise L, Castrop J, French G, Groner J, Ladinsky M, et al. Learning management systems: technology to measure the medical knowledge competency of the ACGME. Med Educ. 2004;38:599-608 pubmed
    ..The LMS addresses the educational needs of both a clinical division and a residency programme. The LMS also provides an information technology infrastructure to measure the medical knowledge competency required by the ACGME. ..
  9. Rosentreter J, Talboy M. A didactic and experiential approach to nursing education. AORN J. 2003;78:274, 277-80, 282, passim pubmed
    ..The nurses then completed evaluations. Results of the evaluations indicated that this approach to learning was rewarding for the participants. ..

More Information


  1. Gallant M, MacDonald J, Smith Higuchi K. A remediation process for nursing students at risk for clinical failure. Nurse Educ. 2006;31:223-7 pubmed
    ..The process is embedded within the context of clinical evaluation and includes the use of a learning contract as an integral component. The strengths and limits of the process and suggestions for further development are included. ..
  2. Roberts C, Milon S, Kurosinski P. Understanding the internet-based distance learning preferences of European respiratory specialists. Med Teach. 2006;28:477-9 pubmed
    ..There is potential for both individual and group learning that could be realized by developing Europe-wide continuing professional development communities. ..
  3. Kell C, van Deursen R. Student learning preferences reflect curricular change. Med Teach. 2002;24:32-40 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that curricula mould students' learning profile development. The impact of this statement on future curriculum development is discussed and educational research-in-action promoted. ..
  4. Hickman J, Rogers W, Fisk A. Training older adults to use new technology. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007;62 Spec No 1:77-84 pubmed
    ..However, assessments of learning revealed a clear benefit of guided attention training for both age groups. These data suggest differences in training benefits for immediate performance versus more general learning. ..
  5. Greenstreet W. Bridging the specialist-generalist divide: a creative Master's programme initiative. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2005;11:638-42 pubmed
    ..In this way, in the community and in institutions where the majority of older people dying of chronic illness are cared for, resources can be used purposefully to maximize the chance of 'a good enough death' (McNamara, 2001). ..
  6. Chambers D. Estimating transfer of learning for self-instructional packages across dental schools. J Dent Educ. 2006;70:142-8 pubmed
    ..Studies conducted as single schools, regardless of their methodological rigor, fail to address issues associated with potential transfer of findings to other schools. ..
  7. Hewitt Taylor J, Gould D. Learning preferences of paediatric intensive care nurses. J Adv Nurs. 2002;38:288-95 pubmed
  8. Hughes S. Student attendance during college-based lectures: a pilot study. Nurs Stand. 2005;19:41-9 pubmed
  9. Wesson M, Gogus C. Shaking hands with a computer: an examination of two methods of organizational newcomer orientation. J Appl Psychol. 2005;90:1018-26 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate the importance of newcomer orientations and socialization outcomes during organizational entry and that training method can be an important moderator of orientation practices. ..
  10. Kierfeld F, Dopfner M. [Bibliotherapy as a self-help program for parents of children with externalizing problem behavior]. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2006;34:377-85; quiz 385-6 pubmed
    ..The results have to be replicated within randomized control group trials. ..
  11. Cleary M, Freeman A, Sharrock L. The development, implementation, and evaluation of a clinical leadership program for mental health nurses. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2005;26:827-42 pubmed
    ..The self-directed nature of this program was found to be an effective way for clinical nurses to undertake continued professional development within the exigencies of clinical practice. ..
  12. Faucher D, Everson C. An innovative interdisciplinary approach to self-directed learning with a focus on the continuum of patient care. J Nurses Staff Dev. 2004;20:226-8 pubmed
    ..This article describes one approach to self-directed learning that takes into consideration individual learning styles and level of proficiency with a focus on the continuum of patient care. ..
  13. Hyde A, Murray M. Nurses' experiences of distance education programmes. J Adv Nurs. 2005;49:87-95 pubmed
    ..Distance education as a means of disseminating nursing knowledge should be strengthened. The challenge for nurse educators is to develop DE programmes that minimize their limitations and maximize their potential. ..
  14. McLean T, Anema M. Reduce the nursing shortage: help inactive nurses return to work. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2004;35:211-5 pubmed
    ..A survey, sent to nurses who completed the course, revealed that the flexible schedule was the key factor in their ability to return to practice. Refresher courses are one option to increase the number of registered nurses. ..
  15. Schultz J, Joyce D. Better by design: self-learning cardiac curricula. Nurs Manage. 2004;35:56-9 pubmed
    ..Clinical specialists at Wausau Hospital, Wisc., devise continuing-education opportunities for cardiac care providers. ..
  16. Mathers J, Parry J, Scully E, Popovic C. A comparison of medical students' perceptions of their initial basic clinical training placements in 'new' and established teaching hospitals. Med Teach. 2006;28:e80-9 pubmed
    ..In the absence of fundamental change, mechanisms to equip students with 'survival skills' as self-directed hospital learners should also be considered. ..
  17. Lee V. Confusion: geriatric self-learning module. Medsurg Nurs. 2005;14:38-41 pubmed
    ..The Confusion. Geriatric Self-Learning Module is published here, along with a post-test. This is the third in a four-part publication of self-learning modules. ..
  18. Collins M, Phillips S, Dougherty L, de Verteuil A, Morris W. A structured learning programme for venepuncture and cannulation. Nurs Stand. 2006;20:34-40 pubmed
    ..These organisations will evaluate it, with a long-term objective to standardise the training and assessment of venepuncture and cannulation across the UK. ..
  19. Osborne R, Buchbinder R, Ackerman I. Can a disease-specific education program augment self-management skills and improve Health-Related Quality of Life in people with hip or knee osteoarthritis?. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006;7:90 pubmed
    ..Using an innovative design combining both quantitative and qualitative components, this project will provide high quality data to facilitate evidence-based recommendations regarding the ASMP. ..
  20. Woods C, Mutrie N, Scott M. Physical activity intervention: a transtheoretical model-based intervention designed to help sedentary young adults become active. Health Educ Res. 2002;17:451-60 pubmed
    ..This inexpensive, self-instructional intervention, based on the TM and the 'active living message', is an effective method of assisting sedentary young adults to progress through the exercise SOC. ..
  21. Giner J, Macian V, Hernandez C. [Multicenter prospective study of respiratory patient education and instruction in the use of inhalers (EDEN study)]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2002;38:300-5 pubmed
    ..After a standardized instruction program, correct use of all the inhalers studied was achieved. We believe that we thereby contribute to improving symptoms and quality of life of respiratory disease patients. ..
  22. Dunlosky J, Cavallini E, Roth H, McGuire C, Vecchi T, Hertzog C. Do self-monitoring interventions improve older adult learning?. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007;62 Spec No 1:70-6 pubmed
    ..Our discussion highlights both successes and failures of self-monitoring to enhance learning as well as challenges for future research. ..
  23. Mizer L, Farnum C, Schenck P. The Modular Resource Center: integrated units for the study of the anatomical sciences in a problem-based curriculum. Anat Rec. 2002;269:249-56 pubmed
    ..Although started as a resource in support of a tutorial-based curriculum, the MRC has evolved over a decade into an anatomy resource that would be highly valued in any curricular format. ..
  24. Kim J, Chang S, Lee S, Jun E, Kim Y. An experimental study of students' self-learning of the San-Yin-Jiao pressure procedure using CD-ROM or printed materials. J Nurs Educ. 2003;42:371-6 pubmed
    ..However, with more time and facilities available, CD-ROMs may be as effective as traditional learning methods and can be an alternative tool. ..
  25. Cook D, Dupras D. Flexible teaching for inflexible schedules: an online resident curriculum in acute ambulatory care. Med Teach. 2003;25:330-1 pubmed
    ..There are few reports of web-based curricula in postgraduate training. Our interactive model avoids scheduling conflicts, is easily updated, encourages self-directed earning and facilitates resident assessment. ..
  26. Filippucci E, Unlu Z, Farina A, Grassi W. Sonographic training in rheumatology: a self teaching approach. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003;62:565-7 pubmed
    ..2; range 1-30). At the end of the training, the novice scored >/=6 for each standard scan. A novice can obtain acceptable sonographic images in 24 non-consecutive hours of active scanning after an intensive self teaching programme. ..
  27. MacPherson B, Brueckner J. Enhancing the dental histology curriculum using computer technology. J Dent Educ. 2003;67:359-65 pubmed
    ..This paper describes a typical syllabus for a fused course, outlining the topics for basic and oral histology, and demonstrates how the laboratory portion has been enhanced using digital technology. ..
  28. Trapp P. Engaging the body and mind with the spirit of learning to promote critical thinking. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2005;36:73-6 pubmed
    ..These can be applied in a variety of different formats. Examples are provided for self-directed learning formats, which can be a versatile and cost-effective way to communicate continuing education to the learner. ..
  29. Miflin B. Small groups and problem-based learning: are we singing from the same hymn sheet?. Med Teach. 2004;26:444-50 pubmed
  30. Karabourniotis D, Evaggelinou C, Tzetzis G, Kourtessis T. Curriculum enrichment with self-testing activities in development of fundamental movement skills of first-grade children in Greece. Percept Mot Skills. 2002;94:1259-70 pubmed
    ..Finally, it seems that the Test of Gross Motor Development is a useful tool for the assessment of children's fundamental movement skills. ..
  31. Bradley D, Rana G, Martin P, Schumacher R. Real-time, evidence-based medicine instruction: a randomized controlled trial in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Med Libr Assoc. 2002;90:194-201 pubmed
    ..4 (post-intervention), and 2.0 and 3.8 (six-month post-intervention). Data suggest that measurable learning outcomes were achieved. Residents receiving instruction improved and retained searching skills six-months after intervention. ..
  32. Stark P, Fortune F. Teaching clinical skills in developing countries: are clinical skills centres the answer?. Educ Health (Abingdon). 2003;16:298-306 pubmed
  33. Considine J, Botti M, Thomas S. Effect of a self-directed learning package on emergency nurses' knowledge of assessment of oxygenation and use of supplemental oxygen. Nurs Health Sci. 2005;7:199-208 pubmed
  34. Kennedy A, Robinson A, Rogers A. Incorporating patients' views and experiences of life with IBS in the development of an evidence based self-help guidebook. Patient Educ Couns. 2003;50:303-10 pubmed
    ..The book includes direct quotes from patients describing their own experiences. Guided and practical ways of support are required for people with IBS who want to self-manage their condition. ..
  35. Abbass A. Small-group videotape training for psychotherapy skills development. Acad Psychiatry. 2004;28:151-5 pubmed
    ..The author concludes that small-group videotape training is an efficient psychotherapy training format that encourages self-monitoring and the exchange of supportive peer feedback. ..
  36. Al Abood S, Bennett S, Hernandez F, Ashford D, Davids K. Effect of verbal instructions and image size on visual search strategies in basketball free throw shooting. J Sports Sci. 2002;20:271-8 pubmed
    ..The results support the benefits of instructions when observing a model with an external focus on movement effects, not dynamics. ..
  37. Goeppinger J, Armstrong B, Schwartz T, Ensley D, Brady T. Self-management education for persons with arthritis: Managing comorbidity and eliminating health disparities. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57:1081-8 pubmed
    ..Significant results at 1 year within and between programs were minimal for both groups. When populations with arthritis and multiple comorbid conditions are targeted, the CDSMP may be most cost effective. ..
  38. Patterson C, Crooks D, Lunyk Child O. A new perspective on competencies for self-directed learning. J Nurs Educ. 2002;41:25-31 pubmed
    ..Each of these skills are not mutually exclusive but are interrelated in such a way that students use all or a combination of them simultaneously to direct and control their learning. ..
  39. Tomanek D, Montplaisir L. Students' studying and approaches to learning in introductory biology. Cell Biol Educ. 2004;3:253-62 pubmed
    ..Implications for introductory biology education are discussed. ..
  40. Margrett J, Willis S. In-home cognitive training with older married couples: individual versus collaborative learning. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2006;13:173-95 pubmed
    ..The results, however, did not indicate immediate added benefit in reasoning performance for collaborative versus individual training using the current reasoning program. ..
  41. Suler J. eQuest: case study of a comprehensive online program for self-study and personal growth. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2005;8:379-86 pubmed
    ..Underlying all these therapeutic activities is a philosophy that advocates the therapeutic value of developing an online lifestyle and integrating it into one's offline life, while also recognizing the potential pitfalls of cyberspace. ..
  42. Levett Jones T. Self-directed learning: implications and limitations for undergraduate nursing education. Nurse Educ Today. 2005;25:363-8 pubmed
  43. Kurihara Y, Kuramoto S, Matsuura K, Miki Y, Oda K, Seo H, et al. Academic performance and comparative effectiveness of computer- and textbook-based self-instruction. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2004;107:894-7 pubmed
    ..All students in Group-2 and -3 reported that CP stimulated willingness to learn and assisted understanding. The present analysis suggested that effectiveness of CAI might be associated with the academic ability of students. ..
  44. Gass J, Banks D, Wilson A. Modularisation - flexible or restrictive professional education. Nurse Educ Today. 2004;24:337-43 pubmed
    ..Challenges that have arisen for mental health nursing lecturers to continue with this are discussed. ..
  45. Sussman S, Dent C, Craig S, Ritt Olsen A, McCuller W. Development and immediate impact of a self-instruction curriculum for an adolescent indicated drug abuse prevention trial. J Drug Educ. 2002;32:121-37 pubmed
    ..Self-instruction programming can be successfully adapted from a health educator-led format, though the lack of student group interaction in this modality may limit its receptivity among students. ..
  46. Haro Estarriol M, Lázaro Castañer C, Marín Barnuevo C, Andicoberry Martínez M, Martínez Puerta M. [Usefulness of teaching how to manage the pressurized canister and the Turbuhaler system in hospitalized patients]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2002;38:306-10 pubmed
    ..This is true for all COPD patients, regardless of level of obstruction. Our results demonstrate that a program of instruction during a patient's hospital stay is both feasible and important. ..
  47. Jha V, Duffy S, Murdoch Eaton D. Development of transferable skills during short special study modules: students' self-appraisal. Med Teach. 2002;24:202-4 pubmed
    ..The feedback from the students is positive in terms of a wide range of transferable skills developed and most of the themes identified by the GMC are being pursued. ..
  48. McPherson A, Forster D, Glazebrook C, Smyth A. The asthma files: evaluation of a multimedia package for children's asthma education. Paediatr Nurs. 2002;14:32-5 pubmed
    ..Children enjoyed using the package and knowledge about asthma triggers increased significantly. 'The Asthma Files' shows promise as an additional tool to augment existing education. ..
  49. Hand H. Promoting effective teaching and learning in the clinical setting. Nurs Stand. 2006;20:55-63; quiz 64 pubmed
    ..This article explores the nature of teaching and learning in the clinical area. Many of the issues that mentors encounter in promoting a good learning environment and undertaking effective teaching are discussed. ..
  50. Willatt J, Mason A. Comparison of radiology residency programs in ten countries. Eur Radiol. 2006;16:437-44 pubmed
    ..In view of the "internationalization" of radiology services and the variation in training styles an international qualification for quality assurance purposes may be desirable. ..
  51. Proehl J. Developing emergency nursing competence. Nurs Clin North Am. 2002;37:89-96, vii pubmed
    ..This article focuses on the orientation of emergency nurses. A related article in this issue addresses assessment of competency...
  52. Benavides Caballero T, Insfrán Sánchez M, Viniegra Velázquez L. [Small group discussion to promote self-learning]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2007;45:141-8 pubmed
    ..02). Small group discussion proved to be effective to increase the capability to read critically educational theory texts, thus it use should be considered when implementing educational strategies aimed at promoting active participation. ..
  53. Levinstein I, Boonthum C, Pillarisetti S, Bell C, McNamara D. iSTART 2: improvements for efficiency and effectiveness. Behav Res Methods. 2007;39:224-32 pubmed