Summary: A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.

Top Publications

  1. Wiehe V. Empathy and narcissism in a sample of child abuse perpetrators and a comparison sample of foster parents. Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27:541-55 pubmed
    The purpose of this research was to study the personality variables of empathy and narcissism in a sample of child abuse perpetrators and a comparison sample of foster parents, conceptualized as nonabusive parents, in order to gain ..
  2. Twenge J, Campbell W. "Isn't it fun to get the respect that we're going to deserve?" Narcissism, social rejection, and aggression. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003;29:261-72 pubmed
    ..In Study 1, narcissism was positively correlated with feelings of anger and negatively correlated with more internalized negative ..
  3. Barry T, Thompson A, Barry C, Lochman J, Adler K, Hill K. The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children. Aggress Behav. 2007;33:185-97 pubmed
    The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months)...
  4. Fan Y, Wonneberger C, Enzi B, de Greck M, Ulrich C, Tempelmann C, et al. The narcissistic self and its psychological and neural correlates: an exploratory fMRI study. Psychol Med. 2011;41:1641-50 pubmed publisher
    The concept of narcissism has been much researched in psychoanalysis and especially in self psychology. One of the hallmarks of narcissism is altered emotion, including decreased affective resonance (e.g...
  5. Zeigler Hill V. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem: implications for narcissism and self-esteem instability. J Pers. 2006;74:119-44 pubmed
    ..The present study examined whether discrepant high self-esteem was associated with narcissism and self-esteem instability in an undergraduate sample...
  6. Kernberg O. Unconscious conflict in the light of contemporary psychoanalytic findings. Psychoanal Q. 2005;74:65-81; discussion 327-63 pubmed
    ..A brief clinical illustration is included. ..
  7. Glover N, Miller J, Lynam D, Crego C, Widiger T. The five-factor narcissism inventory: a five-factor measure of narcissistic personality traits. J Pers Assess. 2012;94:500-12 pubmed publisher
    ..undergraduates, the convergent validity of these 15 scales was tested with respect to 8 established measures of narcissism (including measures of both grandiose and vulnerable narcissism) and the respective facets of the FFM...
  8. Cain N, Pincus A, Ansell E. Narcissism at the crossroads: phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2008;28:638-56 pubmed
    This review documents two themes of emphasis found in phenotypic descriptions of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis...
  9. Rose P. Mediators of the association between narcissism and compulsive buying: the roles of materialism and impulse control. Psychol Addict Behav. 2007;21:576-81 pubmed
    ..difficulties of people with narcissistic personalities, this study tested a model of the association between narcissism and compulsive consumption...

More Information


  1. Miller J, Campbell W. Comparing clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism. J Pers. 2008;76:449-76 pubmed publisher
    There is a lack of consensus surrounding the conceptualization of narcissism. The present study compared two measures of narcissism-one used in clinical settings (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, PDQ-4+; Hyler, 1994) and one used in ..
  2. Kansi J. The narcissistic personality inventory: applicability in a Swedish population sample. Scand J Psychol. 2003;44:441-8 pubmed
    ..80 and the test-retest correlation was 0.93. The total scale score correlated with self-esteem as well as the interpersonal style and emotional aspects of psychopathy, supporting the validity of the scale. ..
  3. Trumpeter N, Watson P, O Leary B, Weathington B. Self-functioning and perceived parenting: relations of parental empathy and love inconsistency with narcissism, depression, and self-esteem. J Genet Psychol. 2008;169:51-71 pubmed publisher, the authors examined the relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of narcissism, self-esteem, and depression...
  4. Campbell W, Bush C, Brunell A, Shelton J. Understanding the social costs of narcissism: the case of the tragedy of the commons. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2005;31:1358-68 pubmed
    Two studies examined narcissism and behavior in a commons dilemma. Study 1 used a four-person, laboratory-based task and Study 2 used a dyadic task...
  5. Sedikides C, Rudich E, Gregg A, Kumashiro M, Rusbult C. Are normal narcissists psychologically healthy?: self-esteem matters. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2004;87:400-416 pubmed publisher
    Five studies established that normal narcissism is correlated with good psychological health...
  6. Brown R, Budzek K, Tamborski M. On the meaning and measure of narcissism. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2009;35:951-64 pubmed publisher
    For three decades, social-personality research on overt narcissism has relied almost exclusively on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI)...
  7. Konrath S, Bushman B, Campbell W. Attenuating the link between threatened egotism and aggression. Psychol Sci. 2006;17:995-1001 pubmed
    ..However, narcissistic aggression was completely attenuated, even under ego threat, when participants believed they shared a key similarity with their partner. ..
  8. Kernberg O. The destruction of time in pathological narcissism. Int J Psychoanal. 2008;89:299-312 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical manifestations and technical approach to this pathology of time experience are outlined in the context of illustrative clinical vignettes. ..
  9. Michal M, Kaufhold J, Engelbach U, Lenz C, Lischke M, Overbeck G, et al. [The validity of the depersonalisation-derealisation scale of the narcissism--inventory]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2005;55:512-6 pubmed
    The German Narcissism-Inventory contains a 6-item scale for the assessment of depersonalization (DP) and derealization (DR)...
  10. Exline J, Baumeister R, Bushman B, Campbell W, Finkel E. Too proud to let go: narcissistic entitlement as a barrier to forgiveness. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2004;87:894-912 pubmed
    ..Study 6 demonstrated that entitlement predicted diminished increases in forgiveness over time. Taken together, these results suggest that narcissistic entitlement is a robust, distinct predictor of unforgiveness. ..
  11. Konrath S, Bushman B, Grove T. Seeing my world in a million little pieces: narcissism, self-construal, and cognitive-perceptual style. J Pers. 2009;77:1197-228 pubmed publisher
    In 4 studies we examine the association between narcissism, self-construal, and cognitive-perceptual style, hypothesizing that high self-focus in combination with low other-focus (i.e...
  12. Mehdizadeh S. Self-presentation 2.0: narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2010;13:357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study examines how narcissism and self-esteem are manifested on the social networking Web site ...
  13. Besser A, Priel B. Emotional responses to a romantic partner's imaginary rejection: the roles of attachment anxiety, covert narcissism, and self-evaluation. J Pers. 2009;77:287-325 pubmed publisher an induced imaginary romantic rejection and individual differences on dimensions of attachment and covert narcissism. In Study 1 (N=125), we examined the associations between attachment dimensions and emotional responses to a ..
  14. Pincus A, Ansell E, Pimentel C, Cain N, Wright A, Levy K. Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychol Assess. 2009;21:365-379 pubmed publisher
    The construct of narcissism is inconsistently defined across clinical theory, social-personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis...
  15. Pincus A, Lukowitsky M. Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2010;6:421-46 pubmed publisher
    We review the literature on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and describe a significant criterion problem related to four inconsistencies in phenotypic descriptions and taxonomic models across clinical ..
  16. Back M, Schmukle S, Egloff B. Why are narcissists so charming at first sight? Decoding the narcissism-popularity link at zero acquaintance. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2010;98:132-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Three main findings were revealed: First, narcissism leads to popularity at first sight...
  17. Miller J, Price J, Campbell W. Is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory still relevant? A test of independent grandiosity and entitlement scales in the assessment of narcissism. Assessment. 2012;19:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..incremental validity in the prediction of several FFM traits that are central to the conceptualization of narcissism. These findings suggest that some caution must be used before assuming that these lower-order scales can be used ..
  18. Wright A, Lukowitsky M, Pincus A, Conroy D. The higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Assessment. 2010;17:467-83 pubmed publisher
    The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism...
  19. Schoenleber M, Sadeh N, Verona E. Parallel syndromes: two dimensions of narcissism and the facets of psychopathic personality in criminally involved individuals. Personal Disord. 2011;2:113-27 pubmed publisher
    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally involved individuals...
  20. Back M, K├╝fner A, Dufner M, Gerlach T, Rauthmann J, Denissen J. Narcissistic admiration and rivalry: disentangling the bright and dark sides of narcissism. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2013;105:1013-37 pubmed publisher
    We present a process model that distinguishes 2 dimensions of narcissism: admiration and rivalry...
  21. Bushman B, Baumeister R. Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: does self-love or self-hate lead to violence?. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1998;75:219-29 pubmed
    ..In 2 studies, both simple self-esteem and narcissism were measured, and then individual participants were given an opportunity to aggress against someone who had ..
  22. Kelsey R, Ornduff S, Reiff S, Arthur C. Psychophysiological correlates of narcissistic traits in women during active coping. Psychophysiology. 2002;39:322-32 pubmed
    Two dimensions of narcissism were related to psychophysiological responses to stress in 50 young women...
  23. Paulhus D. Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self-enhancement: a mixed blessing?. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1998;74:1197-208 pubmed
    ..In Study 1, trait self-enhancement was indexed by measures of narcissism and self-deceptive enhancement. At the first meeting, self-enhancers made positive impressions...
  24. Barry C, Frick P, Killian A. The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children: a preliminary investigation. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2003;32:139-52 pubmed
    ..and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior...
  25. Bushman B, Bonacci A, van Dijk M, Baumeister R. Narcissism, sexual refusal, and aggression: testing a narcissistic reactance model of sexual coercion. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003;84:1027-40 pubmed
    Laboratory analog studies investigated the theory that narcissism and reactance contribute to causing rape. In Study 1, narcissism correlated positively with rape-supportive beliefs and negatively with empathy for rape victims...
  26. Campbell W, Foster C, Finkel E. Does self-love lead to love for others? A story of narcissistic game playing. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2002;83:340-354 pubmed publisher
    Five studies investigated the links among narcissism, self-esteem, and love. Across all studies, narcissism was associated primarily with a game-playing love style...
  27. Stucke T, Sporer S. When a grandiose self-image is threatened: narcissism and self-concept clarity as predictors of negative emotions and aggression following ego-threat. J Pers. 2002;70:509-32 pubmed
    Two studies examined the relation between narcissism, self-concept clarity, negative emotions, and aggression based on theoretical assumptions proposed by Baumeister, Smart, and Boden (1996)...
  28. Kelsey R, Ornduff S, McCann C, Reiff S. Psychophysiological characteristics of narcissism during active and passive coping. Psychophysiology. 2001;38:292-303 pubmed
    This study provides the first psychophysiological analysis of narcissism by measuring autonomic responses during active and passive anticipatory coping in 40 undergraduate men who scored high or low on the Narcissistic Personality ..
  29. Andrade V. The 'uncanny', the sacred and the narcissism of culture: the development of the ego and the progress of civilization. Int J Psychoanal. 2007;88:1019-37 pubmed
    ..The two episodes may be classified as representing the sense of the 'uncanny', attributed by Freud to the narcissism that remained from primitive cultures, in which the shadow cast by the body and the mirrored reflection of the ..
  30. Arthur C, Woodman T, Ong C, Hardy L, Ntoumanis N. The role of athlete narcissism in moderating the relationship between coaches' transformational leader behaviors and athlete motivation. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2011;33:3-19 pubmed
    ..Within Bass's (1985) transformational leadership framework, we examined follower narcissism as a moderator of the coach behavior-coach effectiveness relationship...
  31. Tritt S, Ryder A, Ring A, Pincus A. Pathological narcissism and the depressive temperament. J Affect Disord. 2010;122:280-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Common measures of narcissism, however, emphasize grandiose rather than vulnerable traits, and include both adaptive and maladaptive features...
  32. Thomaes S, Stegge H, Bushman B, Olthof T, Denissen J. Development and validation of the childhood narcissism scale. J Pers Assess. 2008;90:382-91 pubmed publisher
    ..describe the development and validation of a short (10 item) but comprehensive self-report measure of childhood narcissism. The Childhood Narcissism Scale (CNS) is a 1-dimensional measure of stable individual differences in childhood ..
  33. Kallergis G. Informing cancer patient based on his type of personality: the arrogant (narcissistic) patient. J BUON. 2012;17:791-5 pubmed
    ..Informing the family: The patient objects to a common approach with the family as he is concerned about inflicting a blow to his image. ..
  34. Vaillancourt T. Students aggress against professors in reaction to receiving poor grades: an effect moderated by student narcissism and self-esteem. Aggress Behav. 2013;39:71-84 pubmed publisher
    ..that, when participants were given a poorer feedback, higher self-esteem (Study 1 and Study 2) and higher narcissism (Study 1) were associated with them giving lower (more aggressive) evaluations of the "professor...
  35. Waska R. Greed and the frightening rumble of psychic hunger. Am J Psychoanal. 2004;64:253-66 pubmed
    ..This paper focuses on patients who are fearful and anxious about the greedy urges that shape their inner world. Case material is used for illustration. ..
  36. Fabozzi P. A silent yet radical future revolution: Winnicott's innovative perspective. Psychoanal Q. 2012;81:601-26 pubmed
  37. Corry N, Merritt R, Mrug S, Pamp B. The factor structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. J Pers Assess. 2008;90:593-600 pubmed publisher
    ..However, additional NPI research is needed to rescale, modify, or omit several NPI items and develop gender-equivalent items. ..
  38. Kancyper L. The role of pre-oedipal and oedipal factors in psychic life. Int J Psychoanal. 2006;87:219-36 pubmed
    ..This paper develops the following issues: 1) Oedipus, victimizer or victim?; 2) the generational confrontation as dynamic field; and 3) neuroses with a preponderance of dualistic relationships. ..
  39. Vazire S, Funder D. Impulsivity and the self-defeating behavior of narcissists. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2006;10:154-65 pubmed
    Currently prominent models of narcissism (e.g., Morf and Rhodewalt, 2001) primarily explain narcissists' self-defeating behaviors in terms of conscious cognitive and affective processes...
  40. Ronningstam E. An update on narcissistic personality disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013;26:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..diagnostic approach that includes a dimensional conceptualization for identifying and diagnosing pathological narcissism and NPD, in addition to specific traits...
  41. Bushman B, Moeller S, Crocker J. Sweets, sex, or self-esteem? Comparing the value of self-esteem boosts with other pleasant rewards. J Pers. 2011;79:993-1012 pubmed publisher
  42. Moncayo R. The partial object, the ideal ego, the ego-ideal, and the empty subject: four degrees of differentiation within narcissism. Psychoanal Rev. 2006;93:565-602 pubmed
  43. Miller J, Hoffman B, Gaughan E, Gentile B, Maples J, Keith Campbell W. Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism: a nomological network analysis. J Pers. 2011;79:1013-42 pubmed publisher
    Evidence has accrued to suggest that there are 2 distinct dimensions of narcissism, which are often labeled grandiose and vulnerable narcissism...
  44. Fossati A, Borroni S, Eisenberg N, Maffei C. Relations of proactive and reactive dimensions of aggression to overt and covert narcissism in nonclinical adolescents. Aggress Behav. 2010;36:21-7 pubmed publisher
    In recent years, there has been increasing acknowledgment of the multidimensionality of narcissism and that different types of narcissism may relate differently to other domains of functioning...
  45. Rusbridger R. The internal world of Don Giovanni. Int J Psychoanal. 2008;89:181-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The author view is that Mozart's music depicts him as a much emptier character, using phallic narcissism as a way of surviving a psychic catastrophe by projecting his pain into others...
  46. Gehrie M. From archaic narcissism to empathy for the self: the evolution of new capacities in psychoanalysis. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2011;59:313-34 pubmed publisher
    ..With an eye to studying the development of narcissism and its implications for the growth of new psychic structure, this concept is reviewed and reassessed...
  47. Scheurich N, Mullen V. Narcissism and spirituality in Flannery O'Connor's stories. Am J Psychother. 2003;57:537-50 pubmed
    Virtually any short story by Flannery O'Connor could serve as a poignant case study of narcissism. While narcissism in the guises of ambition and hubris is an ancient literary theme, O'Connor's protagonists vividly exemplify a syndrome of ..
  48. Phillips S. Homosexuality: coming out of the confusion. Int J Psychoanal. 2003;84:1431-50 pubmed
    ..These areas of confusion include manifest versus latent homosexuality, narcissism and bisexuality, oedipal dynamics and development, and transference and technique.
  49. Campbell W, Bonacci A, Shelton J, Exline J, Bushman B. Psychological entitlement: interpersonal consequences and validation of a self-report measure. J Pers Assess. 2004;83:29-45 pubmed
    ..Psychological entitlement has a pervasive and largely unconstructive impact on social behavior. ..
  50. Vartzopoulos I. On: incorporation of an invasive object. Int J Psychoanal. 2005;86:548-9 pubmed
  51. Bell S. Early vulnerability in the development of the sense of maleness: Castration depression in the phallic-narcissistic phase. Psychoanal Study Child. 2004;59:100-23 pubmed
    ..Vulnerability to castration depressive affect is postulated to be more prominent in the phallic-narcissistic phase because phallic self representation is not yet consolidated. ..
  52. McGregor I, Nail P, Marigold D, Kang S. Defensive pride and consensus: strength in imaginary numbers. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005;89:978-96 pubmed
    ..In Study 3, another form of defensive pride, narcissism, was associated with exaggerated consensual worldview defense after a system-injustice threat...
  53. Donnellan M, Ackerman R, Brecheen C. Extending Structural Analyses of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale to Consider Criterion-Related Validity: Can Composite Self-Esteem Scores Be Good Enough?. J Pers Assess. 2016;98:169-77 pubmed publisher