Summary: The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.

Top Publications

  1. Corona G, Rastrelli G, Ricca V, Jannini E, Vignozzi L, Monami M, et al. Risk factors associated with primary and secondary reduced libido in male patients with sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2013;10:1074-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced libido is a symptom referring more to a reduction in sexual drive for sexual activity...
  2. Vardi Y, Sprecher E, Gruenwald I, Yarnitsky D, Gartman I, Granovsky Y. The p300 event-related potential technique for libido assessment in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. J Sex Med. 2009;6:1688-1695 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the p300 ERP technique could be used as an objective quantitative tool for libido assessment in sexually dysfunctional women.
  3. Wang S, Tsou H, Chen C, Chen Y, Ho I, Hsiao C, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in the opioid receptor mu1 gene are associated with changes in libido and insomnia in methadone maintenance patients. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;22:695-703 pubmed publisher
    ..rs495491, rs10457090, rs589046, rs3778152, rs563649, and rs2075572 are significantly associated with change-in-libido side effects (adjusted p<0.042)...
  4. Suschinsky K, Lalumière M. Is sexual concordance related to awareness of physiological states?. Arch Sex Behav. 2012;41:199-208 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the sex difference in sexual concordance may be a unique phenomenon, separate from general awareness of physiological states. ..
  5. Traish A, Miner M, Morgentaler A, Zitzmann M. Testosterone deficiency. Am J Med. 2011;124:578-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines a host of studies, with practical recommendations for diagnosis of TD and T repletion in middle-aged and older men, including an analysis of treatment modalities and areas of concerns and uncertainty. ..
  6. Marberger M, Wilson T, Rittmaster R. Low serum testosterone levels are poor predictors of sexual dysfunction. BJU Int. 2011;108:256-62 pubmed publisher
    ..were compared in subjects with and without sexual dysfunction (sexual inactivity, impotence, decreased libido or a Problem Assessment Scale of the Sexual Function Index [PAS-SFI] score <9)...
  7. Traish A, Hassani J, Guay A, Zitzmann M, Hansen M. Adverse side effects of 5?-reductase inhibitors therapy: persistent diminished libido and erectile dysfunction and depression in a subset of patients. J Sex Med. 2011;8:872-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Results.? Prolonged adverse effects on sexual function such as erectile dysfunction and diminished libido are reported by a subset of men, raising the possibility of a causal relationship...
  8. Dennerstein L, Dudley E, Burger H. Are changes in sexual functioning during midlife due to aging or menopause?. Fertil Steril. 2001;76:456-60 pubmed
    ..phase, there was a further decline in the factors sexual responsivity, frequency of sexual activities, libido, and in the total score, and a significant increase in vaginal dyspareunia and partner's problems...
  9. Cumming G, Currie H, Moncur R, Lee A. Web-based survey on the effect of menopause on women's libido in a computer-literate population. Menopause Int. 2009;15:8-12 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study is to use the internet to survey the effect of menopause on women's experience of libido.

More Information


  1. Malavige L, Jayaratne S, Kathriarachchi S, Sivayogan S, Fernando D, Levy J. Erectile dysfunction among men with diabetes is strongly associated with premature ejaculation and reduced libido. J Sex Med. 2008;5:2125-34 pubmed publisher
    Among men with diabetes, little attention has been given to premature ejaculation (PE), reduced libido, and their associations with erectile dysfunction (ED), despite the presence of physical and psychologic factors that could predispose ..
  2. Elnashar A, El Dien Ibrahim M, El Desoky M, Ali O, El Sayd Mohamed Hassan M. Female sexual dysfunction in Lower Egypt. BJOG. 2007;114:201-6 pubmed
    ..7% (27 of the 46 women). FSD is a highly prevalent problem within the scope of this study. Low reporting rates and very low treatment rates were identified in the sample from Lower Egypt. ..
  3. Schaffir J. Hormonal contraception and sexual desire: a critical review. J Sex Marital Ther. 2006;32:305-14 pubmed
    ..Effects on sexual desire most likely represent a complex and idiosyncratic combination of biological, psychological, and social effects. Further research is required to identify which factors may have the greatest effect. ..
  4. Davis S, Moreau M, Kroll R, Bouchard C, Panay N, Gass M, et al. Testosterone for low libido in postmenopausal women not taking estrogen. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2005-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The long-term effects of testosterone, including effects on the breast, remain uncertain. ( number, NCT00131495.) ..
  5. Penke L, Asendorpf J. Beyond global sociosexual orientations: a more differentiated look at sociosexuality and its effects on courtship and romantic relationships. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008;95:1113-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Within couples, the 3 components also showed distinct degrees of assortative mating and distinct effects on the romantic partner. Implications for the evolutionary psychology of mating tactics are discussed. ..
  6. Gonzalez M, Viáfara G, Caba F, Molina T, Ortiz C. Libido and orgasm in middle-aged woman. Maturitas. 2006;53:1-10 pubmed
    Determine which social, demographic and sexual function variables that most influence libido or desire and orgasm domains in the premenopausal and postmenopausal women...
  7. Haselton M, Gangestad S. Conditional expression of women's desires and men's mate guarding across the ovulatory cycle. Horm Behav. 2006;49:509-18 pubmed
    ..The daily assessment method provides an important supplement to existing studies using scheduled laboratory visits as the purpose of the study (examining cycle-related variation) is not known by participants. ..
  8. Travison T, Morley J, Araujo A, O Donnell A, McKinlay J. The relationship between libido and testosterone levels in aging men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2509-13 pubmed
    Although it is known that serum testosterone (T) concentrations are related to libido, the strength of that relationship in community-dwelling men has not yet been determined...
  9. Labrie F, Archer D, Bouchard C, Fortier M, Cusan L, Gomez J, et al. Effect of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (Prasterone) on libido and sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2009;16:923-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Such data indicate that combined androgenic/estrogenic stimulation in the three layers of the vagina exerts important beneficial effects on sexual function in women without systemic action on the brain and other extravaginal tissues. ..
  10. Fisher H, Aron A, Mashek D, Li H, Brown L. Defining the brain systems of lust, romantic attraction, and attachment. Arch Sex Behav. 2002;31:413-9 pubmed
    ..Then it discusses an ongoing project using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain to investigate the neural circuits associated with one of these emotion-motivation systems, romantic attraction. ..
  11. de Graaf L, Brouwers A, Diemont W. Is decreased libido associated with the use of HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors?. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;58:326-8 pubmed
    To describe patients with decreased libido during use of a HMG-CoA-reductase-inhibitor, and to discuss causality and pharmacological hypotheses for this association by analysis of the adverse drug reactions (ADR) database of the ..
  12. Bancroft J. The endocrinology of sexual arousal. J Endocrinol. 2005;186:411-27 pubmed
    ..Whereas the traditional concept of 'hormone' continues to apply to the role of testosterone and oestradiol in sexual arousal, peptides present a more complex role. ..
  13. Egarter C, Topcuoglu A, Vogl S, Sator M. Hormone replacement therapy with tibolone: effects on sexual functioning in postmenopausal women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81:649-53 pubmed
    ..changes in postmenopausal women may be accompanied by sexual problems and a worsening of various aspects of libido, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tibolone (Liviel(R)) on sexual life...
  14. Salonia A, Pontillo M, Nappi R, Zanni G, Fabbri F, Scavini M, et al. Menstrual cycle-related changes in circulating androgens in healthy women with self-reported normal sexual function. J Sex Med. 2008;5:854-863 pubmed publisher
    ..This report provides clinically applicable ranges for androgens throughout the menstrual cycle in reproductive-aged, regularly cycling, young healthy Caucasian European women with self-reported normal sexual function. ..
  15. Traish A, Guay A, Spark R. Are the Endocrine Society's Clinical Practice Guidelines on Androgen Therapy in Women misguided? A commentary. J Sex Med. 2007;4:1223-34; discussion 1234-5 pubmed
    ..androgens play a role in the development of axillary and pubic hair, and that testosterone is critical for women's libido and sexual function...
  16. Traeen B, Nilson T. Use of pornography in traditional media and on the Internet in Norway. J Sex Res. 2006;43:245-54 pubmed
    ..Level of education predicted exposure to pornography on the Internet, in magazines and in films. Younger individuals were more likely to utilize the Internet both for viewing pornographic material and to chat. ..
  17. Seftel A, Mack R, Secrest A, Smith T. Restorative increases in serum testosterone levels are significantly correlated to improvements in sexual functioning. J Androl. 2004;25:963-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that threshold T levels are needed in order to significantly affect improvements in sexual functioning. ..
  18. Davis A, Castaño P. Oral contraceptives and libido in women. Annu Rev Sex Res. 2004;15:297-320 pubmed
    ..This paper critically examines the published literature addressing the impact of OCs on sexual desire or libido. We reviewed 30 original research studies...
  19. Turna B, Apaydin E, Semerci B, Altay B, Cikili N, Nazli O. Women with low libido: correlation of decreased androgen levels with female sexual function index. Int J Impot Res. 2005;17:148-53 pubmed
    ..a possible correlation between decreased androgen levels and female sexual function index (FSFI) in women with low libido and compare these findings with normal age-matched subjects...
  20. Menon A, Williams R, Watson S. Increased libido associated with quetiapine. J Psychopharmacol. 2006;20:125-7 pubmed
    ..We discuss the potential neuro-chemical mechanisms for this and argue that quetiapine's unique pharmacological profile may have contributed to the development of his symptoms. ..
  21. Symonds T, Boolell M, Quirk F. Development of a questionnaire on sexual quality of life in women. J Sex Marital Ther. 2005;31:385-97 pubmed
    ..The SQOL-F is a valid instrument for assessing the impact of FSD on quality of life and as an adjunct in evaluating FSD in clinical trials. The SQOL-F sensitivity to changes in sexual function needs confirmation. ..
  22. Buster J, Kingsberg S, Aguirre O, Brown C, Breaux J, Buch A, et al. Testosterone patch for low sexual desire in surgically menopausal women: a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105:944-52 pubmed
  23. Davis S. The effects of tibolone on mood and libido. Menopause. 2002;9:162-70 pubmed
    ..Published studies indicate beneficial effects of tibolone on both libido and mood, which otherwise significantly compromise physical, psychological, and social well-being...
  24. Avellanet Y, Ortiz A, Pando J, Romaguera J. Relationship between loss of libido and signs and symptoms of depression in a sample of Puerto Rican middle-aged women. P R Health Sci J. 2008;27:85-91 pubmed
    ..Loss of libido or loss of sexual desire, as a symptom of one of the primary sexual dysfunctions described in females, is highly ..
  25. Atkins L, Fallowfield L. Fallowfield's Sexual Activity Questionnaire in women with without and at risk of cancer. Menopause Int. 2007;13:103-9 pubmed
    ..Age, cancer, psychological distress and menopausal status affect sexual activity in these groups of women and should be considered in future investigations. ..
  26. Barton D, Wender D, Sloan J, Dalton R, Balcueva E, Atherton P, et al. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate transdermal testosterone in female cancer survivors with decreased libido; North Central Cancer Treatment Group protocol N02C3. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:672-9 pubmed
    Decreased libido is one of several changes in sexual function that are often experienced by female cancer patients...
  27. Wiegel M, Meston C, Rosen R. The female sexual function index (FSFI): cross-validation and development of clinical cutoff scores. J Sex Marital Ther. 2005;31:1-20 pubmed
    ..881 to .854) for identifying women without sexual dysfunction. We discuss the results in terms of potential strengths and weaknesses of the FSFI, as well in terms of further clinical and research implications. ..
  28. Ang H, Lee K. Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on libido in middle-aged male rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;13:249-54 pubmed
    The effect of increasing doses of various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack extracts on libido was examined in middle-aged male rats. The results showed that a high dose (800 mg/kg) of all E...
  29. Bullivant S, Sellergren S, Stern K, Spencer N, Jacob S, Mennella J, et al. Women's sexual experience during the menstrual cycle: identification of the sexual phase by noninvasive measurement of luteinizing hormone. J Sex Res. 2004;41:82-93 pubmed
    ..We use these results to evaluate potential neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying women's sexual motivation and activity. ..
  30. Brown S, Morrison L, Calibuso M, Christiansen T. The menstrual cycle and sexual behavior: relationship to eating, exercise, sleep, and health patterns. Women Health. 2008;48:429-44 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Sexually active women had lower cortisol and IgA levels than abstinent women (p = .02). Our study discovered, and confirmed, systematic differences in eating, sleeping, and health patterns across women's menstrual cycles. ..
  31. Chevret M, Jaudinot E, Sullivan K, Marrel A, de Gendre A. Impact of erectile dysfunction (ED) on sexual life of female partners: assessment with the Index of Sexual Life (ISL) questionnaire. J Sex Marital Ther. 2004;30:157-72 pubmed
    ..Older women had lower scores compared to younger women, independent of whether their partner had ED or not. The ISL will be useful in treatment decisions when assessing the couple's satisfaction with treatment for ED. ..
  32. Pillsworth E, Haselton M, Buss D. Ovulatory shifts in female sexual desire. J Sex Res. 2004;41:55-65 pubmed
    ..The pursuit of an in-pair conceptive strategy (as opposed to an extra-pair conceptive strategy) was also associated with the occurrence of sexual activity in the relationship. ..
  33. Kim C, McGlynn K, McCorkle R, Li Y, Erickson R, Ma S, et al. Sexual functioning among testicular cancer survivors: a case-control study in the U.S. J Psychosom Res. 2012;73:68-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed impaired sexual functioning appeared to vary by treatment regimen and histologic subtype. ..
  34. McCabe M, Sharlip I, Lewis R, Atalla E, Balon R, Fisher A, et al. Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction in Women and Men: A Consensus Statement from the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine 2015. J Sex Med. 2016;13:144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research needs to use well-validated tools to gather data and ensure that the data collection strategy is clearly described. ..
  35. Melehan K, Hoyos C, Yee B, Wong K, Buchanan P, Grunstein R, et al. Increased sexual desire with exogenous testosterone administration in men with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Andrology. 2016;4:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These small improvements would need to be balanced against potentially more serious adverse effects of T therapy on breathing. ..
  36. Costantino A, Cerpolini S, Alvisi S, Morselli P, Venturoli S, Meriggiola M. A prospective study on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexuals during testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery. J Sex Marital Ther. 2013;39:321-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors measured reproductive hormones and hematological parameters. The results suggest a positive effect of testosterone treatment on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexual subjects. ..
  37. Baltzar M, Anholm C, Petersen C. [Hyperprolactin as cause of hypoactive sexual desire in men]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2012;174:1745-6 pubmed
    ..The importance of prolactin in male sexuality is recognized and should be taken into account when investigating more complex cases of HSD in men. ..
  38. Khoo J, Piantadosi C, Duncan R, Worthley S, Jenkins A, Noakes M, et al. Comparing effects of a low-energy diet and a high-protein low-fat diet on sexual and endothelial function, urinary tract symptoms, and inflammation in obese diabetic men. J Sex Med. 2011;8:2868-75 pubmed publisher
    ..A high-protein, carbohydrate-reduced, low-fat diet also reduces systemic inflammation and sustains these beneficial effects to 1 year. ..
  39. Enzlin P, Weyers S, Janssens D, Poppe W, Eelen C, Pazmany E, et al. Sexual functioning in women using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems as compared to copper intrauterine devices. J Sex Med. 2012;9:1065-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Women using a LNG-IUS do not differ from those wearing a Cu-IUD with regard to psychological and sexual functioning. The perceived impact of IUD use on sexuality should not be overestimated. ..
  40. Revicki D, Margolis M, Bush E, Derogatis L, Hanes V. Content validity of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in pre- and postmenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. J Sex Med. 2011;8:2237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies establish the content validity of the FSFI in pre- and postmenopausal women with HSDD, supporting the use of this instrument as a measure of sexual function in women with this condition. ..
  41. Ahmadi H, Daneshmand S. Androgen deprivation therapy: evidence-based management of side effects. BJU Int. 2013;111:543-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There are numerous well recognized adverse effects of ADT, including vasomotor flushing, loss of libido and impotence, fatigue, gynaecomastia, anaemia, osteoporosis and metabolic complications, as well as effects on ..
  42. Fortenberry J. Puberty and adolescent sexuality. Horm Behav. 2013;64:280-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. ..
  43. Guillermo C, Manlove H, Gray P, Zava D, Marrs C. Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones. BMC Womens Health. 2010;10:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Such relationships differ by use of oral contraceptives, and may either reflect endogenous hormone modulation by OCs and/or self-selection of sexually active women to practice contraceptive techniques. ..
  44. Nowosielski K, Skrzypulec V. [Female sexual response cycle]. Ginekol Pol. 2009;80:440-4 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study is to present contemporary model of female sexual response cycle and to encourage specialists to view female sexuality in more broad and holistic perspective. ..
  45. Dickson G. Menopause management: how you can do better. J Fam Pract. 2012;61:138-45 pubmed
    ..Let patients know that hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and other common menopausal symptoms can be treated successfully with hormonal and nonhormonal agents. ..
  46. Burrows L, Basha M, Goldstein A. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on female sexuality: a review. J Sex Med. 2012;9:2213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..terms related to and including the terms contraception, oral contraceptive, female sexual function, dyspareunia, libido, and sexual desire. A thorough review of the effects of hormonal contraceptives on female sexual function...
  47. Wibowo E, Wassersug R. The effect of estrogen on the sexual interest of castrated males: Implications to prostate cancer patients on androgen-deprivation therapy. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2013;87:224-38 pubmed publisher, male-to-female transsexuals, and men on antiandrogens all suggest that estrogen can maintain some libido in androgen-deprived men...
  48. George W, Davis K, Masters N, Jacques Tiura A, Heiman J, Norris J, et al. Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women. Arch Sex Behav. 2014;43:645-58 pubmed publisher
  49. Rupp H, James T, Ketterson E, Sengelaub D, Ditzen B, Heiman J. Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin. Horm Behav. 2013;63:114-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Postpartum women therefore appear to experience a decrease in sexual interest possibly as a feature of a more generalized decrease in amygdala responsiveness to arousing stimuli. ..
  50. Iacono F, Prezioso D, Illiano E, Romeo G, Ruffo A, Amato B. Sexual asthenia: Tradamixina versus Tadalafil 5 mg daily. BMC Surg. 2012;12 Suppl 1:S23 pubmed publisher
    Reduced libido is widely considered the most prominent symptomatic reflection of low testosterone (T) levels in men. Testosterone deficiency (TD) afflicts approximately 30% of men aged 40-79 years...
  51. Kennedy S. Flibanserin: initial evidence of efficacy on sexual dysfunction, in patients with major depressive disorder. J Sex Med. 2010;7:3449-59 pubmed publisher
  52. Davis S. Androgen therapy in women, beyond libido. Climacteric. 2013;16 Suppl 1:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Not only do testosterone effects on sexuality extend beyond libido, but testosterone has other key physiological actions...
  53. Dashti S, Latiff L, Hamid H, Sani S, Akhtari Zavare M, Abu Bakar A, et al. Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:3747-51 pubmed
    ..Poor mental health conditions that may be the result of infertility or other complications of PCOS should also be considered as curable causes of sexual dysfunction in these patients. ..