Summary: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.
- Sui J, Liu C. Can beauty be ignored? Effects of facial attractiveness on covert attention. Psychon Bull Rev. 2009;16:276-81 pubmed publisherFacial beauty has important social and biological implications. Research has shown that people tend to look longer at attractive than at unattractive faces...
- In this essay, I explore how cognitive science could illuminate the concept of beauty. Two results from the extensive literature on aesthetics guide my discussion...
- Pallett P, Link S, Lee K. New "golden" ratios for facial beauty. Vision Res. 2010;50:149-54 pubmed publisher..These "new" golden ratios match those of an average face. ..
- Borelli C, Berneburg M. "Beauty lies in the eye of the beholder"? Aspects of beauty and attractiveness. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010;8:326-30 pubmed publisher..are rapidly discussed, without a clear idea of the various aspects of the face which all combine to produce beauty and attractiveness. We review various features leading to the impression of beauty and attractiveness...
- Gründl M, Eisenmann Klein M, Prantl L. Quantifying female bodily attractiveness by a statistical analysis of body measurements. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;123:1064-71 pubmed publisher..Based on the standardized beta-weights of the regression model, the relative importance of figure parameters in context of preoperative analysis is discussed. ..
- Marzi T, Viggiano M. When memory meets beauty: Insights from event-related potentials. Biol Psychol. 2010;84:192-205 pubmed publisher..All in all, our results show that facial attractiveness, independently from facial expression, modulates face processing throughout all stages from encoding to retrieval. ..
- Axelsson J, Sundelin T, Ingre M, Van Someren E, Olsson A, Lekander M. Beauty sleep: experimental study on the perceived health and attractiveness of sleep deprived people. BMJ. 2010;341:c6614 pubmed publisher..Studies are warranted for understanding how these effects may affect clinical decision making and can add knowledge with direct implications in a medical context. ..
- Sorokowski P. Did Venus have long legs? Beauty standards from various historical periods reflected in works of art. Perception. 2010;39:1427-30 pubmed..The findings reported here might represent evidence against the cross-cultural universality of the attractiveness of long legs. ..
- Cela Conde C, Ayala F, Munar E, Maestu F, Nadal M, Capó M, et al. Sex-related similarities and differences in the neural correlates of beauty. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3847-52 pubmed publisherThe capacity to appreciate beauty is one of our species' most remarkable traits. Although knowledge about its neural correlates is growing, little is known about any gender-related differences...
- Bogin B, Varela Silva M. Leg length, body proportion, and health: a review with a note on beauty. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7:1047-75 pubmed publisher..Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility.
- Sprengelmeyer R, Perrett D, Fagan E, Cornwell R, Lobmaier J, Sprengelmeyer A, et al. The cutest little baby face: a hormonal link to sensitivity to cuteness in infant faces. Psychol Sci. 2009;20:149-54 pubmed publisher..We suggest that cuteness sensitivity is modulated by female reproductive hormones. ..
- Judge T, Hurst C, Simon L. Does it pay to be smart, attractive, or confident (or all three)? Relationships among general mental ability, physical attractiveness, core self-evaluations, and income. J Appl Psychol. 2009;94:742-55 pubmed publisher..Overall, the results suggest that looks (physical attractiveness), brains (intelligence), and personality (core self-evaluations) are all important to income and financial strain. ..
- We wanted to learn whether activity in the same area(s) of the brain correlate with the experience of beauty derived from different sources. 21 subjects took part in a brain-scanning experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
- Parsons C, Young K, Parsons E, Dean A, Murray L, Goodacre T, et al. The effect of cleft lip on adults' responses to faces: cross-species findings. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25897 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, women may respond in different ways to men when asked to appraise infant attractiveness, despite the fact that men and women 'want' to view images of infants for similar durations. ..
- Choi J, Lee S, Baek S. Effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics: changes in facial content and frames. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:1683-6 pubmed publisher..Therefore, the purposes of this article were to introduce the concepts of FC, AFF, and PFF, and to explain the effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics. ..
- Vessel E, Rubin N. Beauty and the beholder: highly individual taste for abstract, but not real-world images. J Vis. 2010;10:18.1-14 pubmed publisher..Further experiments showed that highly individual preferences can nevertheless emerge also for real-world scenes, in contexts which de-emphasize their semantic associations. ..
- Mares S, de Leeuw R, Scholte R, Engels R. Facial attractiveness and self-esteem in adolescence. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2010;39:627-37 pubmed publisher..These findings indicate that attractive children are more likely to have lower levels of SE when they enter early adolescence compared to their less attractive counterparts. ..
- Dai X, Brendl C, Ariely D. Wanting, liking, and preference construction. Emotion. 2010;10:324-34 pubmed publisher..We also discuss implications of our findings for the truism that people seek pleasure and for expectancy-value theories. ..
- Maresová J, Landová E, Frynta D. What makes some species of milk snakes more attractive to humans than others?. Theory Biosci. 2009;128:227-35 pubmed publisher..We asked the respondents to rank 34 pictures of milk snakes according to perceived beauty. The sets (whole bodies, heads, and skin fragments) covered most of naturally occurring variation in milk snake ..
- Tsukiura T, Cabeza R. Remembering beauty: roles of orbitofrontal and hippocampal regions in successful memory encoding of attractive faces. Neuroimage. 2011;54:653-60 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that better memory for attractive faces reflects greater interaction between a region associated with reward, the orbitofrontal cortex, and a region associated with successful memory encoding, the hippocampus. ..
- Swami V, Furnham A, Chamorro Premuzic T, Akbar K, Gordon N, Harris T, et al. More than just skin deep? Personality information influences men's ratings of the attractiveness of women's body sizes. J Soc Psychol. 2010;150:628-47 pubmed publisher..Correlations showed that participants' own Extraversion was associated with their body size ratings. These results suggest that non-physical cues have an influence on the perception of physical beauty.
- Yamamoto R, Ariely D, Chi W, Langleben D, Elman I. Gender differences in the motivational processing of babies are determined by their facial attractiveness. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6042 pubmed publisher..shortening the exposure to the abnormal babies by women. Such gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon may reflect an evolutionary-derived need for diversion of limited resources to the nurturance of healthy offspring. ..
- Kwan S. Competing motivational discourses for weight loss: means to ends and the nexus of beauty and health. Qual Health Res. 2009;19:1223-33 pubmed publisher..interviews with 42 overweight and obese participants illuminate how individuals understand health and beauty weight-loss motivations and the relationship between the two...
- Torsello F, Mirigliani L, D Alessio R, Deli R. Do the neoclassical canons still describe the beauty of faces? An anthropometric study on 50 Caucasian models. Prog Orthod. 2010;11:13-9 pubmed publisher..the authors' aim was to determine whether or not the neoclassical canons are still valid to describe the facial beauty in Italian women. The photographs of 50 italian models selected for an important beauty contest were obtained...
- Jacobsen T, Buchta K, Kohler M, Schroger E. The primacy of beauty in judging the aesthetics of objects. Psychol Rep. 2004;94:1253-60 pubmed..represents the primary concept in the aesthetics of objects, so that performing aesthetic judgments of the beauty of objects comes naturally to individuals...
- Hönekopp J. Once more: is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Relative contributions of private and shared taste to judgments of facial attractiveness. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2006;32:199-209 pubmed..Important implications for scientific research strategy and laypeople's self-esteem are discussed. ..
- Swami V, Jones J, Einon D, Furnham A. Men's preferences for women's profile waist-to-hip ratio, breast size, and ethnic group in Britain and South Africa. Br J Psychol. 2009;100:313-25 pubmed publisher..In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between ratings of attractiveness and health. These findings are discussed in relation to the interplay between culture and evolution in determining ideals of attractiveness. ..
- Forssén A. Humour, beauty, and culture as personal health resources: experiences of elderly Swedish women. Scand J Public Health. 2007;35:228-34 pubmedThis paper explores how a group of elderly women used humour, beauty, and cultural activities to maintain physical and mental well-being...
- Weeden J, Sabini J. Physical attractiveness and health in Western societies: a review. Psychol Bull. 2005;131:635-53 pubmed..The authors find that there is some indication that attractiveness has an overall relationship with health among women, but little indication that male attractiveness relates to male health. ..
- Pettijohn T, Jungeberg B. Playboy Playmate curves: changes in facial and body feature preferences across social and economic conditions. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2004;30:1186-97 pubmedPast research has investigated ideals of beauty and how these ideals have changed across time...
- Aharon I, Etcoff N, Ariely D, Chabris C, O CONNOR E, Breiter H. Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioral evidence. Neuron. 2001;32:537-51 pubmed..An extended set of subcortical and paralimbic reward regions also appear to follow aspects of the keypress rather than the rating procedures, suggesting that reward circuitry function does not include aesthetic assessment. ..
- Little A, Burt D, Penton Voak I, Perrett D. Self-perceived attractiveness influences human female preferences for sexual dimorphism and symmetry in male faces. Proc Biol Sci. 2001;268:39-44 pubmed..The absence of a preference for proposed markers of good genes may be adaptive in women of low mate value to avoid the costs of decreased parental investment from the owners of such characteristics. ..
- Adamson P, Doud Galli S. Modern concepts of beauty. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;11:295-300 pubmedSince the beginning of humanity, man has sought to define beauty. Whether by philosophy, mathematical constructs, social studies, or biology, the fascination with and the study of beauty has consumed our emotions and intellect...
- McCurdy J. Beautiful eyes: characteristics and application to aesthetic surgery. Facial Plast Surg. 2006;22:204-14 pubmedAll students of beauty agree upon the overwhelming contribution of the eyes to the beautiful face...
- Ishai A. Sex, beauty and the orbitofrontal cortex. Int J Psychophysiol. 2007;63:181-5 pubmed..Consistent with our hypothesis, a three-way interaction between stimulus gender, beauty and the sexual preference of the subject was found in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
- Valenzano D, Mennucci A, Tartarelli G, Cellerino A. Shape analysis of female facial attractiveness. Vision Res. 2006;46:1282-91 pubmed..The shape differences between attractive- and hyperfeminine traits are localised: attractive facial shape and sexual dimorphism are similar in the upper face, but are markedly distinct in the jaw and chin. ..
- Marcus D, Miller R. Sex differences in judgments of physical attractiveness: a social relations analysis. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003;29:325-35 pubmed..People agree about others' attractiveness, and those who are attractive to others know they are pretty or handsome. ..
- Fan J, Dai W, Liu F, Wu J. Visual perception of male body attractiveness. Proc Biol Sci. 2005;272:219-26 pubmed..Body proportions associated with fitness will enhance male body attractiveness. It was also found that there is an optimal waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at 0.8 and deviations from this optimal WHR reduce male body attractiveness. ..
- Zaidel D, Cohen J. The face, beauty, and symmetry: perceiving asymmetry in beautiful faces. Int J Neurosci. 2005;115:1165-73 pubmedThe relationship between bilateral facial symmetry and beauty remains to be clarified. Here, straight head-on photographs of "beautiful" faces from the collections of professional modeling agencies were selected...
- Fan J, Liu F, Wu J, Dai W. Visual perception of female physical attractiveness. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271:347-52 pubmed..It also appears that the effect of the body's physical parameters on the perception of female physical attractiveness conforms to Stevens' power law of psychophysics. ..
- Peskin M, Newell F. Familiarity breeds attraction: effects of exposure on the attractiveness of typical and distinctive faces. Perception. 2004;33:147-57 pubmed..Our results suggest that episodic familiarity affects attractiveness ratings independently of general or structural familiarity. The implications of our findings for the 'face-space' model are discussed. ..
- Zaidel D, Aarde S, Baig K. Appearance of symmetry, beauty, and health in human faces. Brain Cogn. 2005;57:261-3 pubmed
- Elman I, Ariely D, Mazar N, Aharon I, Lasko N, Macklin M, et al. Probing reward function in post-traumatic stress disorder with beautiful facial images. Psychiatry Res. 2005;135:179-83 pubmed..There were no significant group differences in the attractiveness ratings. However, PTSD patients expended less effort to extend the viewing time of the beautiful female faces. These findings suggest a reward deficit in PTSD. ..
- Cuenca Guerra R, Daza Flores J, Saade Saade A. Calf implants. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2009;33:505-13 pubmed publisher..We grouped these calf defects into five types and in each group defined the surgical recommendations to obtain harmonic and beautiful calves with adequate volume. ..
- Eisenthal Y, Dror G, Ruppin E. Facial attractiveness: beauty and the machine. Neural Comput. 2006;18:119-42 pubmed..To this end, we collected human beauty ratings for data sets of facial images and used various techniques for learning the attractiveness of a face...
- Swami V, Tovee M. Does hunger influence judgments of female physical attractiveness?. Br J Psychol. 2006;97:353-63 pubmed..These findings corroborate those of Nelson and Morrison (2005) and are discussed in terms of how cultural contexts shape individual psychological experience as predicted by the theory of mutual constitution. ..
- Swami V, Knight D, Tovee M, Davies P, Furnham A. Preferences for female body size in Britain and the South Pacific. Body Image. 2007;4:219-23 pubmed..Implications of this finding are discussed in conclusion. ..
- McDonald P, Slater A, Longmore C. Covert detection of attractiveness among the neurologically intact: evidence from skin-conductance responses. Perception. 2008;37:1054-60 pubmed
- Jasienska G, Ziomkiewicz A, Ellison P, Lipson S, Thune I. Large breasts and narrow waists indicate high reproductive potential in women. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271:1213-7 pubmed..Such gains in hormone levels among the preferred mates may lead to a substantial rise in the probability of conception, thus providing a significant fitness benefit. ..
- Fisher M, Voracek M. The shape of beauty: determinants of female physical attractiveness. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2006;5:190-4 pubmed..has resulted in numerous, exciting developments, particularly with respect to three proposed determinants of beauty: waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), and curvaceousness...
- O DOHERTY J, Winston J, Critchley H, Perrett D, Burt D, Dolan R. Beauty in a smile: the role of medial orbitofrontal cortex in facial attractiveness. Neuropsychologia. 2003;41:147-55 pubmed..Responses in this region were further enhanced by a smiling facial expression, suggesting that the reward value of an attractive face as indexed by medial OFC activity is modulated by a perceiver directed smile. ..