Summary: Perception of shape and form of objects by TOUCH, via tactile stimuli.

Top Publications

  1. Norman J, Crabtree C, Norman H, Moncrief B, Herrmann M, Kapley N. Aging and the visual, haptic, and cross-modal perception of natural object shape. Perception. 2006;35:1383-95 pubmed
    ..Overall, the results of the experiments reveal that older observers can effectively perceive 3-D shape from both vision and haptics. ..
  2. Lederman S, Klatzky R. Haptic classification of common objects: knowledge-driven exploration. Cogn Psychol. 1990;22:421-59 pubmed
  3. van der Horst B, Kappers A. Curvature discrimination in various finger conditions. Exp Brain Res. 2007;177:304-11 pubmed
    ..In addition, subject-dependent biases were found in the 2-finger conditions. We conclude that the number of fingers and the mode of exploration have a considerable effect on performance in a haptic task such as curvature discrimination. ..
  4. Vega Bermudez F, Johnson K. Fingertip skin conformance accounts, in part, for differences in tactile spatial acuity in young subjects, but not for the decline in spatial acuity with aging. Percept Psychophys. 2004;66:60-7 pubmed
    ..Consequently, skin conformance cannot account for the loss of spatial acuity reported in earlier studies and confirmed in this study. We infer that the loss must be neural in origin. ..
  5. Norman J, Bartholomew A. Blindness enhances tactile acuity and haptic 3-D shape discrimination. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2011;73:2323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study demonstrate that blindness does lead to an enhancement of tactile abilities, but they also suggest that early visual experience may play a role in facilitating haptic 3-D shape discrimination. ..
  6. Wagman J, Shockley K, Riley M, Turvey M. Attunement, calibration, and exploration in fast haptic perceptual learning. J Mot Behav. 2001;33:323-7 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that the mechanisms involved in fast perceptual learning are more varied and complex than are those encompassed by current accounts. ..
  7. Van Doorn G, Hohwy J, Symmons M. Capture of kinesthesis by a competing cutaneous input. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2012;74:1539-51 pubmed
    ..The results are interpreted in light of optimal integration, perceptual suppression, reafference suppression, and inattentional blindness. ..
  8. Sathian K, Zangaladze A. Tactile learning is task specific but transfers between fingers. Percept Psychophys. 1997;59:119-28 pubmed
    ..We conclude that tactile learning, although quite as task specific as in other sensory systems, generalizes with considerable facility across fingers, unlike visual learning, which is highly location specific. ..
  9. Mulcahey M, Kozin S, Merenda L, Gaughan J, Tian F, Gogola G, et al. Evaluation of the box and blocks test, stereognosis and item banks of activity and upper extremity function in youths with brachial plexus birth palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2012;32 Suppl 2:S114-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the void in instruments for children with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) and the importance of having an UE and activity scale, we were interested in how well these items worked in this population...

More Information


  1. Turvey M. Dynamic touch. Am Psychol. 1996;51:1134-52 pubmed
    ..A variety of recent experiments are reported, showing that in this kind of touching, which is closely connected with the states of muscles, the nervous system cleverly exploits the physics of rotations. ..
  2. Vogels I, Kappers A, Koenderink J. Investigation into the origin of the haptic aftereffect of curved surfaces. Perception. 1997;26:101-17 pubmed
  3. Lederman S, Klatzky R. Relative availability of surface and object properties during early haptic processing. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 1997;23:1680-707 pubmed
    ..The results of 15 experiments show that coarse intensive discriminations are haptically processed early on. In marked contrast, most spatially encoded dimensions become accessible relatively later, sometimes considerably so. ..
  4. Fujii R, Takahashi T, Toyomura A, Miyamoto T, Ueno T, Yokoyama A. Comparison of cerebral activation involved in oral and manual stereognosis. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:1520-3 pubmed publisher
    Brain activity associated with manual stereognosis has been the focus of increasing recent research effort...
  5. Jacobs R, Bou Serhal C, van Steenberghe D. Oral stereognosis: a review of the literature. Clin Oral Investig. 1998;2:3-10 pubmed
    b>Stereognosis is the ability to recognise and discriminate forms. Oral stereognostic ability has been studied in different reports...
  6. Byl N, Leano J, Cheney L. The Byl-Cheney-Boczai Sensory Discriminator: reliability, validity, and responsiveness for testing stereognosis. J Hand Ther. 2002;15:315-30 pubmed
    This study evaluated reliability, validity, and responsiveness of a new test of stereognosis (Byl-Cheney-Boczai Sensory Discriminator Test [BCBI]). Participants included 38 controls, 29 subjects with hand problems, and 3 raters...
  7. Norman J, Kappers A, Beers A, Scott A, Norman H, Koenderink J. Aging and the haptic perception of 3D surface shape. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2011;73:908-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the current study demonstrate that while older adults do possess reductions in tactile sensitivity and acuity, they nevertheless can effectively perceive 3D surface shape from haptic exploration. ..
  8. Carlson M, Brooks C. The effect of altered hand position and motor skills on stereognosis. J Hand Surg Am. 2009;34:896-9 pubmed publisher
    Poor stereognosis has been considered to be indicative of abnormal cerebral sensory function, and therefore a relative contraindication for upper extremity surgery in hemiplegic cerebral palsy...
  9. Symmons M, Richardson B, Wuillemin D. Components of haptic information: skin rivals kinaesthesis. Perception. 2008;37:1596-604 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that tactile information could be as effective as kinaesthetic information. The results are discussed in terms of applications to the design of human-machine interfaces. ..
  10. Norman J, Clayton A, Norman H, Crabtree C. Learning to perceive differences in solid shape through vision and touch. Perception. 2008;37:185-96 pubmed
    ..In general, the results indicate that effective cross-modal shape comparisons can be made between the modalities of vision and active touch, but that complete information transfer does not occur. ..
  11. Kappers A, Koenderink J. Haptic unilateral and bilateral discrimination of curved surfaces. Perception. 1996;25:739-49 pubmed
    ..These results cannot be fully explained but the findings suggest an influence of the object-observer relation on the perception of the object. ..
  12. Drewing K, Ernst M. Integration of force and position cues for shape perception through active touch. Brain Res. 2006;1078:92-100 pubmed
    ..Both findings are in good agreement with the maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) model for cue integration and, thus, carry this model over to the domain of active haptic perception. ..
  13. Bleyenheuft Y, Thonnard J. Tactile spatial resolution measured manually: a validation study. Somatosens Mot Res. 2007;24:111-4 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the inter-examiner reliability in the manual application of this test and validates this procedure. ..
  14. Ikebe K, Amemiya M, Morii K, Matsuda K, Furuya Yoshinaka M, Nokubi T. Comparison of oral stereognosis in relation to age and the use of complete dentures. J Oral Rehabil. 2007;34:345-50 pubmed
    ..However, oral sensory function was not significantly different between fully dentate persons and complete denture wearers in the elderly. ..
  15. Lawson R, Bracken S. Haptic object recognition: how important are depth cues and plane orientation?. Perception. 2011;40:576-97 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, plane misorientation did not impair recognition. Unlike with vision, depth information, but not object orientation, is extremely important for haptic object recognition. ..
  16. Calderon P, Kogawa E, Corpas L, Lauris J, Conti P. The influence of gender and bruxism on human minimum interdental threshold ability. J Appl Oral Sci. 2009;17:224-8 pubmed
    ..Neither gender nor bruxism influenced the ability to discriminate minimum interdental threshold (p>0.05). Gender and the presence of bruxism do not play a role in the minimum interdental threshold. ..
  17. Kuo H, Gordon A, Henrionnet A, Hautfenne S, Friel K, Bleyenheuft Y. The effects of intensive bimanual training with and without tactile training on tactile function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy: A pilot study. Res Dev Disabil. 2016;49-50:129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary outcomes included grating orientation task/GOT and stereognosis. Secondary outcomes included two-point discrimination/TPD, Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments/SWM...
  18. McLinden M. Mediating haptic exploratory strategies in children who have visual impairment and intellectual disabilities. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2012;56:129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..A framework is outlined that seeks to account for the role of the child's adult partner in mediating haptic learning experiences to ensure they are appropriately structured and progressive. ..
  19. Misceo G, Taylor N. A "unity assumption" does not promote intersensory integration. Exp Psychol. 2011;58:385-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This impaired integration without the visible haptic explorations suggests that the unity assumption alone is not enough to promote intersensory integration. ..
  20. Klatzky R, Abramowicz A, Hamilton C, Lederman S. Irrelevant visual faces influence haptic identification of facial expressions of emotion. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2011;73:521-30 pubmed publisher
    ..precise facial geometry or general concepts) are processed, even when the visual and haptic FEEs are not attributable to a common source. Processing mechanisms behind these effects are considered. ..
  21. Wallace D, Köppen J, Jones J, Winter S, Wagner S. Navigating with fingers and feet: analysis of human (Homo sapiens) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) movement organization during nonvisual spatial tasks. J Comp Psychol. 2010;124:381-94 pubmed publisher
  22. Chapman C, Meftah E. Independent controls of attentional influences in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:4094-107 pubmed
    ..The results also support the existence of two independent attentional mechanisms in somatosensory cortex, one generalized (S1 and S2), and the other focused on S2 texture-related cells. ..
  23. Jäghagen E, Bodin I, Isberg A. Pharyngeal swallowing dysfunction following treatment for oral and pharyngeal cancer--association with diminished intraoral sensation and discrimination ability. Head Neck. 2008;30:1344-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In the quest for rehabilitation after treatment for oral and pharyngeal cancer, the impact of impaired intraoral sensation and discrimination ability on swallowing function should be taken into consideration. ..
  24. Hirano K, Hirano S, Hayakawa I. The role of oral sensorimotor function in masticatory ability. J Oral Rehabil. 2004;31:199-205 pubmed
    In order to investigate the relationship between oral sensorimotor ability and masticatory function, an oral stereognosis ability (OSA) test, masticatory performance and efficiency was employed for 15 dentate subjects...
  25. Ikebe K, Amemiya M, Morii K, Matsuda K, Furuya Yoshinaka M, Yoshinaka M, et al. Association between oral stereognostic ability and masticatory performance in aged complete denture wearers. Int J Prosthodont. 2007;20:245-50 pubmed
    ..Reduced oral sensory function, low occlusal force, and hyposalivation appear to be associated with impairment of masticatory performance in aged complete denture wearers. ..
  26. Boliek C, Rieger J, Li S, Mohamed Z, Kickham J, Amundsen K. Establishing a reliable protocol to measure tongue sensation. J Oral Rehabil. 2007;34:433-41 pubmed
    ..included two-point discrimination, light-touch discrimination, thermal sensation, texture recognition, oral stereognosis and taste recognition...
  27. Zuidhoek S, Kappers A, Postma A. Effects of hand orientation and delay on the verbal judgment of haptically perceived orientation. Perception. 2005;34:741-55 pubmed
    ..Importantly, it was affected neither by hand orientation nor by delay, suggesting that the oblique effect is independent of the aforementioned deviations in orientation perception. ..
  28. Gentaz E, Hatwell Y. Role of gravitational cues in the haptic perception of orientation. Percept Psychophys. 1996;58:1278-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggested that gravitational cues may play a role in haptic coding of orientation, although the effects of decreasing or increasing these cues are not symmetrical. ..
  29. Kilgour A, Lederman S. A haptic face-inversion effect. Perception. 2006;35:921-31 pubmed
    ..There was a significant inversion effect for faces in terms of accuracy, but none for teapots. The results are considered in terms of the consequences of sequential manual exploration for haptic face processing. ..
  30. Manning H, Tremblay F. Age differences in tactile pattern recognition at the fingertip. Somatosens Mot Res. 2006;23:147-55 pubmed
    ..Whether this inability reflected only deficient peripheral encoding mechanisms or some other alterations at the central level is discussed. ..
  31. Premkumar S, Avathvadi Venkatesan S, Rangachari S. Altered oral sensory perception in tongue thrusters with an anterior open bite. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33:139-42 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Stereognosis and two-point discrimination (2PD) were employed for evaluation of oral sensory perception...
  32. Speirs R, Maktabi M. Tongue skills and clearance of toffee in two age-groups and in children with problems of speech articulation. ASDC J Dent Child. 1990;57:356-60 pubmed
    ..Does age alter these skills and rates of clearance? Measurements were made of oral stereognosis, tongue-tip manipulation skill, control of tongue protrusion, and the time taken to chew and swallow a ..
  33. Dahan J, Lelong O. Effects of bite raising and occlusal awareness on tongue thrust in untreated children. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003;124:165-72 pubmed
    ..A provisional occlusal plane or a similar overlay might be a useful adjunct in training the tongue to retrude in subjects with oral dysfunction. ..
  34. Fedrizzi E, Pagliano E, Andreucci E, Oleari G. Hand function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: prospective follow-up and functional outcome in adolescence. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2003;45:85-91 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, intensive treatment focused on hand function should be planned in the early years for children with more severe hand impairment, whereas regular follow-up is sufficient for less affected children. ..
  35. Watanabe K, Shimojo S. Suppressive effect of multimodal surface representation on ocular smooth pursuit of invisible hand. Perception. 1997;26:277-85 pubmed
  36. Rose S, Feldman J, Futterweit L, Jankowski J. Continuity in tactual-visual cross-modal transfer: infancy to 11 years. Dev Psychol. 1998;34:435-40 pubmed
    ..This continuity accounted for most of the previously reported relation of infant cross-modal ability to 11-year IQ. ..
  37. Morange Majoux F. Manual exploration of consistency (soft vs hard) and handedness in infants from 4 to 6 months old. Laterality. 2011;16:292-312 pubmed publisher
  38. Cattaneo Z, Fantino M, Tinti C, Silvanto J, Vecchi T. Crossmodal interaction between the mental number line and peripersonal haptic space representation in sighted and blind individuals. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2010;72:885-90 pubmed publisher
  39. Kahrimanovic M, Tiest W, Kappers A. Haptic perception of volume and surface area of 3-D objects. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2010;72:517-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, haptic volume perception of geometric objects has to be inferred from other object properties, but surface area can be perceived unbiased. ..
  40. Giachritsis C, Wing A, Lovell P. The role of spatial integration in the perception of surface orientation with active touch. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2009;71:1628-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the proprioceptive shoulder-elbow system may integrate redundant spatial information resulting from extended arm movements to improve orientation judgments. ..
  41. Zhou Y, Fuster J. Somatosensory cell response to an auditory cue in a haptic memory task. Behav Brain Res. 2004;153:573-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that cells in the somatosensory cortex participate in the behavioral integration of auditory stimuli with other sensory stimuli and with motor acts that are associated with those stimuli. ..
  42. Engelen L, de Wijk R, Prinz J, Van der Bilt A, Janssen A, Bosman F. The effect of oral temperature on the temperature perception of liquids and semisolids in the mouth. Eur J Oral Sci. 2002;110:412-6 pubmed
    ..This might be due to differences in composition and structure of the products. Even though oral temperature was varied considerably in the present study, this did not exert large effects on perceived temperature. ..
  43. Toda T, Taoka M. Integration of the upper and lower lips in the postcentral area 2 of conscious macaque monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Arch Oral Biol. 2002;47:449-56 pubmed
    ..These neurones may be the prerequisite neural basis for the oral stereognosis that would take place in the neighbouring association cortices.
  44. Plaisier M, Tiest W, Kappers A. Salient features in 3-D haptic shape perception. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2009;71:421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the subjects had to answer as quickly as possible, this suggests that speed may be a factor in selecting the appropriate exploratory procedure. ..
  45. Kennedy J. Tactile drawings, ethics, and a sanctuary: metaphoric devices invented by a blind woman. Perception. 2013;42:658-68 pubmed
    ..The devices are metaphoric and novel. The drawings deal with an ontological category--values--for which metaphorical devices in raised-line depictions have not previously been considered. ..
  46. Wraga M, Swaby M, Flynn C. Passive tactile feedback facilitates mental rotation of handheld objects. Mem Cognit. 2008;36:271-81 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest a tight coupling between tactile information specifying continuous object rotation and the corresponding internal representation of the rotating object. ..
  47. Kennedy J. Metaphoric pictures devised by an early-blind adult on her own initiative. Perception. 2008;37:1720-8 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that EW has invented apt metaphoric devices on her own initiative. ..
  48. Ahmed B, Hussain M, Yazdanie N. Oral stereognostic ability: a test of oral perception. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006;16:794-8 pubmed
    Oral stereognosis (form or shape recognition in the oral cavity) can be utilized to assess oral perceptual abilities...
  49. Lawson R. A comparison of the effects of depth rotation on visual and haptic three-dimensional object recognition. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2009;35:911-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the cause of orientation sensitivity may differ for visual and haptic object recognition. ..
  50. Grierson L, Carnahan H. Manual exploration and the perception of slipperiness. Percept Psychophys. 2006;68:1070-81 pubmed
    ..That is, there was a dissociation between haptic perception and motor output. ..
  51. Isoya K, Sasaki Y, Mataki S. Patient's perception of location, form and size in case of cavity preparation. J Med Dent Sci. 2004;51:139-45 pubmed
    ..001). These results suggested that the perception of the patients regarding the location and the form of the prepared cavity was inaccurate during cavity preparation and patients tended to overestimate amounts of removed tooth substance. ..
  52. Nefs H, Kappers A, Koenderink J. Detection of amplitude modulation and frequency modulation in tactual gratings: a critical bandwidth for active touch. Perception. 2003;32:1259-71 pubmed
    ..This indicates that dynamic spatial-frequency discrimination is not likely to be done by temporal frequency. ..
  53. van Gils W, Reinders Messelink H, Smit Klaij F, Bongers R, Dijkstra P, van der Sluis C. Sensibility of the stump in adults with an acquired major upper extremity amputation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;94:2179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..of sensibility were measured: (1) touch-pressure sensibility, tested using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments; (2) stereognosis, detected using the Shape and Texture Identification test; and (3) kinesthesia...