size perception


Summary: The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.

Top Publications

  1. Schwarzkopf D, Song C, Rees G. The surface area of human V1 predicts the subjective experience of object size. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:28-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Because such illusions dissociate conscious perception from physical stimulation, our findings indicate that the surface area of V1 predicts variability in conscious experience. ..
  2. Cabe P. Sufficiency of longitudinal moment of inertia for haptic cylinder length judgments. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2010;36:373-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to proposals in the literature, Iii is sufficient information for cylinder length judgments, absent m or M information, even when Iii is of minimal magnitude and the task quite novel. ..
  3. Brogden N, Almiron Roig E. Food liking, familiarity and expected satiation selectively influence portion size estimation of snacks and caloric beverages in men. Appetite. 2010;55:551-5 pubmed publisher
    ..30, full only); and with ES in four foods (r ? 0.45). Across foods lower ES ratings tended to correlate with higher portion size estimates. Portion size estimation is influenced by food liking, familiarity and expected satiation. ..
  4. Song C, Schwarzkopf D, Rees G. Interocular induction of illusory size perception. BMC Neurosci. 2011;12:27 pubmed publisher
    ..reflects the perceived rather than the physical size of objects, indicating an involvement of V1 in illusory size perception. Here we investigate the role of eye-specific signals in two common size illusions in order to provide ..
  5. van der Hoort B, Guterstam A, Ehrsson H. Being Barbie: the size of one's own body determines the perceived size of the world. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20195 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are fundamentally important as they suggest a causal relationship between the representations of body space and external space. Thus, our own body size affects how we perceive the world. ..
  6. Flevaris A, Bentin S, Robertson L. Local or global? Attentional selection of spatial frequencies binds shapes to hierarchical levels. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:424-31 pubmed publisher
  7. Brayanov J, Smith M. Bayesian and "anti-Bayesian" biases in sensory integration for action and perception in the size-weight illusion. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:1518-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that two fundamentally different strategies for the integration of prior expectations with sensory information coexist in the nervous system for weight estimation...
  8. Filoteo J, Lauritzen S, Maddox W. Removing the frontal lobes: the effects of engaging executive functions on perceptual category learning. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:415-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate the paradoxical situation in which learning can be improved under sequential-task conditions and have important implications for training, decision making, and understanding interactive memory systems. ..
  9. Guardia D, Lafargue G, Thomas P, Dodin V, Cottencin O, Luyat M. Anticipation of body-scaled action is modified in anorexia nervosa. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48:3961-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that body size overestimation in anorexia nervosa is not solely due to psycho-affective factors but rather suggest impaired neural processing of body dimensions that might take its source in parietal networks. ..

More Information


  1. Doherty M, Campbell N, Tsuji H, Phillips W. The Ebbinghaus illusion deceives adults but not young children. Dev Sci. 2010;13:714-21 pubmed publisher
    The sensitivity of size perception to context has been used to distinguish between 'vision for action' and 'vision for perception', and to study cultural, psychopathological, and developmental differences in perception...
  2. Lourenco S, Longo M. General magnitude representation in human infants. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:873-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide support for the existence of an early-developing and prelinguistic general magnitude system, whereby representations of magnitude information are (at least partially) abstracted from the specific dimensions. ..
  3. Buckingham G, Goodale M. Lifting without seeing: the role of vision in perceiving and acting upon the size weight illusion. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9709 pubmed publisher
    ..Expectations of heaviness are not only powerful enough to alter the perception of a single object's weight, but also continually drive the forces we use to lift the object when vision is unavailable. ..
  4. Brogden N, Almiron Roig E. Estimated portion sizes of snacks and beverages differ from reference amounts and are affected by appetite status in non-obese men. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14:1743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Nutritional educational strategies should take into account the role of hunger along with a person's familiarity with existing portion size systems when advising on portion sizes. ..
  5. Haggard P, Jundi S. Rubber hand illusions and size-weight illusions: self-representation modulates representation of external objects. Perception. 2009;38:1796-803 pubmed
    ..Self-representation thus influenced exteroception. The sense of one's own body provides a fundamental reference for perception in general. ..
  6. de Hevia M, Spelke E. Number-space mapping in human infants. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:653-60 pubmed publisher
    ..A central foundation of mathematics, science, and technology therefore emerges prior to experience with language, symbol systems, or measurement devices. ..
  7. Japur C, Diez Garcia R. Food energy content influences food portion size estimation by nutrition students. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23:272-6 pubmed publisher
  8. Kahrimanovic M, Bergmann Tiest W, Kappers A. Discrimination thresholds for haptic perception of volume, surface area, and weight. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2011;73:2649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This substantial set of data satisfies the need for more fundamental knowledge on haptic size perception, necessary for a greater understanding of the perception of related properties, as well as of more general ..
  9. Marchiori D, Corneille O, Klein O. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size. Appetite. 2012;58:814-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. ..
  10. Sperandio I, Chouinard P, Goodale M. Retinotopic activity in V1 reflects the perceived and not the retinal size of an afterimage. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:540-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that V1 has an important role in size constancy when the viewing distance of the stimulus changes. ..
  11. Stefanucci J, Geuss M. Big people, little world: the body influences size perception. Perception. 2009;38:1782-95 pubmed
    ..We found that arm positions that were larger than the shoulder width made apertures appear smaller. The results suggest that dimensions of the body play a role in the scaling of environmental parameters in extrapersonal space. ..
  12. Linkenauger S, Ramenzoni V, Proffitt D. Illusory shrinkage and growth: body-based rescaling affects the perception of size. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:1318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the role of body scaling in size perception.
  13. Walker P, Bremner J, Mason U, Spring J, Mattock K, Slater A, et al. Preverbal infants' sensitivity to synaesthetic cross-modality correspondences. Psychol Sci. 2010;21:21-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the strongest indication to date that synaesthetic cross-modality correspondences are an unlearned aspect of perception. ..
  14. Linkenauger S, Witt J, Proffitt D. Taking a hands-on approach: apparent grasping ability scales the perception of object size. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2011;37:1432-41 pubmed publisher
  15. Flemming T, Kennedy E. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) relational matching: playing by their own (analogical) rules. J Comp Psychol. 2011;125:207-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This evidence not only provides support for the analogical ape hypothesis (Thompson & Oden, 2000), but also exemplifies how foundational conceptually mediated analogical behavior may be for the chimpanzee. ..
  16. Withagen R, Michaels C. The role of feedback information for calibration and attunement in perceiving length by dynamic touch. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2005;31:1379-90 pubmed
    ..The observed change in variable use has implications also for research on what mechanical variables underlie length perception by dynamic touch. ..
  17. Wansink B, van Ittersum K. Portion size me: downsizing our consumption norms. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107:1103-6 pubmed
  18. Taylor A, Reby D, McComb K. Human listeners attend to size information in domestic dog growls. J Acoust Soc Am. 2008;123:2903-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this suggests that participants relied more heavily on Deltaf, in accordance with the fact that formants are better predictors of body size than F0. ..
  19. Granrud C. Size constancy in infants: 4-month-olds' responses to physical versus retinal image size. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2006;32:1398-404 pubmed
    ..Given this finding, the results suggest that 4-month-old infants attend and respond primarily to physical size, not to retinal image size. ..
  20. Davis C, Curtis C, Tweed S, Patte K. Psychological factors associated with ratings of portion size: relevance to the risk profile for obesity. Eat Behav. 2007;8:170-6 pubmed
  21. Burger K, Kern M, Coleman K. Characteristics of self-selected portion size in young adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107:611-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, participants selected much smaller portion sizes for high-fat foods items relative to high-carbohydrate foods. ..
  22. Chouinard P, Large M, Chang E, Goodale M. Dissociable neural mechanisms for determining the perceived heaviness of objects and the predicted weight of objects during lifting: an fMRI investigation of the size-weight illusion. Neuroimage. 2009;44:200-12 pubmed publisher
  23. Spiering B, Ashby F. Response processes in information-integration category learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2008;90:330-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In these experiments, a consistent association between a category and a response feature was sufficient. The implication of these results for the neurobiology of information-integration category learning is discussed. ..
  24. Hills P, Lewis M. Temporal limitation of Navon effect on face recognition. Percept Mot Skills. 2007;104:501-9 pubmed
    ..In Exp. 2 analysis of undergraduates' responses (9 men, 20 women, M age =19, selected by convenience) showed the decrease in the Navon effect could be prevented by alternating the Navon task with the face recognition task. ..
  25. Lewis M, Mills C, Hills P, Weston N. Navon letters affect face learning and face retrieval. Exp Psychol. 2009;56:258-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide support for the TIPS explanation of the Navon effect. ..
  26. Gori M, Del Viva M, SANDINI G, Burr D. Young children do not integrate visual and haptic form information. Curr Biol. 2008;18:694-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that during development, perceptual systems require constant recalibration, for which cross-sensory comparison is important. Using one sense to calibrate the other precludes useful combination of the two sources. ..
  27. Granrud C, Schmechel T. Development of size constancy in children: a test of the proximal mode sensitivity hypothesis. Percept Psychophys. 2006;68:1372-81 pubmed
    ..Our results conflict with those of Shallo and Rock and support earlier findings that young children do not exhibit size constancy for distant objects. ..
  28. Dijker A. Why Barbie feels heavier than Ken: the influence of size-based expectancies and social cues on the illusory perception of weight. Cognition. 2008;106:1109-25 pubmed
    ..Results are used to clarify the nature of "embodied", internal sensory-motor representations of physical and social properties...
  29. Uttl B, Graf P, Siegenthaler A. Influence of object size on baseline identification, priming, and explicit memory. Scand J Psychol. 2007;48:281-8 pubmed
    ..We discuss implications of our findings for theories of object perception, memory, and eyewitness identification accuracy for objects. ..
  30. Schwartz J, Byrd Bredbenner C. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106:1412-8 pubmed
  31. Linkenauger S, Witt J, Bakdash J, Stefanucci J, Proffitt D. Asymmetrical body perception: a possible role for neural body representations. Psychol Sci. 2009;20:1373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments reveal a possible relationship between implicit body maps in the brain and conscious perception of the body. ..
  32. Geier A, Rozin P, Doros G. Unit bias. A new heuristic that helps explain the effect of portion size on food intake. Psychol Sci. 2006;17:521-5 pubmed
    ..We argue that unit bias is a general feature in human choice and discuss possible origins of this bias, including consumption norms. ..
  33. Dalrymple K, Kingstone A, Barton J. Seeing trees OR seeing forests in simultanagnosia: attentional capture can be local or global. Neuropsychologia. 2007;45:871-5 pubmed
    ..Capture likely occurs because of a pathological restriction and/or rigidity of attention, but the type of capture depends upon the competitive balance between global and local salience...
  34. Ernst M. Perceptual learning: inverting the size-weight illusion. Curr Biol. 2009;19:R23-5 pubmed publisher
    ..New results show that this size-weight illusion can be inverted after extensive training with objects in which the natural size-weight relationship is artificially reversed. ..
  35. Fang F, Boyaci H, Kersten D, Murray S. Attention-dependent representation of a size illusion in human V1. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1707-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We reason that focusing attention on the fixation task resulted in reduced activity in--and therefore reduced feedback from--higher visual areas that process the 3D depth cues. ..
  36. Simon R, Holderied M, Von Helversen O. Size discrimination of hollow hemispheres by echolocation in a nectar feeding bat. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:3599-609 pubmed
    ..3 dB), the temporal pattern (3-22 micros) and the change of spectral notch frequency (approximately 16%). We discuss the advantages of discrimination in the frequency and/or time domain. ..
  37. Gallace A, Spence C. Multisensory synesthetic interactions in the speeded classification of visual size. Percept Psychophys. 2006;68:1191-203 pubmed
    ..The possible cognitive bases for this synesthetic association are also discussed. ..
  38. Flanagan J, Bittner J, Johansson R. Experience can change distinct size-weight priors engaged in lifting objects and judging their weights. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1742-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Size-weight priors supporting action are more flexible, and adapt more rapidly, because they are tuned to specific objects and their current state. ..
  39. Kennedy E, Fragaszy D. Analogical reasoning in a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). J Comp Psychol. 2008;122:167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This evidence suggests that contrary to previous arguments, a member of a New World monkey species can solve an analogical problem. ..
  40. Michaels C, Arzamarski R, Isenhower R, Jacobs D. Direct learning in dynamic touch. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2008;34:944-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas previous applications of the theory posit the existence of information-for-learning without identifying a candidate variable, such a candidate is identified. ..
  41. de Fockert J, Davidoff J, Fagot J, Parron C, Goldstein J. More accurate size contrast judgments in the Ebbinghaus Illusion by a remote culture. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2007;33:738-42 pubmed
    ..It is argued that the more accurate size judgments of the Himba derive from their tendency to prioritize the analysis of local details in visual processing of multiple objects, and not from their impoverished naming. ..
  42. Perfect T, Weston N, Dennis I, Snell A. The effects of precedence on Navon-induced processing bias in face recognition. Q J Exp Psychol (Hove). 2008;61:1479-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These data raise important questions as to what is transferred between the Navon orientation task and the face-processing tasks that follow. ..
  43. Granrud C. Development of size constancy in children: a test of the metacognitive theory. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2009;71:644-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that age-related changes in size estimation accuracy result from the development of cognitive abilities necessary for using deliberate strategies to supplement perception. ..
  44. Loftus G, Harley E. Why is it easier to identify someone close than far away?. Psychon Bull Rev. 2005;12:43-65 pubmed
    ..g., legal) settings to demonstrate the loss of face information that occurs when a person is seen at a particular distance. ..
  45. Kral T. Effects on hunger and satiety, perceived portion size and pleasantness of taste of varying the portion size of foods: a brief review of selected studies. Appetite. 2006;46:103-5 pubmed
    ..g. learning, social norms, monetary considerations), and post-ingestive consequences (e.g. sensations of hunger and fullness) related to the portion size of foods may interact to affect the amount of food that is consumed during a meal. ..
  46. Hutchison J, Loomis J. Does energy expenditure affect the perception of egocentric distance? A failure to replicate experiment 1 of Proffitt, Stefanucci, Banton, and Epstein (2003). Span J Psychol. 2006;9:332-9; discussion 340-8 pubmed
    ..In two experiments, one involving a between-participants design and the other involving a within-participants design, we found that none of the three responses were influenced by the wearing of a heavy backpack. ..
  47. Twedt E, Crawford L, Proffitt D. Memory for target height is scaled to observer height. Mem Cognit. 2012;40:339-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with the literature on eye-height scaling in visual perception and suggest that body scaling is not only a useful metric for perception and action, but is also preserved in memory. ..
  48. Wolfe J, Kuzmova Y. How many pixels make a memory? Picture memory for small pictures. Psychon Bull Rev. 2011;18:469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Memory for a large, full-resolution stimulus can be tested with a small, degraded stimulus. However, memory for a small stimulus is not retrieved when it is tested with a large stimulus. ..
  49. Ell S, Ashby F. The impact of category separation on unsupervised categorization. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2012;74:466-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, under these conditions, many participants failed even to identify the single relevant stimulus dimension. This poor performance is generally incompatible with all current models of unsupervised category learning. ..
  50. Duffy S, Huttenlocher J, Hedges L, Crawford L. Category effects on stimulus estimation: shifting and skewed frequency distributions. Psychon Bull Rev. 2010;17:224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In both cases, we find that people adjust estimates toward the category's running mean, which is consistent with the CAM but not with alternative explanations for the adjustment of stimuli toward a category's central value. ..
  51. Williams L, Ramachandran V, Hubbard E, Braff D, Light G. Superior size-weight illusion performance in patients with schizophrenia: evidence for deficits in forward models. Schizophr Res. 2010;121:101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings are consistent with a dysfunctional forward model mechanism in this population. Future studies to elucidate the locus of this impairment using variations on the current study are also proposed. ..
  52. Basile B, Hampton R. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust primacy and recency in memory for lists from small, but not large, image sets. Behav Processes. 2010;83:183-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, alternative interpretations are also viable and are discussed. ..