pitch perception


Summary: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.

Top Publications

  1. Albouy P, Mattout J, Bouet R, Maby E, Sanchez G, Aguera P, et al. Impaired pitch perception and memory in congenital amusia: the deficit starts in the auditory cortex. Brain. 2013;136:1639-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigated the cerebral bases of impaired pitch perception and memory in congenital amusia using behavioural measures, magnetoencephalography and voxel-based ..
  2. Limb C, Rubinstein J. Current research on music perception in cochlear implant users. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2012;45:129-40 pubmed publisher
    ..They discuss neural mechanisms of music perception and the anticipation of broader acceptance of standardized tests for music perception in CI users. ..
  3. Weise A, Schroger E, Bendixen A. The processing of concurrent sounds based on inharmonicity and asynchronous onsets: an object-related negativity (ORN) study. Brain Res. 2012;1439:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of an inharmonicity×onset asynchrony interaction further supports the assumption that both cues are used in different ways for simultaneous sound segregation. ..
  4. Liu F, Jiang C, Thompson W, Xu Y, Yang Y, Stewart L. The mechanism of speech processing in congenital amusia: evidence from Mandarin speakers. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30374 pubmed publisher
    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of pitch perception that causes severe problems with music processing but only subtle difficulties in speech processing...
  5. Chen Z, Liu P, Wang E, Larson C, Huang D, Liu H. ERP correlates of language-specific processing of auditory pitch feedback during self-vocalization. Brain Lang. 2012;121:25-34 pubmed publisher
  6. Krishnan A, Bidelman G, Smalt C, Ananthakrishnan S, Gandour J. Relationship between brainstem, cortical and behavioral measures relevant to pitch salience in humans. Neuropsychologia. 2012;50:2849-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These neural representations together contain adequate information for the development of perceptual pitch salience. ..
  7. Smalt C, Krishnan A, Bidelman G, Ananthakrishnan S, Gandour J. Distortion products and their influence on representation of pitch-relevant information in the human brainstem for unresolved harmonic complex tones. Hear Res. 2012;292:26-34 pubmed publisher
  8. Zatorre R, Baum S. Musical melody and speech intonation: singing a different tune. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001372 pubmed publisher
    ..Given these similarities, and the fact that pitch perception and production involve the same peripheral transduction system (cochlea) and the same production mechanism (..
  9. Ziegler J, Pech Georgel C, George F, Foxton J. Global and local pitch perception in children with developmental dyslexia. Brain Lang. 2012;120:265-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to normally developing children, dyslexics showed robust pitch perception deficits in the local but not the global condition...

More Information


  1. Re D, O Connor J, Bennett P, Feinberg D. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32719 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness. ..
  2. Wong P, Ciocca V, Chan A, Ha L, Tan L, Peretz I. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33424 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages)...
  3. Chen Z, Chen X, Liu P, Huang D, Liu H. Effect of temporal predictability on the neural processing of self-triggered auditory stimulation during vocalization. BMC Neurosci. 2012;13:55 pubmed
  4. Cooper A, Wang Y. The influence of linguistic and musical experience on Cantonese word learning. J Acoust Soc Am. 2012;131:4756-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point to a dynamic influence of musical and linguistic experience, both at the tone dentification level and at the word learning stage. ..
  5. Oxenham A. Pitch perception. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13335-8 pubmed
  6. O Connor J, Re D, Feinberg D. Voice pitch influences perceptions of sexual infidelity. Evol Psychol. 2011;9:64-78 pubmed
    ..The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful. ..
  7. Lamminmäki S, Mandel A, Parkkonen L, Hari R. Binaural interaction and the octave illusion. J Acoust Soc Am. 2012;132:1747-53 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate modified binaural interaction of dichotic tones one octave apart, suggesting that this interaction contributes to pitch perception during the octave illusion.
  8. Serra J, Corral A, Boguñá M, Haro M, Arcos J. Measuring the evolution of contemporary western popular music. Sci Rep. 2012;2:521 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, an old tune could perfectly sound novel and fashionable, provided that it consisted of common harmonic progressions, changed the instrumentation, and increased the average loudness. ..
  9. Carlyon R, Long C, Micheyl C. Across-channel timing differences as a potential code for the frequency of pure tones. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2012;13:159-171 pubmed publisher
  10. Liu F, Xu Y, Patel A, Francart T, Jiang C. Differential recognition of pitch patterns in discrete and gliding stimuli in congenital amusia: evidence from Mandarin speakers. Brain Cogn. 2012;79:209-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings help explain why amusics have greater difficulty with discrete musical pitch perception than with speech perception, in which continuously changing pitch movements are prevalent.
  11. Russo F, Ives D, Goy H, Pichora Fuller M, Patterson R. Age-related difference in melodic pitch perception is probably mediated by temporal processing: empirical and computational evidence. Ear Hear. 2012;33:177-86 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to examine whether age-related differences in melodic pitch perception may be mediated by temporal processing...
  12. Steinmann I, Gutschalk A. Sustained BOLD and theta activity in auditory cortex are related to slow stimulus fluctuations rather than to pitch. J Neurophysiol. 2012;107:3458-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, pitch-related activity in MEG can easily be separated from theta band activity related to slow stimulus fluctuations. ..
  13. Galvin J, Fu Q, Oba S. Effect of a competing instrument on melodic contour identification by cochlear implant users. J Acoust Soc Am. 2009;125:EL98-103 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the most musically experienced CI users were able to make use of timbre and F0 differences between instruments. ..
  14. Oxenham A, Micheyl C, Keebler M, Loper A, Santurette S. Pitch perception beyond the traditional existence region of pitch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7629-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that robust pitch perception can be elicited by harmonic complex tones with fundamental frequencies below 2 kHz, even when all of the ..
  15. Liu H, Meshman M, Behroozmand R, Larson C. Differential effects of perturbation direction and magnitude on the neural processing of voice pitch feedback. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122:951-7 pubmed publisher
  16. Schaette R, König O, Hornig D, Gross M, Kempter R. Acoustic stimulation treatments against tinnitus could be most effective when tinnitus pitch is within the stimulated frequency range. Hear Res. 2010;269:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the differences we observed between the low- and the high-pitch group show that tinnitus pitch might influence the outcome of acoustic stimulation treatments when devices with a limited frequency range are used. ..
  17. Boh B, Herholz S, Lappe C, Pantev C. Processing of complex auditory patterns in musicians and nonmusicians. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21458 pubmed publisher
  18. Chen Z, Liu P, Jones J, Huang D, Liu H. Sex-related differences in vocal responses to pitch feedback perturbations during sustained vocalization. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;128:EL355-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a modulation of vocal response as a function of sex, and suggest that there may be a differential processing of vocal pitch feedback perturbations between men and women. ..
  19. Carlyon R, Macherey O, Frijns J, Axon P, Kalkman R, Boyle P, et al. Pitch comparisons between electrical stimulation of a cochlear implant and acoustic stimuli presented to a normal-hearing contralateral ear. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2010;11:625-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that substantial range effects occur with other widely used experimental methods, even for normal-hearing listeners. ..
  20. Jones J, Keough D. Auditory-motor mapping for pitch control in singers and nonsingers. Exp Brain Res. 2008;190:279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that singers rely more on internal models than nonsingers to regulate vocal productions rather than real time auditory feedback. ..
  21. Evans K, Treisman A. Natural cross-modal mappings between visual and auditory features. J Vis. 2010;10:6.1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..By dissociating the task variables from the features that were cross-modally related, we find that the interactions happen in an automatic fashion and are possibly located at the perceptual level. ..
  22. McLachlan N. A computational model of human pitch strength and height judgments. Hear Res. 2009;249:23-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Predicted pitch strength for complexes of unresolved harmonics, iterated rippled noise and amplitude modulated tones using this model also conformed to behavioral data from the literature. ..
  23. Maki A, Kawase T, Kobayashi T. Effects of contralateral noise on 40-Hz and 80-Hz auditory steady-state responses. Ear Hear. 2009;30:584-9 pubmed publisher
  24. Kalluri S, Depireux D, Shamma S. Perception and cortical neural coding of harmonic fusion in ferrets. J Acoust Soc Am. 2008;123:2701-16 pubmed publisher
  25. Behroozmand R, Karvelis L, Liu H, Larson C. Vocalization-induced enhancement of the auditory cortex responsiveness during voice F0 feedback perturbation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120:1303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings of this study support previous suggestions regarding the enhanced auditory sensitivity to feedback alterations during self-vocalization, which may serve the purpose of feedback-based monitoring of one's voice. ..
  26. Korzyukov O, Karvelis L, Behroozmand R, Larson C. ERP correlates of auditory processing during automatic correction of unexpected perturbations in voice auditory feedback. Int J Psychophysiol. 2012;83:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A possible functional role of neuronal activity underling the N1 component in voice control mechanisms is discussed. ..
  27. Heng J, Cantarero G, Elhilali M, Limb C. Impaired perception of temporal fine structure and musical timbre in cochlear implant users. Hear Res. 2011;280:192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..001), although the effect was quite weak in CI users. Our findings confirm that impairments in fine structure processing underlie poor perception of musical timbre in CI users. ..
  28. Behroozmand R, Korzyukov O, Larson C. Effects of voice harmonic complexity on ERP responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011;122:2408-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This enhancement may enable the audio-vocal system to more effectively detect and correct for vocal errors in the feedback of natural human vocalizations to maintain an intended vocal output for speaking. ..
  29. Balaguer Ballester E, Denham S, Meddis R. A cascade autocorrelation model of pitch perception. J Acoust Soc Am. 2008;124:2186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The evaluation stimuli include short tone sequences, click trains consisting of alternating interclick intervals, click trains consisting of mixtures of regular and irregular intervals, shuffled click trains, and transposed tones. ..
  30. Wu C, Kirk I, Hamm J, Lim V. The neural networks involved in pitch labeling of absolute pitch musicians. Neuroreport. 2008;19:851-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that when required to label tones without an external reference, absolute pitch musicians have the ability to recruit a greater network than nonabsolute pitch musicians or nonmusicians. ..
  31. Deutsch D, Dooley K, Henthorn T, Head B. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency. J Acoust Soc Am. 2009;125:2398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language. ..
  32. Jeng F, Hu J, Dickman B, Montgomery Reagan K, Tong M, Wu G, et al. Cross-linguistic comparison of frequency-following responses to voice pitch in American and Chinese neonates and adults. Ear Hear. 2011;32:699-707 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings can also be used to help identify neonates at risk for delays in voice-pitch perception and provide new directions for preventive and therapeutic interventions for patients with central auditory ..
  33. Gourévitch B, Norena A, Shaw G, Eggermont J. Spectrotemporal receptive fields in anesthetized cat primary auditory cortex are context dependent. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:1448-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus emphasize some aspects of context dependency of STRFs, that is, how the balance of inhibitory and excitatory inputs is able to shape the neural response from the spectral content of stimuli. ..
  34. Bidelman G, Gandour J, Krishnan A. Cross-domain effects of music and language experience on the representation of pitch in the human auditory brainstem. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011;23:425-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We infer that experience-dependent plasticity of brainstem responses is shaped by the relative saliency of acoustic dimensions underlying the pitch patterns associated with a particular domain. ..
  35. Macherey O, Deeks J, Carlyon R. Extending the limits of place and temporal pitch perception in cochlear implant users. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2011;12:233-51 pubmed publisher
  36. Song J, Skoe E, Wong P, Kraus N. Plasticity in the adult human auditory brainstem following short-term linguistic training. J Cogn Neurosci. 2008;20:1892-902 pubmed publisher
  37. Cooper W, Tobey E, Loizou P. Music perception by cochlear implant and normal hearing listeners as measured by the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia. Ear Hear. 2008;29:618-26 pubmed publisher
    ..On that regard, the pattern of results from this study indicates that the MBEA is a suitable test for measuring various aspects of music perception by CI users. ..
  38. Krishnan A, Bidelman G, Gandour J. Neural representation of pitch salience in the human brainstem revealed by psychophysical and electrophysiological indices. Hear Res. 2010;268:60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We infer that information related to pitch salience may emerge early along the auditory pathway and is likely rooted in pre-attentive, sensory-level processing. ..
  39. Stewart L. Fractionating the musical mind: insights from congenital amusia. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2008;18:127-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The disorder provides a window onto the neuro-cognitive architecture of musical processing, and the possible etiologies of disordered development. ..
  40. Vermeire K, Nobbe A, Schleich P, Nopp P, Voormolen M, Van de Heyning P. Neural tonotopy in cochlear implants: an evaluation in unilateral cochlear implant patients with unilateral deafness and tinnitus. Hear Res. 2008;245:98-106 pubmed publisher
    ..In cochlear implant patients with functional hearing in the non-implanted ear, electrical stimulation produced a frequency-place function that on average resembles Greenwood's function. These results differ from previously derived data. ..
  41. Kang R, Nimmons G, Drennan W, Longnion J, Ruffin C, Nie K, et al. Development and validation of the University of Washington Clinical Assessment of Music Perception test. Ear Hear. 2009;30:411-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Test-retest reliability was moderate to strong. The CAMP test provides a reliable and valid metric for a clinically practical, standardized evaluation of music perception in adult cochlear implant users. ..
  42. Klinge A, Klump G. Frequency difference limens of pure tones and harmonics within complex stimuli in Mongolian gerbils and humans. J Acoust Soc Am. 2009;125:304-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in relation to possible processing mechanisms for pure tone frequency discrimination and for detecting mistuning in harmonic complex stimuli. ..
  43. Gfeller K, Oleson J, Knutson J, Breheny P, Driscoll V, Olszewski C. Multivariate predictors of music perception and appraisal by adult cochlear implant users. J Am Acad Audiol. 2008;19:120-34 pubmed
    ..Music listening background, residual hearing (i.e., hearing aid use), cognitive factors, and some demographic factors predicted several indices of perceptual accuracy or appraisal of music. ..
  44. Schwenzer M, Mathiak K. Numeric aspects in pitch identification: an fMRI study. BMC Neurosci. 2011;12:26 pubmed publisher
    ..Pitch identification is distinguishable from pitch discrimination on the base of activation in the IPS. IPS activity during pitch identification may be the auditory counterpart of numerosity encoding in the visual domain. ..
  45. Prince J, Thompson W, Schmuckler M. Pitch and time, tonality and meter: how do musical dimensions combine?. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2009;35:1598-617 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors discuss how typical Western music biases attention toward pitch and distinguish between dimensional discriminability and salience. ..
  46. Lee C, Hung T. Identification of Mandarin tones by English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. J Acoust Soc Am. 2008;124:3235-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Average identification accuracy was at chance level even when multiple semitone errors were allowed. Since none of the musicians possessed absolute pitch, the role of absolute pitch in Mandarin tone identification remains inconclusive. ..
  47. Liu F, Patel A, Fourcin A, Stewart L. Intonation processing in congenital amusia: discrimination, identification and imitation. Brain. 2010;133:1682-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that amusia impacts upon one's language abilities in subtle ways, and support previous evidence that pitch processing in language and music involves shared mechanisms...
  48. Liu P, Chen Z, Larson C, Huang D, Liu H. Auditory feedback control of voice fundamental frequency in school children. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;128:1306-12 pubmed publisher
  49. Russo N, Skoe E, Trommer B, Nicol T, Zecker S, Bradlow A, et al. Deficient brainstem encoding of pitch in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008;119:1720-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Prosody communicates emotion and intention and is conveyed through acoustic cues such as pitch contour. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the subcortical representations of prosodic speech in children with ASD...
  50. Liu H, Wang E, Chen Z, Liu P, Larson C, Huang D. Effect of tonal native language on voice fundamental frequency responses to pitch feedback perturbations during sustained vocalizations. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;128:3739-46 pubmed publisher
  51. Tillmann B, Schulze K, Foxton J. Congenital amusia: a short-term memory deficit for non-verbal, but not verbal sounds. Brain Cogn. 2009;71:259-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This is in line with previous suggestions about the domain-specificity of congenital amusia...
  52. Oxenham A. Pitch perception and auditory stream segregation: implications for hearing loss and cochlear implants. Trends Amplif. 2008;12:316-31 pubmed publisher
    ..reviews some basic aspects of pitch coding in the normal auditory system and explores the implications for pitch perception in people with hearing impairments and cochlear implants...
  53. Heaton P, Davis R, Happé F. Research note: exceptional absolute pitch perception for spoken words in an able adult with autism. Neuropsychologia. 2008;46:2095-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis showed that AC's naming of speech pitch was highly superior in comparison to controls. The results suggest that explicit access to perceptual information in speech is retained to a significantly higher degree in autism. ..