Summary: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.

Top Publications

  1. Jones E, Appel S, Eaves Y, Moneyham L, Oster R, Ovalle F. Cardiometabolic risk, knowledge, risk perception, and self-efficacy among American Indian women with previous gestational diabetes. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2012;41:246-257 pubmed publisher
    ..a sample of American Indian women with previous gestational diabetes and describe the women's knowledge, risk perception for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and self-efficacy beliefs related to preventing these diseases...
  2. Randell R, Long M, Martin C, Sandler R, Chen W, Anton K, et al. Patient perception of chronic illness care in a large inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013;19:1428-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific aims include (1) to explore patient perception of chronic illness care in a large inflammatory bowel disease cohort and (2) to determine whether demographic ..
  3. Alumran A, Hou X, Hurst C. Assessing the overuse of antibiotics in children with URTIs in Saudi Arabia: development of the parental perception on antibiotics scale (PAPA scale). J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2013;3:3-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Then, the instrument was translated from English to Arabic. The instrument will undergo further validation steps in the future, such as construct validity. ..
  4. Loret de Mola C, Pillay T, Diez Canseco F, Gilman R, Smeeth L, Miranda J. Body mass index and self-perception of overweight and obesity in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: PERU MIGRANT study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50252 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, high levels of overweight, obesity, and underestimation of BMI status were found, with poor agreement between BMI and self-reported weight, showing the unawareness of weight status severity in this low-income setting. ..
  5. Jessen S, Obleser J, Kotz S. How bodies and voices interact in early emotion perception. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36070 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the temporal development underlying their neural interaction in auditory and visual perception. In particular, we tested whether this interaction qualifies as true integration following multisensory ..
  6. Skelly L, Decety J. Passive and motivated perception of emotional faces: qualitative and quantitative changes in the face processing network. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40371 pubmed publisher
    ..These within-subject effects highlight the necessity to consider motivation when interpreting neural function in special populations, and to further explore the effect of task demands on face processing in healthy brains. ..
  7. Wolpe N, Haggard P, Siebner H, Rowe J. Cue integration and the perception of action in intentional binding. Exp Brain Res. 2013;229:467-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The perception of the timing of either event is then a weighted average, determined according to the reliability of each of ..
  8. Kim Y, Lee B, Jung C, Jeon Y, Hyun D, Kim K, et al. Patient's perception of symptoms related to morning activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the SYMBOL Study. Korean J Intern Med. 2012;27:426-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the perception of COPD symptoms related to morning activities in patients with severe airflow limitation...
  9. McKnight K, Hoang H, Prasain J, Brown N, Vibbert J, Hollister K, et al. Neurosensory perception of environmental cues modulates sperm motility critical for fertilization. Science. 2014;344:754-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that environmental cues perceived by the female nervous system affect sperm function. ..

More Information


  1. Salesses P, Schechtner K, Hidalgo C. The collaborative image of the city: mapping the inequality of urban perception. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68400 pubmed publisher
    ..built environment on social and economic outcomes has been limited by the lack of quantitative data on urban perception. Here, we build on the intuition that inequality is partly conspicuous to create quantitative measure of a city'..
  2. Kramer K, Bente G, Luo S, Pfeiffer U, Han S, Vogeley K. Influence of ethnic group-membership and gaze direction on the perception of emotions. A cross-cultural study between Germany and China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66335 pubmed publisher
    Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person's ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-..
  3. de Melo Ghisi G, Oh P, Benetti M, Grace S. Barriers to cardiac rehabilitation use in Canada versus Brazil. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2013;33:173-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Arguably, however, these barriers were more modifiable. ..
  4. Ainley V, Tsakiris M. Body conscious? Interoceptive awareness, measured by heartbeat perception, is negatively correlated with self-objectification. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55568 pubmed publisher
    ..self-objectification accounts for the poorer interoceptive awareness observed in women, as measured by heartbeat perception. Our study is, we believe, the first specifically to test this relationship...
  5. Fuentes V, Ventanas J, Morcuende D, Ventanas S. Effect of intramuscular fat content and serving temperature on temporal sensory perception of sliced and vacuum packaged dry-cured ham. Meat Sci. 2013;93:621-9 pubmed publisher
    ..TI revealed that the effect of serving temperature on flavour and texture perception was more noticeable along the first seconds of chewing...
  6. Terhaar J, Viola F, Bär K, Debener S. Heartbeat evoked potentials mirror altered body perception in depressed patients. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012;123:1950-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to analyze whether heartbeat perception accuracy is reduced in depressed patients...
  7. Hwang W, Hong O, Kim M. Factors associated with blue-collar workers' risk perception of cardiovascular disease. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2012;42:1095-104 pubmed publisher
    ..disease (CVD) risk, as well as, individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors as predictors of CVD risk perception among Korean blue-collar workers...
  8. Mitro S, Gordon A, Olsson M, Lundstrom J. The smell of age: perception and discrimination of body odors of different ages. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38110 pubmed publisher
    ..This experiment suggests that, akin to other animals, humans are able to discriminate age based on body odor alone and that this effect is mediated mainly by body odors emitted by individuals of old age. ..
  9. Yessis J, Kost R, Lee L, Coller B, Henderson D. Development of a research participants' perception survey to improve clinical research. Clin Transl Sci. 2012;5:452-60 pubmed publisher
    ..69-0.85). The validated survey offers a new method for assessing and improving outcomes of clinical research processes. ..
  10. Mehrotra P, Croft L, Day H, Perencevich E, Pineles L, Harris A, et al. Effects of contact precautions on patient perception of care and satisfaction: a prospective cohort study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013;34:1087-93 pubmed publisher
    ..79 [95% confidence interval, 0.64-5.00]; P = .27). Patients under contact precautions were more likely to perceive problems with their care, especially poor coordination of care and a lack of respect for patient preferences. ..
  11. Bayrampour H, Heaman M, Duncan K, Tough S. Comparison of perception of pregnancy risk of nulliparous women of advanced maternal age and younger age. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2012;57:445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; Research indicates that pregnancy risk perception is an important factor in pregnant women's health care use and decision making during pregnancy...
  12. Yokoyama Y, Kakudate N, Sumida F, Matsumoto Y, Gilbert G, Gordan V. Dentists' dietary perception and practice patterns in a dental practice-based research network. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59615 pubmed publisher
    ..THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1) examine discordance between dentists' perception of the importance of diet in caries treatment planning and their actual provision of diet counseling to patients,..
  13. Unadike B, Ekrikpo U, Bassey E. Awareness, knowledge and perception of HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour amongst pre-clinical, medical students in a Nigerian university. Niger J Med. 2012;21:272-6 pubmed
    ..We advocate increased awareness, sensitization and education of the entire populace about HIV/AIDS. Government should also legislate laws to prevent discrimination, stigmatization and victimization of those affected by the virus. ..
  14. Claeson A, Lidén E, Nordin M, Nordin S. The role of perceived pollution and health risk perception in annoyance and health symptoms: a population-based study of odorous air pollution. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2013;86:367-74 pubmed publisher exposure levels below toxicity may not be directly related to level of exposure, but rather mediated by perception of the air pollution and by top-down processing (e.g., beliefs that the exposure is hazardous)...
  15. Kellens W, Terpstra T, De Maeyer P. Perception and communication of flood risks: a systematic review of empirical research. Risk Anal. 2013;33:24-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Just as in other risk domains, the study of risk perception and risk communication has gained increasing interest in flood risk management...
  16. Frahm K, Mørch C, Grill W, Andersen O. Experimental and model-based analysis of differences in perception of cutaneous electrical stimulation across the sole of the foot. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2013;51:999-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..The intensities used were two and four times perception threshold...
  17. Tappe K, Glanz K, Sallis J, Zhou C, Saelens B. Children's physical activity and parents' perception of the neighborhood environment: neighborhood impact on kids study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:39 pubmed publisher
    ..However, prioritizing closer proximity to safe play areas may best improve children's physical activity and, in turn, reduce their risk of obesity and associated chronic diseases. ..
  18. Sawford K, Vollman A, Stephen C. A focused ethnographic study of Sri Lankan government field veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48035 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has implications for the future of animal health surveillance, including interpretation of disease patterns reported, system design and implementation, and engagement of data providers. ..
  19. Derom C, Thiery E, Peeters H, Vlietinck R, Defoort P, Frijns J. The East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS): an actual perception. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013;16:58-63 pubmed publisher
  20. Smid H, Bruggeman R, Martens S. Fragmented perception: slower space-based but faster object-based attention in recent-onset psychosis with and without Schizophrenia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59983 pubmed publisher
    Schizophrenia is associated with impairments of the perception of objects, but how this affects higher cognitive functions, whether this impairment is already present after recent onset of psychosis, and whether it is specific for ..
  21. Barraza D, Jansen K, van Wendel de Joode B, Wesseling C. Social movements and risk perception: unions, churches, pesticides and bananas in Costa Rica. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2013;19:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..around pesticide issues and put pressure on governmental agencies and banana companies and shaped people's perception of pesticide risks...
  22. Mazzarella E, Ramsey R, Conson M, Hamilton A. Brain systems for visual perspective taking and action perception. Soc Neurosci. 2013;8:248-67 pubmed publisher
    ..By considering how an observed actor's location and action influence the neural bases of visual perspective judgments, the current study supports the view that multiple neurocognitive "routes" operate during VPT. ..
  23. Flaisch T, Schupp H. Tracing the time course of emotion perception: the impact of stimulus physics and semantics on gesture processing. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2013;8:820-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the brain processes different attributes of an emotional picture in parallel and that a coarse semantic appreciation may already occur during relatively early stages of emotion perception.
  24. Blanco F, Matute H, A Vadillo M. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46203 pubmed publisher
    ..This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding...
  25. Liao Q, Wong W, Fielding R. Comparison of different risk perception measures in predicting seasonal influenza vaccination among healthy Chinese adults in Hong Kong: a prospective longitudinal study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68019 pubmed publisher
    Risk perception is a reported predictor of vaccination uptake, but which measures of risk perception best predict influenza vaccination uptake remain unclear...
  26. Agdas D, Webster G, Masters F. Wind speed perception and risk. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49944 pubmed publisher
    How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds...
  27. Sacheli L, Candidi M, Pavone E, Tidoni E, Aglioti S. And yet they act together: interpersonal perception modulates visuo-motor interference and mutual adjustments during a joint-grasping task. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50223 pubmed publisher
    ..disrupted when the observed actor is perceived as an out-group or unfair individual, the impact of interpersonal perception on joint-actions has never been directly addressed...
  28. Zhu S, Gamst A, Lee M, Cummins S, Yin L, Zoref L. The use and perception of electronic cigarettes and snus among the U.S. population. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79332 pubmed publisher
    ..E-cigarette use is likely to increase in the next few years. ..
  29. Van Dyck D, Cerin E, Conway T, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Owen N, Kerr J, et al. Perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with adults' leisure-time physical activity: findings from Belgium, Australia and the USA. Health Place. 2013;19:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In Belgium, interventions to promote leisure-time activity may need to target promotion of existing opportunities rather than built environment improvements. ..
  30. Fleming S, Maloney L, Daw N. The irrationality of categorical perception. J Neurosci. 2013;33:19060-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Perception is often categorical: the perceptual system selects one interpretation of a stimulus even when evidence in favor of other interpretations is appreciable...
  31. Kwon M, Choi J, Kim S, Yoo T, Kim D. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects. Environ Health. 2012;11:69 pubmed publisher
    ..physiological changes (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiration rate), eight subjective symptoms, and perception of RF-EMFs during real and sham exposure sessions...
  32. Kaeppler K, Mueller F. Odor classification: a review of factors influencing perception-based odor arrangements. Chem Senses. 2013;38:189-209 pubmed publisher
    Decoding the psychological dimensions of human odor perception has long been a central issue of olfactory research...
  33. Kang J, Namkoong K, Yoo S, Jhung K, Kim S. Abnormalities of emotional awareness and perception in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2012;141:286-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of 56 patients with OCD additionally performed the emotional perception task of face expression...
  34. Sutterlin S, Schulz S, Stumpf T, Pauli P, Vogele C. Enhanced cardiac perception is associated with increased susceptibility to framing effects. Cogn Sci. 2013;37:922-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a dual process perspective on decision-making and suggest that interoceptive skills mediate effects of implicit bias on decisions. ..
  35. Ofen N, Shing Y. From perception to memory: changes in memory systems across the lifespan. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2013;37:2258-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Characterizing transformations in memory systems across the lifespan can illustrate and inform us about the plasticity of human memory systems. ..
  36. de Morree H, Klein C, Marcora S. Perception of effort reflects central motor command during movement execution. Psychophysiology. 2012;49:1242-53 pubmed publisher
    It is thought that perception of effort during physical tasks is the conscious awareness of the central motor command sent to the active muscles...
  37. Addae J, Wilson J, Carrington C. Students' perception of a modified form of PBL using concept mapping. Med Teach. 2012;34:e756-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The students perceived the 5-phase method as promoting their passion for learning, and developing their cognitive, metacognitive and interpersonal skills. ..
  38. Porcheron A, Mauger E, Russell R. Aspects of facial contrast decrease with age and are cues for age perception. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57985 pubmed publisher
    ..We behave differently toward people as a function of how old we perceive them to be. Age perception relies on cues that are correlated with age, such as wrinkles...
  39. Hellinger J, Hoffmann K. Magnetic field perception in the rainbow trout Oncorynchus mykiss: magnetite mediated, light dependent or both?. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2012;198:593-605 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we demonstrate the role of the trigeminal system in the perception process of different magnetic field parameters by heartbeat conditioning, i.e...
  40. Jallow I, Chou Y, Liu T, Huang N. Women's perception of antenatal care services in public and private clinics in the Gambia. Int J Qual Health Care. 2012;24:595-600 pubmed publisher
    The main objective of this study was to assess women's preferences and perception of antenatal healthcare services in public and private healthcare facilities...
  41. Larkum M. A cellular mechanism for cortical associations: an organizing principle for the cerebral cortex. Trends Neurosci. 2013;36:141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This article explores the experimental evidence and the implications for how the cortex operates. ..
  42. Li W, Xu T. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2011;2:26-37 pubmed publisher
    ..are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation...
  43. Faulkner G, Pourshahidi L, Wallace J, Kerr M, McCrorie T, Livingstone M. Serving size guidance for consumers: is it effective?. Proc Nutr Soc. 2012;71:610-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the impact of SS guidance on consumers merits further investigation to ensure that future guidance resonates with consumers by being more understandable, usable and acceptable. ..
  44. Tesarz J, Schuster A, Hartmann M, Gerhardt A, Eich W. Pain perception in athletes compared to normally active controls: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Pain. 2012;153:1253-62 pubmed publisher
    This study systematically reviewed differences in pain perception between athletes and normally active controls...
  45. Bianchi M, Williams K, McKinney S, Ellenbogen J. The subjective-objective mismatch in sleep perception among those with insomnia and sleep apnea. J Sleep Res. 2013;22:557-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Further insight is needed into the complex relationships between subjective perception of sleep and conventional, objective measurements.
  46. Pellicano E, Burr D. When the world becomes 'too real': a Bayesian explanation of autistic perception. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012;16:504-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Bayesian models can be applied to autism - a neurodevelopmental condition with atypicalities in sensation and perception - to pinpoint fundamental differences in perceptual mechanisms...
  47. Tosca M, Silvestri M, Olcese R, Pistorio A, Rossi G, Ciprandi G. Breathlessness perception assessed by visual analogue scale and lung function in children with asthma: a real-life study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23:537-42 pubmed publisher
    In children with asthma, discrepancies between objective indicators of airway obstruction and symptom perception are often observed...
  48. Turi Z, Ambrus G, Janacsek K, Emmert K, Hahn L, Paulus W, et al. Both the cutaneous sensation and phosphene perception are modulated in a frequency-specific manner during transcranial alternating current stimulation. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2013;31:275-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to fill this gap, we explored the cutaneous sensation and phosphene perception during tACS...
  49. Brownell S, Price J, Steinman L. A writing-intensive course improves biology undergraduates' perception and confidence of their abilities to read scientific literature and communicate science. Adv Physiol Educ. 2013;37:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We offered the course for three consecutive years and evaluated its impact on student perception and confidence using a combination of pre- and postcourse survey questions and coded open-ended responses...
  50. Gu C, Chan C, Twinn S, Choi K. The influence of knowledge and perception of the risk of cervical cancer on screening behavior in mainland Chinese women. Psychooncology. 2012;21:1299-308 pubmed publisher
    Theories of health behavior and empirical research highlight the risk perception as a significant factor for people adopting cancer screening...
  51. Dura Bernal S, Wennekers T, Denham S. Top-down feedback in an HMAX-like cortical model of object perception based on hierarchical Bayesian networks and belief propagation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48216 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, existing object perception models based on this approach are typically limited to tree-structured networks with no loops, use small toy ..
  52. Feldman J, Kutner H, Matte L, Lupkin M, Steinberg D, Sidora Arcoleo K, et al. Prediction of peak flow values followed by feedback improves perception of lung function and adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma. Thorax. 2012;67:1040-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to examine the effect of predicting peak expiratory flow (PEF) and receiving feedback on perception of pulmonary function and adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)...
  53. Albright T. On the perception of probable things: neural substrates of associative memory, imagery, and perception. Neuron. 2012;74:227-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Perception is influenced both by the immediate pattern of sensory inputs and by memories acquired through prior experiences with the world...
  54. Rietmeijer Mentink M, Paulis W, van Middelkoop M, Bindels P, van der Wouden J. Difference between parental perception and actual weight status of children: a systematic review. Matern Child Nutr. 2013;9:3-22 pubmed publisher
    ..However, do parents recognise overweight in their child and which factors influence parental perception? The aim of the present review is to systematically study differences between parental perception and the actual ..
  55. Nel J, Yi H, Sandfort T, Rich E. HIV-untested men who have sex with men in South Africa: the perception of not being at risk and fear of being tested. AIDS Behav. 2013;17 Suppl 1:S51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The most frequently reported reasons for not having been tested were the perception of not being at risk (57 %) and fear of being tested (52 %)...
  56. Hallegraeff J, van der Schans C, Krijnen W, de Greef M. Measurement of acute nonspecific low back pain perception in primary care physical therapy: reliability and validity of the brief illness perception questionnaire. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:53 pubmed publisher
    The eight-item Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is used as a screening instrument in physical therapy to assess mental defeat in patients with acute low back pain, besides patient perception might determine the course and risk for ..
  57. Heinz A, Giedgowd G, Crane N, Veilleux J, Conrad M, Braun A, et al. A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use. Addict Behav. 2013;38:2751-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications are discussed for public health initiatives to educate young adults about the potential consequences of hookah smoking. ..
  58. Fang D, Fang C, Tsai B, Lan L, Hsu W. Relationships among trust in messages, risk perception, and risk reduction preferences based upon avian influenza in Taiwan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9:2742-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may ..
  59. Ryan N, Anderson V, Godfrey C, Eren S, Rosema S, Taylor K, et al. Social communication mediates the relationship between emotion perception and externalizing behaviors in young adult survivors of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Int J Dev Neurosci. 2013;31:811-9 pubmed publisher
    ..55 years) and examine relations among aspects of social function including emotion perception, social communication and externalizing behaviors rated by close-other proxies...
  60. Dellicour S, Desai M, Mason L, Odidi B, Aol G, Phillips Howard P, et al. Exploring risk perception and attitudes to miscarriage and congenital anomaly in rural Western Kenya. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80551 pubmed publisher
  61. Weisz N, Wühle A, Monittola G, Demarchi G, Frey J, Popov T, et al. Prestimulus oscillatory power and connectivity patterns predispose conscious somatosensory perception. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from a previously published experiment on conscious somatosensory near-threshold perception was reanalyzed focusing on the prestimulus period...
  62. Schaefer M, Egloff B, Witthöft M. Is interoceptive awareness really altered in somatoform disorders? Testing competing theories with two paradigms of heartbeat perception. J Abnorm Psychol. 2012;121:719-24 pubmed publisher
    Alterations in the perception of body signals (i.e., interoceptive awareness [IA]) are considered crucial for the development and maintenance of somatoform disorders (SFDs)...
  63. De Meester F, Van Dyck D, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Deforche B, Cardon G. Does the perception of neighborhood built environmental attributes influence active transport in adolescents?. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:38 pubmed publisher the perspective of the ecological models this study aimed (a) to investigate the relationship between the perception of neighborhood built environmental attributes and adolescents' AT and (b) to explore the contribution of the ..