Summary: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.

Top Publications

  1. Feindel W, Penfield W. Localization of discharge in temporal lobe automatism. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1954;72:603-30 pubmed
  2. Montigny D, Coureaud G, Schaal B. Rabbit pup response to the mammary pheromone: from automatism to prandial control. Physiol Behav. 2006;89:742-9 pubmed
    ..This indicates a transition from an automatic response to the MP to a response regulated by physiological factors associated with satiation. ..
  3. Wennberg R, McAndrews M, Zumsteg D, Velazquez J. The sign of the cross as a learned ictal automatism?. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;15:394-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Raghavendra S, Mirsattari S, McLachlan R. Ictal whistling: a rare automatism during temporal lobe seizures. Epileptic Disord. 2010;12:133-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Both had temporal lobe epilepsy with resolution of seizures after a temporal lobectomy. Ictal whistling appears to localize to the temporal lobe but may not be useful for lateralization. ..
  5. Cohen Kadosh R. The laterality effect: myth or truth?. Conscious Cogn. 2008;17:350-4 pubmed
    ..The current results suggest that the laterality effect should be taken into account when using paradigms that require automatic numerical processing such as Stroop-like or priming tasks. ..
  6. Powell D, Stainthorp R, Stuart M, Garwood H, Quinlan P. An experimental comparison between rival theories of rapid automatized naming performance and its relationship to reading. J Exp Child Psychol. 2007;98:46-68 pubmed
    ..However, regression analysis revealed that RAN made a unique contribution to reading even after accounting for processing speed. Theoretical implications are discussed. ..
  7. Oliveira F, Goodman D. Conscious and effortful or effortless and automatic: a practice/performance paradox in motor learning. Percept Mot Skills. 2004;99:315-24 pubmed
    ..Findings suggest that it is indeed possible to benefit from both effortful and minimal cognitive processing strategies and that they should be used complementarily. ..
  8. Rémi J, Cunha J, Vollmar C, Topçuoğlu Ö, Meier A, Ulowetz S, et al. Quantitative movement analysis differentiates focal seizures characterized by automatisms. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;20:642-7 pubmed publisher
    ..001). When all movement parameters were above the threshold, a hyperkinetic seizure was identified with a probability of 80.8%, but the probability for a non-hyperkinetic seizure to have all parameters above the threshold was only 0.02%. ..
  9. Murray J, Spadafore J, McIntosh W. Belief in a just world and social perception: evidence for automatic activation. J Soc Psychol. 2005;145:35-47 pubmed
    ..The authors discussed implications for social perception. ..

More Information


  1. Jin L, Inoue Y. Spontaneous periictal leaving behavior: a potential lateralizing sign in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009;50:1560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..03). LB may represent a potential lateralizing sign. When LB occurs ictally, it may indicate seizure onset in the dominant temporal lobe, and LB occurring postictally indicates nondominant side seizure onset in patients with MTLE. ..
  2. D Argembeau A, Van der Linden M. Facial expressions of emotion influence memory for facial identity in an automatic way. Emotion. 2007;7:507-15 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the affective meaning of facial expressions automatically modulates the encoding of facial identity in memory. ..
  3. Lien M, Ruthruff E, Cornett L, Goodin Z, Allen P. On the nonautomaticity of visual word processing: electrophysiological evidence that word processing requires central attention. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2008;34:751-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors conclude that visual word processing is not fully automatic but rather requires access to limited central attentional resources. ..
  4. Alario F, De Cara B, Ziegler J. Automatic activation of phonology in silent reading is parallel: evidence from beginning and skilled readers. J Exp Child Psychol. 2007;97:205-19 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that, from the beginning of reading, the implicit and automatic activation of phonological codes during silent reading is not serial but rather parallel. ..
  5. Watanabe K. Behavioral speed contagion: automatic modulation of movement timing by observation of body movements. Cognition. 2008;106:1514-24 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that behavioral tempo may be contagious; the speed of others' movements may automatically influence the timing of movement execution by the observer. ..
  6. Mirzadjanova Z, Peters A, Rémi J, Bilgin C, Silva Cunha J, Noachtar S. Significance of lateralization of upper limb automatisms in temporal lobe epilepsy: a quantitative movement analysis. Epilepsia. 2010;51:2140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The lateralization of upper limb automatisms in TLE has a good lateralizing value if the lateralization of IEDs were also taken into consideration. ..
  7. David D, Szentagotai A. Cognitions in cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies; toward an integrative model. Clin Psychol Rev. 2006;26:284-98 pubmed
    ..These developments could offer CBT the chance to be a platform for the integration of psychotherapy. ..
  8. Moors A, De Houwer J. Automatic processing of dominance and submissiveness. Exp Psychol. 2005;52:296-302 pubmed
    ..These results provide new information about the automatic nature of information related to emotion-antecedent appraisals. ..
  9. Cardena E, Terhune D, Lööf A, Buratti S. Hypnotic experience is related to emotional contagion. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2009;57:33-46 pubmed publisher
  10. Hecht R, Crewther D, Crewther S. Rate of learning and asymptotic performance in an automatization task and the relation to reading. Percept Mot Skills. 2004;99:1103-21 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that faster readers automatized the predictable alphanumeric task more rapidly than slower readers and hence were better able to cope with the dual-task condition. ..
  11. Soto Faraco S, Spence C, Kingstone A. Assessing automaticity in the audiovisual integration of motion. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2005;118:71-92 pubmed
    ..Together these data provide empirical support for the view that multisensory integration of motion signals can occur at a perceptual level. ..
  12. Idzikowski C, Rumbold J. Sleep in a legal context: The role of the expert witness. Med Sci Law. 2015;55:176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally there are substantial policy issues involved which are not always adequately addressed in expert evidence. We outline the role of expert witnesses in such cases. ..
  13. Friesen C, Kingstone A. Abrupt onsets and gaze direction cues trigger independent reflexive attentional effects. Cognition. 2003;87:B1-10 pubmed
    ..These findings strongly suggest that reflexive attention to gaze direction and reflexive inhibition to an abrupt onset are independent processes, and that gaze direction does not produce IOR at the gazed-at location. ..
  14. Bar Anan Y, Liberman N, Trope Y, Algom D. Automatic processing of psychological distance: evidence from a Stroop task. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2007;136:610-22 pubmed
  15. Bartolomei F, McGonigal A, Guye M, Guedj E, Chauvel P. Clinical and anatomic characteristics of humming and singing in partial seizures. Neurology. 2007;69:490-2 pubmed
  16. Iani C, Ricci F, Baroni G, Rubichi S. Attention control and susceptibility to hypnosis. Conscious Cogn. 2009;18:856-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that a specific posthypnotic suggestion can alter information processing in high-susceptible individuals and reduce the interfering effect exerted by arrow stimuli. ..
  17. Soto D, Humphreys G. Automatic guidance of visual attention from verbal working memory. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2007;33:730-7 pubmed
    ..However, the effects were absent when primes were only attended. The data suggest that there is automatic encoding into WM when items are verbalized and that verbal as well as visual WM can guide visual attention. ..
  18. Bélanger S, Belleville S. Semantic inhibition impairment in mild cognitive impairment: a distinctive feature of upcoming cognitive decline?. Neuropsychology. 2009;23:592-606 pubmed publisher
  19. Perry J, Lupker S. A prospective view of the impact of prime validity on response speed and selection in the arrow classification task with free choice trials. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2010;72:528-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The results in the unpredictive conditions, however, suggest that those effects were due to the impact of automatic response biases initially created by the prime, which participants attempt to suppress when it is advantageous to do so. ..
  20. Kellinghaus C, Loddenkemper T, Kotagal P. Ictal spitting: clinical and electroencephalographic features. Epilepsia. 2003;44:1064-9 pubmed
    ..Ictal spitting is an uncommon feature of epileptic seizures. Although the symptomatogenic area is probably outside the temporal lobe, it is most frequently seen in temporal lobe epilepsy of the right, nondominant hemisphere. ..
  21. Turk Browne N, Jungé J, Scholl B. The automaticity of visual statistical learning. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2005;134:552-64 pubmed
    ..These results fuel the conclusion that VSL both is and is not automatic: It requires attention to select the relevant population of stimuli, but the resulting learning then occurs without intent or awareness. ..
  22. Belleville S, Rouleau N, Van der Linden M. Use of the Hayling task to measure inhibition of prepotent responses in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. Brain Cogn. 2006;62:113-9 pubmed
    ..Examination of individual performance in AD patients indicated that the impairment was found in most patients on the Hayling test but in only a subgroup of patients on the Stroop test. ..
  23. Stefanidis D, Scerbo M, Montero P, Acker C, Smith W. Simulator training to automaticity leads to improved skill transfer compared with traditional proficiency-based training: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2012;255:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondary task metrics that reflect trainee automaticity should be implemented during simulator training to improve learning and skill transfer. ..
  24. Mattingley J. Attention, automaticity, and awareness in synesthesia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1156:141-67 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been speculated that grapheme-color synesthesia arises from disinhibited feedback or abnormal cross-wiring between brain regions involved in extracting visual form and color. ..
  25. Tapp K, Logan G. Attention to the hands disrupts skilled typewriting: the role of vision in producing the disruption. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2011;73:2379-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the hypothesis that slowing occurs because typists watch their hands. However, typists were able to type letters of one hand when the keyboard was covered, so typists must have monitored kinesthetic information as well. ..
  26. Ellwart T, Rinck M, Becker E. From fear to love: individual differences in implicit spider associations. Emotion. 2006;6:18-27 pubmed
    ..The results of Experiment 2 provide additional support for the argument that implicit spider associations are different from general stereotypes or knowledge about spiders. ..
  27. Hubbard E, Manohar S, Ramachandran V. Contrast affects the strength of synesthetic colors. Cortex. 2006;42:184-94 pubmed
    ..However, whether this is true for all grapheme-color synesthetes or is only true of the group we refer to as lower synesthetes, remains to be seen. ..
  28. Chan W, Au T, Tang J. Exploring the developmental changes in automatic two-digit number processing. J Exp Child Psychol. 2011;109:263-74 pubmed publisher
  29. Gold B, Balota D, Jones S, Powell D, Smith C, Andersen A. Dissociation of automatic and strategic lexical-semantics: functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for differing roles of multiple frontotemporal regions. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6523-32 pubmed
    ..These studies provide reproducible evidence for a neural dissociation between three well established components of the lexical-semantic processing system. ..
  30. Caboclo L, Miyashira F, Hamad A, Lin K, Carrete H, Sakamoto A, et al. Ictal spitting in left temporal lobe epilepsy: report of three cases. Seizure. 2006;15:462-7 pubmed
    ..It may be observed in seizures originating from the left temporal lobe, and thus should not be considered a lateralizing sign of nondominant TLE. ..
  31. Ferreira M, Garcia Marques L, Sherman S, Sherman J. Automatic and controlled components of judgment and decision making. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2006;91:797-813 pubmed
    ..They conclude that judgment under uncertainty is neither an automatic nor a controlled process but that it reflects both processes, with each making independent contributions. ..
  32. Apperly I, Riggs K, Simpson A, Chiavarino C, Samson D. Is belief reasoning automatic?. Psychol Sci. 2006;17:841-4 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that adults do not ascribe beliefs to agents automatically. ..
  33. Soltész F, White S, Szucs D. Event-related brain potentials dissociate the developmental time-course of automatic numerical magnitude analysis and cognitive control functions during the first three years of primary school. Dev Neuropsychol. 2011;36:682-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Relationships among ERP and behavioral effects suggest that control functions play a larger role in younger children and that automaticity of number processing increases from grade 1 to 3. ..
  34. Pahlavan F. Re-emerging conceptual integration: commentary on Berkowitz's "on the consideration of automatic as well as controlled psychological processes in aggression". Aggress Behav. 2008;34:130-2; discussion 136-8 pubmed
    ..However, progress in psychology does not rest solely on the accumulation of theoretical insights. It demands a large body of empirical facts, with attention to incongruities, discordances, and conceptual clarifications. ..
  35. Fogarasi A, Rasonyi G, Kelemen A, Janszky J, Halasz P. Electrode manipulation automatism during temporal lobe seizures. Seizure. 2006;15:416-9 pubmed
    To describe clinical characteristics and lateralizing value of peri-ictal electrode manipulation automatism (EMA) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and compare our data with ictal manual automatisms described in the literature...
  36. Kutlu G, Bilir E, Erdem A, Gomceli Y, Kurt G, Serdaroglu A. Hush sign: a new clinical sign in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2005;6:452-5 pubmed
    ..We believe that the "hush" sign may be supportive of a diagnosis of TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere. This sign may occur as a result of ictal activation of a specific brain region in this hemisphere. ..
  37. Adinoff B, Rilling L, Williams M, Schreffler E, Schepis T, Rosvall T, et al. Impulsivity, neural deficits, and the addictions: the "oops" factor in relapse. J Addict Dis. 2007;26 Suppl 1:25-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Empirical investigations documenting the hypothesized relationship between specific deficits in impulsive behaviors, coupled with their neurobiological correlates, and relapse should be the focus of future studies. ..
  38. Poolton J, Maxwell J, Masters R. Rules for reinvestment. Percept Mot Skills. 2004;99:771-4 pubmed
    ..The model implies that the more task-relevant movement knowledge the performer holds, the stronger the propensity to reinvest. ..
  39. Gast A. What is learned, and when? Commentary on “the musical stroop effect: opening a new avenue to research on automatisms” by l. Grégoire, P. Perruchet, and B. Poulin-Charronnat (Experimental Psychology, 2013, vol. 60, pp. 269–278). Exp Psychol. 2014;61:71-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, I focus on how different contingencies in the learning situation relate to the Stroop effect and on the question whether a long-term perspective is suitable for studying the acquisition of automaticity. ..
  40. Vignatelli L, Bisulli F, Provini F, Naldi I, Pittau F, Zaniboni A, et al. Interobserver reliability of video recording in the diagnosis of nocturnal frontal lobe seizures. Epilepsia. 2007;48:1506-11 pubmed
  41. Giuliano L, Uccello D, Fatuzzo D, Mainieri G, Zappia M, Sofia V. Electroclinical findings of minor motor events during sleep in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2017;58:1261-1267 pubmed publisher
    ..The study of nocturnal sleep in MTLE patients is useful in helping the clinicians in the diagnostic and therapeutic workup of these patients. ..
  42. Huang Pollock C, Karalunas S. Working memory demands impair skill acquisition in children with ADHD. J Abnorm Psychol. 2010;119:174-85 pubmed publisher
  43. Crundall D, Cole G, Underwood G. Attentional and automatic processes in line tracing: is tracing obligatory?. Percept Psychophys. 2008;70:422-30 pubmed
    ..We conclude that line tracing is a strategy whose initial deployment can be influenced by top-down factors, rather than an obligatory response triggered by the stimuli-although, once engaged, line tracing may be hard to stop. ..
  44. Forest G, Poulin J, Daoust A, Lussier I, Stip E, Godbout R. Attention and non-REM sleep in neuroleptic-naive persons with schizophrenia and control participants. Psychiatry Res. 2007;149:33-40 pubmed
    ..These results support the existence of a relationship between non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and cognitive performance in healthy individuals as well as in persons with schizophrenia. ..
  45. Wimmer H, Mayringer H, Raberger T. Reading and dual-task balancing: evidence against the automatization deficit explanation of developmental dyslexia. J Learn Disabil. 1999;32:473-8 pubmed
    ..Together with other findings from our research group, it supports the position that, even in consistent orthographies, difficulties in learning to read are caused by a specific phonological deficit. ..
  46. Area R, Garcia Caballero A, Gomez I, Somoza M, Garcia Lado I, Recimil M, et al. Conscious compensations for thought insertion. Psychopathology. 2003;36:129-31 pubmed
    ..We suggest an interpretation for this conscious compensation following C. Frith's neuropsychological model of schizophrenia. ..
  47. Reimer J, Lorsbach T, Bleakney D. Automatic semantic feedback during visual word recognition. Mem Cognit. 2008;36:641-58 pubmed
    ..These findings were discussed in the context of current accounts of visual word recognition. ..
  48. Ham B, Stoolmiller M, Chard D. Measuring the dimensions of alphabetic principle on the reading development of first graders: the role of automaticity and unitization. J Learn Disabil. 2008;41:143-57 pubmed
    ..Considerations for future research and school-based applications are provided. ..
  49. Janszky J, Fogarasi A, Toth V, Magalova V, Gyimesi C, Kovacs N, et al. Peri-ictal vegetative symptoms in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2007;11:125-9 pubmed
    ..PIVS, especially PNW, occurred more frequently in women, supporting the gender differences in epilepsy. ..
  50. De Houwer J, De Bruycker E. The identification-EAST as a valid measure of implicit attitudes toward alcohol-related stimuli. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2007;38:133-43 pubmed
    ..Also, our measure of implicit attitudes was related to self-reported alcohol consumption even after controlling for explicit attitudes. ..
  51. Dal Cól M, Terra Bustamante V, Velasco T, Oliveira J, Sakamoto A, Garcia Cairasco N. Neuroethology application for the study of human temporal lobe epilepsy: from basic to applied sciences. Epilepsy Behav. 2006;8:149-60 pubmed
    ..The next step will be the comparative study of seizures of patients with left and right TLE, with a greater number of patients, and the development of a digital video library. ..
  52. Georgiou G, Papadopoulos T, Fella A, Parrila R. Rapid naming speed components and reading development in a consistent orthography. J Exp Child Psychol. 2012;112:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The amount of predictive variance shared between the components and the cognitive processing skills varied across time. The implications of these findings for the RAN-reading relationship are discussed. ..
  53. Rieger M. Automatic keypress activation in skilled typing. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2004;30:555-65 pubmed
    ..Thus, motoric skill proficiency is accompanied by automatic activation processes that probably contribute to high performance levels. ..