executive function


Summary: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.

Top Publications

  1. Godefroy O, Leclercq C, Roussel M, Moroni C, Quaglino V, Beaunieux H, et al. French adaptation of the vascular cognitive impairment harmonization standards: the GRECOG-VASC study. Int J Stroke. 2012;7:362-3 pubmed publisher
  2. Rajtar Zembaty A, Sałakowski A, Rajtar Zembaty J, Starowicz Filip A. Executive dysfunction in late-life depression. Psychiatr Pol. 2017;51:705-718 pubmed publisher
  3. Nerhus M, Berg A, Simonsen C, Haram M, Haatveit B, Dahl S, et al. Vitamin D Deficiency Associated With Cognitive Functioning in Psychotic Disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78:e750-e757 pubmed publisher
  4. Dunsky A, Abu Rukun M, Tsuk S, Dwolatzky T, Carasso R, Netz Y. The effects of a resistance vs. an aerobic single session on attention and executive functioning in adults. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176092 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to assess the influence of acute bouts of aerobic versus resistance exercise on attention and executive function in adults. Thirty-nine physically active adults (age = 52±8 yr) served as participants...
  5. Aker M, Harmer C, Landrø N. More rumination and less effective emotion regulation in previously depressed women with preserved executive functions. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:334 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Executive function was unrelated to rumination and emotion regulation in this sample...
  6. Martin A, Booth J, Laird Y, Sproule J, Reilly J, Saunders D. Physical activity, diet and other behavioural interventions for improving cognition and school achievement in children and adolescents with obesity or overweight. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;3:CD009728 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses of physical activity-only interventions suggested high-quality evidence for improved mean cognitive executive function scores. The mean difference (MD) was 5...
  7. Alexander W, Brown J. Computational models of performance monitoring and cognitive control. Top Cogn Sci. 2010;2:658-77 pubmed
    ..This single construct is consistent with a wide array of performance monitoring effects in mPFC and suggests a unifying account of the cognitive role of medial PFC in performance monitoring. ..
  8. Chong J, Liu S, Loke Y, Hilal S, Ikram M, Xu X, et al. Influence of cerebrovascular disease on brain networks in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2017;140:3012-3022 pubmed publisher
  9. Bright H, Babata K, Allred E, Erdei C, Kuban K, Joseph R, et al. Neurocognitive Outcomes at 10 Years of Age in Extremely Preterm Newborns with Late-Onset Bacteremia. J Pediatr. 2017;187:43-49.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..bacteremia performed worse on tests of general cognitive ability, language, academic achievement, and executive function, even after adjustment for potential confounders...

More Information


  1. Szucs D, Devine A, Soltész F, Nobes A, Gabriel F. Cognitive components of a mathematical processing network in 9-year-old children. Dev Sci. 2014;17:506-24 pubmed
    ..Mapping a complex processing network requires that studies consider the complex predictor space of mathematics rather than just focusing on a single or a few explanatory factors. ..
  2. Coderre E, van Heuven W. Modulations of the executive control network by stimulus onset asynchrony in a Stroop task. BMC Neurosci. 2013;14:79 pubmed publisher
    ..SOA exerted both trial-specific and block-wide effects on executive processing, providing a unique paradigm for functional investigations of the cognitive control network. ..
  3. van Dongen Boomsma M, Vollebregt M, Slaats Willemse D, Buitelaar J. [Efficacy of frequency-neurofeedback and Cogmed JM-working memory training in children with ADHD]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2015;57:508-16 pubmed
  4. Wilcox C, Dekonenko C, Mayer A, Bogenschutz M, Turner J. Cognitive control in alcohol use disorder: deficits and clinical relevance. Rev Neurosci. 2014;25:1-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Future work should clarify which aspects of cognitive control are most important to target during treatment of AUD. ..
  5. Sato D, Yamazaki Y, Takahashi A, Uetake Y, Nakano S, Iguchi K, et al. Water immersion decreases sympathetic skin response during color-word Stroop test. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180765 pubmed publisher
    ..Water immersion alters the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response in humans. The effect of water immersion on executive function and ANS responses related to executive function tasks was unknown...
  6. Cutuli J, Herbers J, Lafavor T, Ahumada S, Masten A, Oberg C. Asthma and adaptive functioning among homeless kindergarten-aged children in emergency housing. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2014;25:717-30 pubmed publisher
    ..High rates of asthma remain an important issue for children in emergency family housing, a context with high levels of child risk for toxic stress exposure and developmental problems. ..
  7. Lesage E, Aronson S, Sutherland M, Ross T, Salmeron B, Stein E. Neural Signatures of Cognitive Flexibility and Reward Sensitivity Following Nicotinic Receptor Stimulation in Dependent Smokers: A Randomized Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74:632-640 pubmed publisher
    ..clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00830739. ..
  8. Bezdicek O, Michalec J, Vaneckova M, Klempíř J, Lisková I, Seidl Z, et al. Cognitive sequelae of methanol poisoning involve executive dysfunction and memory impairment in cross-sectional and long-term perspective. Alcohol. 2017;59:27-35 pubmed publisher
  9. Chaddock Heyman L, Hillman C, Cohen N, Kramer A. III. The importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for cognitive control and memory in children. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2014;79:25-50 pubmed publisher
    ..An important goal of this review is to emphasize the importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for the cognitive and brain health of today's youth. ..
  10. Côté S, Hamadjida A, Quessy S, Dancause N. Contrasting Modulatory Effects from the Dorsal and Ventral Premotor Cortex on Primary Motor Cortex Outputs. J Neurosci. 2017;37:5960-5973 pubmed publisher
    ..These contrasting patterns of modulation provide a substrate that may allow PMd and PMv to carry distinct functions for the preparation and execution of hand movements and for recovery after brain injury. ..
  11. Fuglestad A, Demerath E, Finsaas M, Moore C, Georgieff M, Carlson S. Maternal executive function, infant feeding responsiveness and infant growth during the first 3 months. Pediatr Obes. 2017;12 Suppl 1:102-110 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine associations between maternal executive function (cognitive control over one's own behaviour), maternal feeding decisions and infant weight and adiposity ..
  12. Muñoz Moreno J, Prats A, Molto J, Garolera M, Perez Alvarez N, Diez Quevedo C, et al. Transdermal rivastigmine for HIV-associated cognitive impairment: A randomized pilot study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182547 pubmed publisher
    ..44. The cognitive domains with the highest positive trends were information processing speed at week 12 and executive function at week 48 (rivastigmine vs control): information processing speed, 0.35 (0.64) vs -0.13 (0.25), p = 0...
  13. Freyschlag C, Kerschbaumer J, Pinggera D, Bacher G, Mur E, Thome C. Structured Evaluation of Glioma Patients by an Occupational Therapist-Is Our Clinical Examination Enough?. World Neurosurg. 2017;103:493-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine clinical examination and neuropsychological evaluation fail to detect mild deficits in sensory function, reactivity, and apraxia, which may have a serious impact on patients' ability to return to their normal lives and work. ..
  14. Ding J, Sigurðsson S, Jonsson P, Eiriksdottir G, Meirelles O, Kjartansson O, et al. Space and location of cerebral microbleeds, cognitive decline, and dementia in the community. Neurology. 2017;88:2089-2097 pubmed publisher
    ..free of prevalent dementia underwent brain MRI and cognitive testing of verbal memory, processing speed, and executive function at baseline and a mean of 5.2 years later...
  15. Garvie P, Brummel S, Allison S, Malee K, Mellins C, Wilkins M, et al. Roles of Medication Responsibility, Executive and Adaptive Functioning in Adherence for Children and Adolescents With Perinatally Acquired HIV. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36:751-757 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that EF and AF develop throughout adolescence, their relationships to adherence should be evaluated longitudinally, especially as youth transition to adulthood and caregiver responsibility diminishes. ..
  16. Tsukamoto H, Suga T, Takenaka S, Takeuchi T, Tanaka D, Hamaoka T, et al. An acute bout of localized resistance exercise can rapidly improve inhibitory control. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184075 pubmed publisher
    The positive effect of acute resistance exercise on executive function, such as inhibitory control (IC), is poorly understood. Several previous studies have demonstrated this effect using whole-body resistance exercise...
  17. Gawłowska Sawosz M, Pawełczyk A, Gębski P, Pawełczyk T, Strzelecki D, Rabe Jabłońska J. Evaluation of white matter structure changes, as assessed in tractography, and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with early onset schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives. Psychiatr Pol. 2017;51:735-750 pubmed publisher
  18. Karssemeijer E, Bossers W, Aaronson J, Kessels R, Olde Rikkert M. The effect of an interactive cycling training on cognitive functioning in older adults with mild dementia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Geriatr. 2017;17:73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study will provide novel information on the effects of an interactive cycling training on executive function in older adults with mild dementia...
  19. Shelton A, Cornish K, Godler D, Bui Q, Kolbe S, Fielding J. White matter microstructure, cognition, and molecular markers in fragile X premutation females. Neurology. 2017;88:2080-2088 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA and the FMR1 exon 1/intron 1 boundary methylation, white matter microstructure, and executive function, in women with a FMR1 premutation expansion (PM; 55-199 CGG repeats) and controls (CGG < 44)...
  20. Klaasen N, Kos C, Aleman A, Opmeer E. Apathy is related to reduced activation in cognitive control regions during set-shifting. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017;38:2722-2733 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the idea that alterations in the neural basis of cognitive control, especially cognitive set-shifting, may contribute to apathy. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2722-2733, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  21. Brieant A, Holmes C, Deater Deckard K, King Casas B, Kim Spoon J. Household chaos as a context for intergenerational transmission of executive functioning. J Adolesc. 2017;58:40-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings suggest that household chaos may be a risk factor that compounds influences of poor parent EF and compromises adolescent EF development. ..
  22. Zelazo P, Anderson J, Richler J, Wallner Allen K, Beaumont J, Weintraub S. II. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring executive function and attention. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2013;78:16-33 pubmed publisher
    In this chapter, we discuss two measures designed to assess executive function (EF) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) and report pediatric data from the validation study...
  23. Begemann M, Daalman K, Heringa S, Schutte M, Sommer I. Letter to the Editor: Childhood trauma as a risk factor for psychosis: the confounding role of cognitive functioning. Psychol Med. 2016;46:1115-8 pubmed publisher
  24. Fabes J, Matthews L, Filippini N, Talbot K, Jenkinson M, Turner M. Quantitative FLAIR MRI in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Acad Radiol. 2017;24:1187-1194 pubmed publisher
    ..The rate of change of FLAIR within CST correlated with rate of decline in executive function and ALS functional rating score...
  25. Niemann C, Godde B, Staudinger U, Voelcker Rehage C. Exercise-induced changes in basal ganglia volume and cognition in older adults. Neuroscience. 2014;281:147-63 pubmed publisher
    ..a whole, but also separately for putamen and globus pallidus) on the relationship between motor fitness and executive function was revealed. Coordination training increased caudate and globus pallidus volume...
  26. Beydoun M, Tajuddin S, Dore G, Canas J, Beydoun H, Evans M, et al. Vitamin D Receptor and Megalin Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Longitudinal Cognitive Change among African-American Urban Adults. J Nutr. 2017;147:1048-1062 pubmed publisher
    ..gene variations can alter age-related cognitive trajectories differentially between men and women among AA urban adults, specifically in global mental status and domains of verbal fluency, visual/working memory, and executive function.
  27. Boyer T, Maouene J, Sethuraman N. Attention to body-parts varies with visual preference and verb-effector associations. Cogn Process. 2017;18:195-203 pubmed publisher
  28. Wheeler A, Raspa M, Hagerman R, Mailick M, Riley C. Implications of the FMR1 Premutation for Children, Adolescents, Adults, and Their Families. Pediatrics. 2017;139:S172-S182 pubmed publisher
  29. Demakakos P, Muniz Terrera G, Nouwen A. Type 2 diabetes, depressive symptoms and trajectories of cognitive decline in a national sample of community-dwellers: A prospective cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175827 pubmed publisher
    ..the individual and synergistic effects of type 2 diabetes and elevated depressive symptoms on memory and executive function trajectories over 10 and eight years of follow-up, respectively...
  30. Koopmann T, Steggemann Weinrich Y, Baumeister J, Krause D. Mental Rotation of Tactical Instruction Displays Affects Information Processing Demand and Execution Accuracy in Basketball. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2017;88:365-370 pubmed publisher
    ..According to these results, coaches should align their tactic boards to their players' on-court viewing perspective. ..
  31. Henriksson P, Cuenca Garcia M, Labayen I, Esteban Cornejo I, Henriksson H, Kersting M, et al. Diet quality and attention capacity in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Br J Nutr. 2017;117:1587-1595 pubmed publisher
    ..Intervention studies investigating a causal relationship between diet quality and attention are warranted. ..
  32. Torres I, Kozicky J, Popuri S, Bond D, Honer W, Lam R, et al. 12-month longitudinal cognitive functioning in patients recently diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2014;16:159-71 pubmed
    ..of multiple domains including processing speed, attention, verbal and nonverbal memory, working memory, and executive function. Patients also received clinical assessments, including mood ratings...
  33. Lal B, Dux M, Sikdar S, Goldstein C, Khan A, Yokemick J, et al. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis is associated with cognitive impairment. J Vasc Surg. 2017;66:1083-1092 pubmed publisher
    ..02; d = 0.42) and motor/processing speed (P = .01; d = 0.65), whereas scores for executive function were numerically lower (P = .08). Approximately 49...
  34. Ghahremani A, Rastogi A, Lam S. The role of right anterior insula and salience processing in inhibitory control. J Neurosci. 2015;35:3291-2 pubmed publisher
  35. Topiwala A, Allan C, Valkanova V, Zsoldos E, Filippini N, Sexton C, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption as risk factor for adverse brain outcomes and cognitive decline: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ. 2017;357:j2353 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the recent reduction in alcohol guidance in the UK and question the current limits recommended in the US. ..
  36. Bharmal A, Kent B, Bussey T, Saksida L. Performance of transgenic TgTau-P301L mice in a 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) as a model of Alzheimer's disease. Psychiatr Danub. 2015;27 Suppl 1:S515-25 pubmed
    ..is to observe if tau pathology in the TgTauP301L mice causes a cognitive impairment in attention and executive function and at what stage this can be identified by the 5-CSRTT task...
  37. Powell D, McMinn D, Allan J. Does real time variability in inhibitory control drive snacking behavior? An intensive longitudinal study. Health Psychol. 2017;36:356-364 pubmed publisher
    Laboratory eating studies and cross-sectional surveys indicate individuals with inefficient executive function (EF) consume more unhealthy snacks than others...
  38. Costa D, Miranda D, Burnett A, Doyle L, Cheong J, Anderson P. Executive Function and Academic Outcomes in Children Who Were Extremely Preterm. Pediatrics. 2017;140: pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the individual stability of behavioral executive function (EF) from 8 to 18 years of age in children born EP or ELBW and their academic outcomes...
  39. Clancy K, Ding M, Bernat E, Schmidt N, Li W. Restless 'rest': intrinsic sensory hyperactivity and disinhibition in post-traumatic stress disorder. Brain. 2017;140:2041-2050 pubmed publisher
  40. Sherrington C, Henschke N. Why does exercise reduce falls in older people? Unrecognised contributions to motor control and cognition?. Br J Sports Med. 2013;47:730-1 pubmed publisher
  41. Lohner V, Brookes R, Hollocks M, Morris R, Markus H. Apathy, but not depression, is associated with executive dysfunction in cerebral small vessel disease. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176943 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening for apathy should be considered in SVD, and further work is required to develop and evaluate effective apathy treatment or management in SVD. ..
  42. Wagner K, Wethe J, Schulze Bonhage A, Trippel M, Rekate H, Prigatano G, et al. Cognition in epilepsy patients with hypothalamic hamartomas. Epilepsia. 2017;58 Suppl 2:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher levels of presurgical performance were significant predictors of cognitive decline after surgery. These results are highly relevant for patient consultation and may help with therapeutic decisions. ..
  43. Malmstrom T, Morley J. The frail brain. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013;14:453-5 pubmed publisher
  44. López Vicente M, Garcia Aymerich J, Torrent Pallicer J, Forns J, Ibarluzea J, Lertxundi N, et al. Are Early Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors Related to Working Memory at 7 and 14 Years of Age?. J Pediatr. 2017;188:35-41.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..High sedentary behavior levels at primary school age were related negatively to working memory in adolescent boys. ..
  45. Foster C, Kennedy K, Rodrigue K. Differential Aging Trajectories of Modulation of Activation to Cognitive Challenge in APOE ?4 Groups: Reduced Modulation Predicts Poorer Cognitive Performance. J Neurosci. 2017;37:6894-6901 pubmed publisher
  46. Borella E, Carretti B, Mitolo M, Zavagnin M, Caffarra P, Mammarella N, et al. Characterizing cognitive inhibitory deficits in mild cognitive impairment. Psychiatry Res. 2017;251:342-348 pubmed publisher
    ..This pattern of findings suggests that MCI is associated with specific inhibition problems.ty. ..
  47. Rabinovici G, Stephens M, Possin K. Executive dysfunction. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2015;21:646-59 pubmed publisher
    ..provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice...
  48. Perrone Bertolotti M, Tassin M, Meunier F. Speech-in-speech perception and executive function involvement. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180084 pubmed publisher
    This present study investigated the link between speech-in-speech perception capacities and four executive function components: response suppression, inhibitory control, switching and working memory...
  49. Abrahams S. Executive dysfunction in ALS is not the whole story. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84:474-5 pubmed publisher
  50. López Caneda E, Rodríguez Holguín S, Correas A, Carbia C, González Villar A, Maestu F, et al. Binge drinking affects brain oscillations linked to motor inhibition and execution. J Psychopharmacol. 2017;31:873-882 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, these results are the first to evidence that oscillatory brain activity may be a sensitive indicator of underlying brain anomalies in young BDs, which could complement standard event-related potential measures. ..
  51. Toglia J, Lahav O, Ben Ari E, Kizony R. Adult Age and Cultural Differences in Performance on the Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA). Am J Occup Ther. 2017;71:7105270010p1-7105270010p8 pubmed publisher
    ..Practitioners should consider these factors when screening people for occupational performance difficulties. ..
  52. Grieco J, Pulsifer M, Seligsohn K, Skotko B, Schwartz A. Down syndrome: Cognitive and behavioral functioning across the lifespan. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2015;169:135-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Awareness of this profile by professionals and caregivers can promote early detection and support cognitive and behavioral development. ..
  53. Esbensen A, Hooper S, FIDLER D, Hartley S, Edgin J, d Ardhuy X, et al. Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials in Down Syndrome. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2017;122:247-281 pubmed publisher
    ..This article focuses on measures in the areas of cognition and behavior. ..
  54. Cheung Y, Brinkman T, Mulrooney D, Mzayek Y, Liu W, Banerjee P, et al. Impact of sleep, fatigue, and systemic inflammation on neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer. 2017;123:3410-3419 pubmed publisher
    ..Survivors performed worse than population norms on executive function and processing speed and reported more behavioral problems (P < .05 adjusted for multiple comparison)...
  55. Sebastian A, Rössler K, Wibral M, Mobascher A, Lieb K, Jung P, et al. Neural Architecture of Selective Stopping Strategies: Distinct Brain Activity Patterns Are Associated with Attentional Capture But Not with Outright Stopping. J Neurosci. 2017;37:9785-9794 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, when studying attentional processing of salient stop signals, strategic differences should be considered. In contrast, the neural networks implementing outright stopping seem less or not at all affected by strategic differences. ..
  56. Saa J, Doherty M, Young A, Spiers M, Leary E, Wolf T. Development and Alternate Form Reliability of the Complex Task Performance Assessment (CTPA) for People With Mild Stroke. Am J Occup Ther. 2017;71:7103190030p1-7103190030p7 pubmed publisher
    ..Current performance-based assessments for mild stroke can detect mild impairments in executive function but lack alternate forms to be used as outcome measures...
  57. Scarpina F, Mauro A, D Aniello G, Albani G, Castelnuovo G, Ambiel E, et al. Cognitive Estimation in Non-demented Parkinson's Disease. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2017;32:381-390 pubmed publisher
    ..Performance on the CET was significantly related to performance on a global measure of executive function, processing speed and arithmetic...
  58. Sanders M, Shirk S, Burgin C, Martin L. The gargle effect: rinsing the mouth with glucose enhances self-control. Psychol Sci. 2012;23:1470-2 pubmed publisher
  59. Colligan S, Koven N. Interference Resolution in Emotional Working Memory as a Function of Alexithymia. Am J Psychol. 2015;128:337-45 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, although alexithymia does not influence executive control in WM for nonemotional items, alexithymic people demonstrate an idiosyncratic response to positive stimuli that might indicate blunted reactivity. ..
  60. Boots E, Schultz S, Clark L, Racine A, Darst B, Koscik R, et al. BDNF Val66Met predicts cognitive decline in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention. Neurology. 2017;88:2098-2106 pubmed publisher
    ..AD risk, carriage of the BDNF Met allele was associated with steeper decline in episodic memory and executive function. This decline was exacerbated by greater A? burden...
  61. Marques J. The role of feature sharedness in the hierarchical organization of semantic knowledge. Behav Neurol. 2013;26:203-5 pubmed publisher
  62. Kable J, Caulfield M, Falcone M, McConnell M, Bernardo L, Parthasarathi T, et al. No Effect of Commercial Cognitive Training on Brain Activity, Choice Behavior, or Cognitive Performance. J Neurosci. 2017;37:7390-7402 pubmed publisher
    ..a commercial web-based cognitive training program or web-based video games that do not specifically target executive function or adapt the level of difficulty throughout training...
  63. Orlov N, O Daly O, Tracy D, Daniju Y, Hodsoll J, Valdearenas L, et al. Stimulating thought: a functional MRI study of transcranial direct current stimulation in schizophrenia. Brain. 2017;140:2490-2497 pubmed publisher
    ..typically suffer a range of cognitive deficits, including prominent deficits in working memory and executive function. These difficulties are strongly predictive of functional outcomes, but there is a paucity of effective ..
  64. Liverant G, Amick M, Black S, Esterman M, Wisco B, Gibian M, et al. Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Substance Use, and Affective Attentional Processing in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2017;205:725-731 pubmed publisher
    ..No effects of valence were found. Findings suggest the need to consider co-occurring SUD when investigating the effects of PTSD on attentional control...
  65. Castronovo V, Scifo P, Castellano A, Aloia M, Iadanza A, Marelli S, et al. White matter integrity in obstructive sleep apnea before and after treatment. Sleep. 2014;37:1465-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Recovery of cognitive deficits after treatment is consistent with the presence of a reversible structural neural injury in OSA in patients who were compliant with treatment. ..
  66. Salas C, Radovic D, Yuen K, Yeates G, Castro O, Turnbull O. "Opening an emotional dimension in me": changes in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation in a case of executive impairment after left fronto-parietal damage. Bull Menninger Clin. 2014;78:301-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are discussed in relation to the literature on executive function and emotion regulation...
  67. Palermo L, Geberhiwot T, MacDonald A, Limback E, Hall S, Romani C. Cognitive outcomes in early-treated adults with phenylketonuria (PKU): A comprehensive picture across domains. Neuropsychology. 2017;31:255-267 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate good outcomes, but also that deficits are still present with current treatment policies. (PsycINFO Database Record ..
  68. Jenni N, Larkin J, Floresco S. Prefrontal Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors Regulate Dissociable Aspects of Decision Making via Distinct Ventral Striatal and Amygdalar Circuits. J Neurosci. 2017;37:6200-6213 pubmed publisher
  69. Brenowitz W, Hubbard R, Keene C, Hawes S, Longstreth W, Woltjer R, et al. Mixed neuropathologies and associations with domain-specific cognitive decline. Neurology. 2017;89:1773-1781 pubmed publisher
    ..Standardized z scores in memory, attention, language, and executive function were derived from neuropsychological test scores assessed at each annual visit...
  70. Li J, O Connor H, O Dwyer N, Orr R. The effect of acute and chronic exercise on cognitive function and academic performance in adolescents: A systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20:841-848 pubmed publisher
    ..Ten papers (11 studies) were reviewed. Cognitive domains included: executive function (n=4), memory (n=4), attention/concentration (n=2), visuo-motor speed (n=1), logical sequencing (n=1) and ..
  71. Soni A, Singh P, Shah R, Bagotia S. Impact of Cognition and Clinical Factors on Functional Outcome in Patients with Bipolar Disorder. East Asian Arch Psychiatry. 2017;27:26-34 pubmed
    ..Long-term therapeutic interventions should target relapse prevention with special consideration given to depressive episodes and cognitive rehabilitation. ..
  72. Vlagsma T, Koerts J, Tucha O, Dijkstra H, Duits A, van Laar T, et al. Objective Versus Subjective Measures of Executive Functions: Predictors of Participation and Quality of Life in Parkinson Disease?. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;98:2181-2187 pubmed publisher
    ..However, within this context, sex needs to be taken into account. ..
  73. Oehr L, Anderson J. Diffusion-Tensor Imaging Findings and Cognitive Function Following Hospitalized Mixed-Mechanism Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;98:2308-2319 pubmed publisher
    ..001; mean diffusivity [MD]: d=-.407, P=.001), memory (FA: d=.347, P<.001; MD: d=-.568, P<.001), and executive function (FA: d=.246, P<.05), which persisted beyond 1 month postinjury...
  74. Siffredi V, Barrouillet P, Spencer Smith M, Vaessen M, Anderson V, Vuilleumier P. Examining distinct working memory processes in children and adolescents using fMRI: Results and validation of a modified Brown-Peterson paradigm. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179959 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a novel paradigm to investigate distinct WM brain systems with reliable results across a wide age range in developmental populations, and suitable for participants with different WM capacities. ..
  75. Malee K, Chernoff M, Sirois P, Williams P, Garvie P, Kammerer B, et al. Impact of Perinatally Acquired HIV Disease Upon Longitudinal Changes in Memory and Executive Functioning. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;75:455-464 pubmed publisher
    ..Youth with PHIV demonstrated stable memory and EF during a 2-year period of adolescence, allowing cautious optimism regarding long-term outcomes. ..
  76. Iyasere O, Brown E. Cognitive function before and after dialysis initiation in adults with chronic kidney disease-a new perspective on an old problem?. Kidney Int. 2017;91:784-786 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study and found that dialysis initiation was associated with a decline in executive function. This is consistent with a cerebrovascular basis for cognitive impairment in patients with renal disease...
  77. Humby T, Fisher A, Allen C, Reynolds M, Hartman A, Giegling I, et al. A genetic variant within STS previously associated with inattention in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with enhanced cognition in healthy adult males. Brain Behav. 2017;7:e00646 pubmed publisher
    ..As reaction time variability is a predictor of well-being, rs17268988 genotype may represent a biomarker for long-term health. ..
  78. Yang S, Hua P, Shang X, Hu R, Mo X, Pan X. Predictors of early post ischemic stroke apathy and depression: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:164 pubmed publisher
    ..FAB) and Stroop Color-Word Association Test were employed to evaluate emotion, cognitive function and executive function. The patients were divided into two groups: the apathy group and the non-apathy group...
  79. Chung C, Pollock A, Campbell T, Durward B, Hagen S. Cognitive rehabilitation for executive dysfunction in adults with stroke or other adult nonprogressive acquired brain damage. Stroke. 2013;44:e77-8 pubmed publisher
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    ..Scholastic performance and aspects of executive function improved when both interventions were provided. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials...
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