gifted child


Summary: A child or adolescent who, when compared to others of the same age or experience, exhibits capability of high performance in intellectual, creative, or artistic areas, possesses an unusual capacity for leadership or excels in specific academic fields. (From PL 100-297, Sec. 4103, Definitions)

Top Publications

  1. Jenkins J. Prodigies of nature. J R Soc Med. 2005;98:277-80 pubmed
  2. Ziegler E, Scott B, Taylor R. Effects of guidance intervention on perceived school behavior and personal self-concept: a preliminary study. Psychol Rep. 1991;68:50 pubmed
    ..The treated group also significantly improved on self-reported measures of self-concept and perceived school behavior. Teachers reported less acting out and improved compliance. ..
  3. Lovett B, Lewandowski L. Gifted students with learning disabilities: who are they?. J Learn Disabil. 2006;39:515-27 pubmed
    ..Specific recommendations for future research and implications for current clinical practice are discussed. ..
  4. Vanmeerbeek M, Van Onckelen S, Boüüaert C, Burette P. [Gifted children and the family physician]. Presse Med. 2006;35:86-90 pubmed
    ..GP's are involved in long-term support of children and families, and in treatment of related disorders: depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and somatization. Drug therapy has a very limited role in treatment of related disorders. ..
  5. Osborne M, Kenny D. Development and validation of a music performance anxiety inventory for gifted adolescent musicians. J Anxiety Disord. 2005;19:725-51 pubmed
    ..It is hoped that the MPAI-A, as the first empirically validated measure of adolescent musicians' performance anxiety, will enhance and promote phenomenological and treatment research in this area. ..
  6. Vida J. Treating the "wise baby". Am J Psychoanal. 2005;65:3-12 pubmed
  7. Tordjman S. [Focus on difficulties encountered by gifted children]. Arch Pediatr. 2007;14:685-7 pubmed
  8. Shaunessy E, Karnes F, Cobb Y. Assessing potentially gifted students from lower socioeconomic status with nonverbal measures of intelligence. Percept Mot Skills. 2004;98:1129-38 pubmed
    ..A discussion of the results and implications for research are presented. ..
  9. Drake J, Redash A, Coleman K, Haimson J, Winner E. 'Autistic' local processing bias also found in children gifted in realistic drawing. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40:762-73 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. McCrae R, Costa P, Terracciano A, Parker W, Mills C, De Fruyt F, et al. Personality trait development from age 12 to age 18: longitudinal, cross-sectional, and cross-cultural analyses. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2002;83:1456-68 pubmed
    ..Results extend knowledge of the developmental curve of personality traits backward from adulthood and help bridge the gap with child temperament studies. ..
  2. Preckel F, Gotz T, Frenzel A. Ability grouping of gifted students: effects on academic self-concept and boredom. Br J Educ Psychol. 2010;80:451-72 pubmed publisher
    ..However, students clearly differed in the reasons they stated for experiencing boredom. Boredom attributions changed over time and supported the assumption that gifted classes provide more appropriate levels of challenge. ..
  3. Haworth C, Dale P, Plomin R. Generalist genes and high cognitive abilities. Behav Genet. 2009;39:437-45 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a smaller proportion of the phenotypic intercorrelations appears to be explained by genetic influences for high abilities. ..
  4. Strong C. Lost in translation: religious arguments made secular. Am J Bioeth. 2005;5:29-31; discussion W4-9 pubmed
  5. Moon S, Hall A. Family therapy with intellectually and creatively gifted children. J Marital Fam Ther. 1998;24:59-80 pubmed
    ..Finally, we suggest an eclectic, eco-systemic approach to three common concerns that bring gifted children and their families to therapy. ..
  6. Arffa S. The relationship of intelligence to executive function and non-executive function measures in a sample of average, above average, and gifted youth. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22:969-78 pubmed
    ..MANCOVA's show gifted children outperformed other children on the executive but not the non-executive tests. Finally, the nature of the neuropsychological/IQ relationship was explored by further analyses. ..
  7. Hull Blanks E, Kerr B, Robinson Kurpius S. Risk factors of suicidal ideations and attempts in talented, at-risk girls. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2004;34:267-76 pubmed
    ..Girls without suicide histories were also more likely to come from single mother families. Consideration of these factors, by both researchers and clinicians, in assessing suicide risk is encouraged. ..
  8. Peterson M, Balzarini D, Bodner M, Jones E, Phillips T, Richardson D, et al. Innate spatial-temporal reasoning and the identification of genius. Neurol Res. 2004;26:2-8 pubmed
    ..A third grader has been identified as a genius (functionally defined) in ST performance. Big Seed may be used for training and assessing 'creativity' (functionally defined) and ST reasoning as well as discovering genius. ..
  9. Ferriman K, Lubinski D, Benbow C. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2009;97:517-32 pubmed publisher
  10. Fitzgerald M. Asperger's disorder and mathematicians of genius. J Autism Dev Disord. 2002;32:59-60 pubmed
  11. Paul P. Elementary-aged children's aesthetic experiences with music. J Music Ther. 2008;45:135-46 pubmed
    ..Additional analyses, which compared responses based on developmental statuses, found a wide range of correlations between children who were categorized as normally developing, gifted, or having special needs. ..
  12. Mandell D, Eleey C, Cederbaum J, Noll E, Hutchinson M, Jemmott L, et al. Sexually transmitted infection among adolescents receiving special education services. J Sch Health. 2008;78:382-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Terrassier J. [Intellectually precocious children]. Arch Pediatr. 2009;16:1603-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to help them manage their abilities linked to their intelligence, it matters firstly to identify and recognize them as precocious to help them fully express their personality and achieve their full potential. ..
  14. McCullough M, Enders C, Brion S, Jain A. The varieties of religious development in adulthood: a longitudinal investigation of religion and rational choice. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005;89:78-89 pubmed
    ..Gender, strength of religious upbringing, number of children, marrying, and agreeableness predicted membership in the trajectory classes. Results were largely consistent with the rational choice theory of religious involvement. ..
  15. Wiederholt J, Rees F. A description of the comprehensive test of nonverbal intelligence. J Child Neurol. 1998;13:224-8 pubmed
    ..The CTONI has been proven to be unbiased with regard to gender, minority, or disabling condition. Finally, it is possible to estimate the intelligence of people without the contamination of social, ethnic, or disability bias. ..
  16. Swanson H. Cognitive processes that underlie mathematical precociousness in young children. J Exp Child Psychol. 2006;93:239-64 pubmed
  17. Morawska A, Sanders M. Parenting gifted and talented children: what are the key child behaviour and parenting issues?. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:819-27 pubmed publisher
    ..There are a number of implications for future research, clinical practice, and the development of parenting interventions for this group of parents. ..
  18. Goetz T, Preckel F, Zeidner M, Schleyer E. Big fish in big ponds: a multilevel analysis of test anxiety and achievement in special gifted classes. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2008;21:185-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, in line with our theoretical assumptions, achievement/anxiety relations were largely mediated by the effects of academic self-concept. ..
  19. Ashcroft R, Gui K. Ethics and world pictures in Kamm on enhancement. Am J Bioeth. 2005;5:19-20; discussion W4-9 pubmed
  20. Kirkpatrick R, McGue M, Iacono W. Shared-environmental contributions to high cognitive ability. Behav Genet. 2009;39:406-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss these results in terms of the need for cognitive-development research to combine genetically sensitive designs and modern statistical methods with broad, thorough environmental measurement. ..
  21. Muñoz Yunta J, Ortiz Alonso T, Amo C, Fernandez Lucas A, Maestu F, Palau Baduell M. [Savant or idiot savant syndrome]. Rev Neurol. 2003;36 Suppl 1:S157-61 pubmed
    ..The latest contributions made by Positron Emission Tomography and magnetoencephalography will be discussed and a mini-video of a personal case will be projected. ..
  22. Lubinski D. Exceptional cognitive ability: the phenotype. Behav Genet. 2009;39:350-8 pubmed publisher
  23. Hoard M, Geary D, Byrd Craven J, Nugent L. Mathematical cognition in intellectually precocious first graders. Dev Neuropsychol. 2008;33:251-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Individual differences analyses revealed that each of the three components of working memory contributed to different aspects of skilled performance on the mathematics tasks. ..
  24. Alborzi S, Ostovar S. Thinking styles of gifted and nongifted students in Iran. Psychol Rep. 2007;100:1076-82 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of the previous research and thinking styles model proposed by Sternberg in 1997. ..
  25. Jin S, Kwon Y, Jeong J, Kwon S, Shin D. Differences in brain information transmission between gifted and normal children during scientific hypothesis generation. Brain Cogn. 2006;62:191-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that gifted children more efficiently distribute the cognitive resources essential to cope with hypothesis generation. ..
  26. Dmitrieva E, Gel man V, Zaitseva K, Orlov A. Ontogenetic features of the psychophysiological mechanisms of perception of the emotional component of speech in musically gifted children. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2006;36:53-62 pubmed
  27. Hyllegard R. Parental attribution of artistic ability in talented children. Percept Mot Skills. 2000;91:1134-44 pubmed
    ..Alternative explanations for achievement, including deliberate practice theory, are discussed. ..
  28. Robinson N, Zigler E, Gallagher J. Two tails of the normal curve. Similarities and differences in the study of mental retardation and giftedness. Am Psychol. 2000;55:1413-24 pubmed
    ..Current social inequalities affect both of these fields in particular ways. Finally, numerous research agendas can be enhanced by including representatives of both ends of the normal curve. ..
  29. Haworth C, Wright M, Martin N, Martin N, Boomsma D, Bartels M, et al. A twin study of the genetics of high cognitive ability selected from 11,000 twin pairs in six studies from four countries. Behav Genet. 2009;39:359-70 pubmed publisher
    ..41-0.60). Shared environmental influences were moderate (0.28, 0.19-0.37). We conclude that genetic variation contributes substantially to high g in Australia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. ..
  30. Martin N, Hansell N, Wainwright M, Shekar S, Medland S, Bates T, et al. Genetic covariation between theAuthor Recognition Test and reading and verbal abilities: what can we learn from the analysis of high performance?. Behav Genet. 2009;39:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a distinct genetic etiology for high ART ability and we speculate that the specific genetic influence is on orthographical processing, a critical factor in developing word recognition skills. ..
  31. Buchanan A. Enhancement and the ethics of development. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2008;18:1-34 pubmed
    ..Appreciating the productivity-increasing potential of enhancements also makes it possible to view the enhancement debate in a new light, through the lens of the ethics of development. ..
  32. Lewis J. Scores on self-actualization for gifted junior high school students. Psychol Rep. 1996;79:59-64 pubmed
    ..Scores on the Maslowian Scale Fundamentals and Self-actualization subscales and Personal Orientation Inventory were not different for any group. Correlations among the three measures of self-actualization are presented. ..
  33. Siaud Facchin J. [Who are exactly giften children?]. Arch Pediatr. 2007;14:683-4 pubmed
  34. Calmettes Jean S, Bergès Bounes M. [Management of a gifted child]. Arch Pediatr. 2003;10:738-41 pubmed
  35. Fletcher Flinn C, Thompson G. A mechanism of implicit lexicalized phonological recoding used concurrently with underdeveloped explicit letter-sound skills in both precocious and normal reading development. Cognition. 2004;90:303-35 pubmed
    ..A mechanism of implicit lexicalized phonological recoding is involved which explains the dissociation of skills in both the precocious reader and normally developing readers. ..
  36. Tordjman S. [Gifted children in difficulty: from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to depression and school failure]. Rev Med Suisse. 2006;2:533-4, 536-7 pubmed
    ..Several hypotheses concerning this idea will be then discussed, notably concerning their therapeutic implications. ..
  37. Grandin T. Label of 'autism' could hold back gifted children. Nature. 2004;430:399 pubmed
  38. Alexander J, O Boyle M, Benbow C. Developmentally advanced EEG alpha power in gifted male and female adolescents. Int J Psychophysiol. 1996;23:25-31 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that gifted adolescents may have a developmentally enhanced state of brain activity, one that more closely resembles that of college-age adults to whom they also resemble in terms of cognitive development. ..
  39. Yousefi F. Levels of emotional awareness scale among Iranian gifted and nongifted high school students. Psychol Rep. 2004;95:504-6 pubmed
    ..The mean score on emotional awareness of gifted girls was significantly lower than that of nongifted girls. Potential implications of these findings are offered. ..
  40. Ceci S, Papierno P. The rhetoric and reality of gap closing: when the "have-nots" gain but the "haves" gain even more . Am Psychol. 2005;60:149-60 pubmed
    ..This article is a first step in bringing this dilemma to the attention of scholars and policymakers and prodding a national discussion. ..
  41. Fehm L, Schmidt K. Performance anxiety in gifted adolescent musicians. J Anxiety Disord. 2006;20:98-109 pubmed
    ..Unfavorable coping strategies, such as drug or alcohol abuse were rarely reported. Most pupils called for more support either from their teachers or from outside of school to cope with their anxiety. ..
  42. Gordon N. Unexpected development of artistic talents. Postgrad Med J. 2005;81:753-5 pubmed
    ..Ways in which this may operate in both groups are reviewed. ..
  43. Robertson P. What is musical genius?. Clin Med (Lond). 2008;8:178-81 pubmed
    ..Child prodigies and savants are discussed as well as traditional associations that suggest that depression and the melancholic personality have particular relevance in musical creativity and originality. ..
  44. Vinkhuyzen A, van der Sluis S, Posthuma D, Boomsma D. The heritability of aptitude and exceptional talent across different domains in adolescents and young adults. Behav Genet. 2009;39:380-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic factors contribute to a large extent to variation in aptitude and talent across different domains of intellectual, creative, and sports abilities. ..
  45. Borg H. Alternative method of gifted identification using the AMI: an apparatus for measuring internal meridians and their corresponding organs. J Altern Complement Med. 2003;9:861-7 pubmed
    ..The accuracy found in this current study using the AMI as a screening tool to detect giftedness is promising, however, further studies will need to be conducted to see if the findings can be replicated. ..
  46. Lewens T. Enhancement and human nature: the case of Sandel. J Med Ethics. 2009;35:354-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Sandel succeeds in diagnosing an important worry we may have about the use of some enhancements by some parents, but his arguments are better understood as opposing "procrustean parenting" rather than enhancement in general. ..
  47. Gere D, Capps S, Mitchell D, Grubbs E. Sensory sensitivities of gifted children. Am J Occup Ther. 2009;63:288-95; discussion 296-300 pubmed
    ..These findings further support that gifted children may have important sensory modulation differences and add to our understanding of gifted children. ..
  48. Tseng M, Fang D, Lee M, Chie W, Liu J, Chen W. Two-phase survey of eating disorders in gifted dance and non-dance high-school students in Taiwan. Psychol Med. 2007;37:1085-96 pubmed
    ..EDs were more prevalent in the weight-concerned subpopulation. Although AN is still rare, BN has emerged as a comparable prevalent disorder in Taiwan, as in Western countries. ..
  49. Jin S, Kim S, Park K, Lee K. Differences in EEG between gifted and average students: neural complexity and functional cluster analysis. Int J Neurosci. 2007;117:1167-84 pubmed
    ..One of the notable characteristics of gifted students' FC map is the dominance of the right hemisphere compared with that of average students, and it is accordance with the characteristics of gifted brain. ..
  50. Liu Y, Lien J, Kafka T, Stein M. Discovering gifted children in pediatric practice. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2005;26:366-9 pubmed
  51. Gendrel D. [Gifted children or children at risk?]. Presse Med. 2006;35:84-5 pubmed
  52. Kostogianni N, Andronikof A. [Self-esteem, self-centeredness and social-emotional adjustment of gifted children and adolescents]. Encephale. 2009;35:417-22 pubmed publisher
    ..High self-esteem associated to excessive self-concern has less beneficial effects on adjustment than high self-esteem associated to low self-concern. ..
  53. Liermann H. [Psychological school counseling]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2003;52:266-78 pubmed
    ..Working within these contexts, linking them and using solution-oriented an resource-oriented methods is presented as a primary goal of school-counselling. ..