Genomes and Genes
Summary: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.
- Schindler S, Ortner R, Peternell A, Eder H, Opgenoorth E, Fischer G. Maintenance therapy with synthetic opioids and driving aptitude. Eur Addict Res. 2004;10:80-7 pubmedTo assess the influence of methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment on the driving aptitude of opioid-dependent patients. Prospective, open label, outpatient maintenance, single-blind (investigator) study...
- Bull R, Espy K, Wiebe S. Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years. Dev Neuropsychol. 2008;33:205-28 pubmed publisher..The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to further understanding the role of cognitive skills in different mathematical tasks, and in relation to the impact of limited cognitive skills in the classroom environment. ..
- Kovas Y, Haworth C, Petrill S, Plomin R. Mathematical ability of 10-year-old boys and girls: genetic and environmental etiology of typical and low performance. J Learn Disabil. 2007;40:554-67 pubmed..We conclude that low mathematical performance is the quantitative extreme of the same genetic and environmental factors responsible for variation throughout the distribution. ..
- Blair C, Razza R. Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Dev. 2007;78:647-63 pubmed..Findings suggest that curricula designed to improve self-regulation skills as well as enhance early academic abilities may be most effective in helping children succeed in school. ..
- Caspi O, Bell I. One size does not fit all: aptitude x treatment interaction (ATI) as a conceptual framework for complementary and alternative medicine outcome research. Part 1--what is ATI research?. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10:580-6 pubmed..quot;which treatment is the best?" but more importantly "best or better for whom, when, and why?" Aptitude (or attribute) by treatment interaction (ATI) is a research paradigm that attempts to examine exactly that--how ..
- Lubinski D, Benbow C, Webb R, Bleske Rechek A. Tracking exceptional human capital over two decades. Psychol Sci. 2006;17:194-9 pubmed..College entrance exams administered to intellectually precocious youth uncover extraordinary potential for careers requiring creativity and scientific and technological innovation in the information age. ..
- Jenkins J. Prodigies of nature. J R Soc Med. 2005;98:277-80 pubmed
- Schijven M, Jakimowicz J, Carter F. How to select aspirant laparoscopic surgical trainees: establishing concurrent validity comparing Xitact LS500 index performance scores with standardized psychomotor aptitude test battery scores. J Surg Res. 2004;121:112-9 pubmed..Individual learning curves were computed and patterns were assessed. Participants were examined using the aptitude test battery including the Abstract Reasoning test, the Space Relations test, the Gibson Spiral Maze test, and ..
- Hyde J, Linn M. Diversity. Gender similarities in mathematics and science. Science. 2006;314:599-600 pubmed
- Moreno S, Marques C, Santos A, Santos M, Castro S, Besson M. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:712-23 pubmed publisher..Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain. ..
- Vinkhuyzen A, van der Sluis S, Posthuma D, Boomsma D. The heritability of aptitude and exceptional talent across different domains in adolescents and young adults. Behav Genet. 2009;39:380-92 pubmed publisherThe origin of individual differences in aptitude, defined as a domain-specific skill within the normal ability range, and talent, defined as a domain specific skill of exceptional quality, is under debate...
- Ukkola L, Onkamo P, Raijas P, Karma K, Jarvela I. Musical aptitude is associated with AVPR1A-haplotypes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5534 pubmed publisher..We hypothesized that practicing music is social communication that needs musical aptitude and even creativity in music...
- Milovanov R, Huotilainen M, Esquef P, Alku P, Valimaki V, Tervaniemi M. The role of musical aptitude and language skills in preattentive duration processing in school-aged children. Neurosci Lett. 2009;460:161-5 pubmed publisher..In total, 40 children had either advanced foreign language production skills and higher musical aptitude or less advanced results in both musicality and linguistic tests...
- Caspi O, Bell I. One size does not fit all: aptitude chi treatment interaction (ATI) as a conceptual framework for complementary and alternative medicine outcome research. Part II--research designs and their applications. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10:698-705 pubmed..quot;which treatment is the best?" but more importantly "best or better for whom, when, and why?" Aptitude (or attribute) by treatment interaction (ATI) is a research paradigm that attempts to examine exactly that--how ..
- Cowan N, Elliott E, Scott Saults J, Morey C, Mattox S, Hismjatullina A, et al. On the capacity of attention: its estimation and its role in working memory and cognitive aptitudes. Cogn Psychol. 2005;51:42-100 pubmed..We provide a theoretical framework to understand the relation between WM and aptitude measures...
- Sherar L, Baxter Jones A, Faulkner R, Russell K. Do physical maturity and birth date predict talent in male youth ice hockey players?. J Sports Sci. 2007;25:879-86 pubmed..In conclusion, team selectors appear to preferentially select early maturing male ice hockey players who have birth dates early in the selection year. ..
- Spelke E. Sex differences in intrinsic aptitude for mathematics and science?: a critical review. Am Psychol. 2005;60:950-8 pubmed..learning about mechanical systems; (b) males have a profile of spatial and numerical abilities producing greater aptitude for mathematics; and (c) males are more variable in their cognitive abilities and therefore predominate at the ..
- Wijsman E, Robinson N, Ainsworth K, Rosenthal E, Holzman T, Raskind W. Familial aggregation patterns in mathematical ability. Behav Genet. 2004;34:51-62 pubmed
- Pulli K, Karma K, Norio R, Sistonen P, Göring H, Jarvela I. Genome-wide linkage scan for loci of musical aptitude in Finnish families: evidence for a major locus at 4q22. J Med Genet. 2008;45:451-6 pubmed publisher..The phenotype of all family members was determined using three tests used in defining musical aptitude: a test for auditory structuring ability (Karma Music test; KMT) commonly used in Finland, and the Seashore pitch ..
- Libertus M, Feigenson L, Halberda J. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities. J Exp Child Psychol. 2013;116:829-38 pubmed publisher..These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned nonsymbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematics reasoning that children come to master through instruction. ..
- Defever E, Sasanguie D, Gebuis T, Reynvoet B. Children's representation of symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude examined with the priming paradigm. J Exp Child Psychol. 2011;109:174-86 pubmed publisher..This supports the defective number module hypothesis, which assumes an impairment of number sense. ..
- Rindermann H, Thompson J. Cognitive capitalism: the effect of cognitive ability on wealth, as mediated through scientific achievement and economic freedom. Psychol Sci. 2011;22:754-63 pubmed publisher..Cognitive resources enable the evolution of capitalism and the rise of wealth. ..
- Price G, Wilkey E, Yeo D, Cutting L. The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence. Neuroimage. 2016;124:232-237 pubmed publisher..These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence. ..
- García López O, Burgos Postigo S. Relationship between physical prowess and cognitive function. Span J Psychol. 2012;15:29-34 pubmed..Results show that elite gymnastics people present higher cognitive abilities than amateur sportspeople. It should be relevant in order to clarify the total set of variables involved in sport performance. ..
- Passolunghi M, Lanfranchi S. Domain-specific and domain-general precursors of mathematical achievement: a longitudinal study from kindergarten to first grade. Br J Educ Psychol. 2012;82:42-63 pubmed publisher..Moreover, this study found a direct link between numerical competence and math achievement. Both domain-specific and domain-general factors contribute to determining math achievement at the end of first grade. ..
- Feltz D, Irwin B, KERR N. Two-player partnered exergame for obesity prevention: using discrepancy in players' abilities as a strategy to motivate physical activity. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2012;6:820-7 pubmed..Virtually presented partners who are moderately more capable than participants are the most effective at improving persistence in exergame tasks. ..
- Li Tsang C, Wong A, Chan J, Lee A, Lam M, Wong C, et al. An investigation of visual contour integration ability in relation to writing performance in primary school students. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33:2271-8 pubmed publisher..The results may have important implications for interventions aiming at improving children's handwriting. ..
- Ishimaru D, Ogawa H, Wakahara K, Sumi H, Sumi Y, Shimizu K. Hip pads reduce the overall risk of injuries in recreational snowboarders. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46:1055-8 pubmed publisher..84; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.95), specifically that of distal radial fracture and glenohumeral dislocation. The use of hip pads is recommended for snowboarders as it reduces the overall risk of common snowboarding injuries. ..
- Muller L, Gonaus C, Perner C, Muller E, Raschner C. Maturity status influences the relative age effect in national top level youth alpine ski racing and soccer. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181810 pubmed publisher..In this context, the easy feasible method of assessing the APHV can be used. ..
- Putwain D, Symes W. Achievement goals as mediators of the relationship between competence beliefs and test anxiety. Br J Educ Psychol. 2012;82:207-24 pubmed publisher..Although significant mediating effects were found for mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance goals, they were small and there may be other mechanisms to account for the relations between competence beliefs and test anxiety. ..
- Gutman L, Schoon I, Sabates R. Uncertain aspirations for continuing in education: antecedents and associated outcomes. Dev Psychol. 2012;48:1707-18 pubmed publisher..Gender differences in these processes are also evident: young males not only hold greater uncertainty about continuing in education, the consequences of uncertainty regarding later academic performance are worse for males than females. ..
- Fernandez R, Dror I, Smith C. Spatial abilities of expert clinical anatomists: comparison of abilities between novices, intermediates, and experts in anatomy. Anat Sci Educ. 2011;4:1-8 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that certain spatial cognitive abilities are especially important and characteristic of work needed in clinical anatomy, and that education and experience contribute to further development of these abilities. ..
- Larsson B, Drugli M. School competence and emotional/behavioral problems among Norwegian school children as rated by teachers on the Teacher Report Form. Scand J Psychol. 2011;52:553-9 pubmed publisher..Overall, our findings indicate that teachers in Scandinavia report, just as do parents, relatively low levels of emotional/behavioral problems among school-aged children. ..
- Barnes R, McCabe H. Should we welcome a cure for autism? A survey of the arguments. Med Health Care Philos. 2012;15:255-69 pubmed publisher..Our goal in this essay is to evaluate what assumptions underlie each of these positions. We evaluate the arguments made on each side, reject those that are implausible and then highlight the key assumptions of those that remain. ..
- Towne T, Boot W, Ericsson K. Understanding the structure of skill through a detailed analysis of Individuals' performance on the Space Fortress game. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2016;169:27-37 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that a detailed analysis of individuals' data is an essential step for generating a general theory of skill acquisition that explains improvement at the group and individual levels. ..
- DeLay D, Hanish L, Martin C, Fabes R. Peer effects on Head Start children's preschool competency. Dev Psychol. 2016;52:58-70 pubmed publisher..g., sex and language) and family factors (e.g., financial strain and parent education). Implications for promoting preschool competency among Head Start children are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record ..
- Boorman E, O Doherty J, Adolphs R, Rangel A. The behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying the tracking of expertise. Neuron. 2013;80:1558-71 pubmed publisher..Moreover, activity in lateral orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex reflected behavioral differences in learning about people and algorithms. These findings provide basic insights into the neural basis of social learning. ..
- Ouchinsky M. [The certificate of aptitude for sport]. Rev Med Brux. 2013;34:350-6 pubmed..Despite these precautions, a subit death because of the effort can non totally be avoided. Finally, it must be remembered that the behaviour to have for kid and for elderly person involves certain specificities to know. ..
- Morgan B, D Mello S, Abbott R, Radvansky G, Haass M, Tamplin A. Individual differences in multitasking ability and adaptability. Hum Factors. 2013;55:776-88 pubmed..Scholastic aptitude and working memory predicted general multitasking ability (i.e...
- Jacola L, Byars A, Chalfonte Evans M, Schmithorst V, Hickey F, Patterson B, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of cognitive processing in young adults with Down syndrome. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2011;116:344-59 pubmed publisher..These findings supported the authors' hypothesis that persons with Down syndrome demonstrate atypical neural activation compared with typically developing individuals matched for chronological age. ..
- Simmons F, Willis C, Adams A. Different components of working memory have different relationships with different mathematical skills. J Exp Child Psychol. 2012;111:139-55 pubmed publisher..06). The results are consistent with the VSSP having a role in the development of number writing and magnitude judgments but a lesser role in early arithmetic. ..
- Peiyong Z, Inomata K. Cognitive strategies for goalkeeper responding to soccer penalty kick. Percept Mot Skills. 2012;115:969-83 pubmed..It was inferred that the goalkeepers were more likely to adopt a strategy of relying on situational probabilities in situations where the speed of response is critical. ..
- Currie L, Pisarik C, Ginter E, Glauser A, Hayes C, Smit J. Life-skills as a predictor of academic success: an exploratory study. Psychol Rep. 2012;111:157-64 pubmed..e., Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)] and academic achievement (i.e...
- Peter B. Oral and hand movement speeds are associated with expressive language ability in children with speech sound disorder. J Psycholinguist Res. 2012;41:455-74 pubmed publisher..Results are consistent with limited movement speeds across motor systems and SSD subtypes defined by motor speeds as a corollary of expressive language abilities. ..
- Antila M, Kieseppä T, Partonen T, Lonnqvist J, Tuulio Henriksson A. The effect of processing speed on cognitive functioning in patients with familial bipolar I disorder and their unaffected relatives. Psychopathology. 2011;44:40-5 pubmed publisher..However, it may not be specific to bipolar I disorder and can possibly be considered a shared endophenotype with other mental disorders. ..