reaction time

Summary

Summary: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Speed of processing in the human visual system
    S Thorpe
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau and Cognition, Toulouse, France
    Nature 381:520-2. 1996
  2. ncbi Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control
    John G Kerns
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Science 303:1023-6. 2004
  3. ncbi The mismatch negativity (MMN) in basic research of central auditory processing: a review
    R Naatanen
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Neurophysiol 118:2544-90. 2007
  4. ncbi Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 74:1464-80. 1998
  5. pmc The NimStim set of facial expressions: judgments from untrained research participants
    Nim Tottenham
    Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Psychiatry Res 168:242-9. 2009
  6. ncbi Grounding language in action
    Arthur M Glenberg
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 9:558-65. 2002
  7. ncbi Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices
    Timothy J Buschman
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, and Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 315:1860-2. 2007
  8. ncbi Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory
    Michael W Eysenck
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom
    Emotion 7:336-53. 2007
  9. ncbi Entrainment of neuronal oscillations as a mechanism of attentional selection
    Peter Lakatos
    Cognitive Neuroscience and Schizophrenia Program, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
    Science 320:110-3. 2008
  10. ncbi The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioural pharmacology and functional neurochemistry
    T W Robbins
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:362-80. 2002

Research Grants

  1. Contextual cueing and implicit learning
    Yuhong Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. Post-Attentive Vision
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Effects of Anxiety on Interhemispheric Processing
    REBECCA COMPTON; Fiscal Year: 2004
  4. Theoretical analysis of the effects of aging on memory and reaction time
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. NEUROBIOLOGY OF CANNABIS EFFECTS
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2009
  6. NEURAL RECORDINGS AND REACTION TIME MODELS
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2003
  7. Response Selection as a Function of Age
    Robert Proctor; Fiscal Year: 2002
  8. RETRIEVAL PROCESSES IN MEMORY
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2004
  9. PSYCHOPHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN VISION
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2003
  10. Hangover, Congeners, Sleep and Occupational Performance
    Jonathan Howland; Fiscal Year: 2004

Detail Information

Publications264 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Speed of processing in the human visual system
    S Thorpe
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau and Cognition, Toulouse, France
    Nature 381:520-2. 1996
    ..ERP analysis revealed a frontal negativity specific to no-go trials that develops roughly 150 ms after stimulus onset. We conclude that the visual processing needed to perform this highly demanding task can be achieved in under 150 ms...
  2. ncbi Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control
    John G Kerns
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Science 303:1023-6. 2004
    ....
  3. ncbi The mismatch negativity (MMN) in basic research of central auditory processing: a review
    R Naatanen
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Neurophysiol 118:2544-90. 2007
    ..In addition, the MMN enables one to establish the brain processes underlying the initiation of attention switch to, conscious perception of, sound change in an unattended stimulus stream...
  4. ncbi Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 74:1464-80. 1998
    ..Korean + pleasant for Japanese vs. Korean subjects), and (c) consciously disavowed evaluative differences (Black + pleasant vs. White + pleasant for self-described unprejudiced White subjects)...
  5. pmc The NimStim set of facial expressions: judgments from untrained research participants
    Nim Tottenham
    Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Psychiatry Res 168:242-9. 2009
    ..The results lend empirical support for the validity and reliability of this set of facial expressions as determined by accurate identification of expressions and high intra-participant agreement across two testing sessions, respectively...
  6. ncbi Grounding language in action
    Arthur M Glenberg
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 9:558-65. 2002
    ..Instead, the data support an embodied theory of meaning that relates the meaning of sentences to human action...
  7. ncbi Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices
    Timothy J Buschman
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, and Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 315:1860-2. 2007
    ..This result indicates that top-down and bottom-up signals arise from the frontal and sensory cortex, respectively, and different modes of attention may emphasize synchrony at different frequencies...
  8. ncbi Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory
    Michael W Eysenck
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom
    Emotion 7:336-53. 2007
    ..g., enhanced effort; increased use of processing resources). Directions for future research are discussed...
  9. ncbi Entrainment of neuronal oscillations as a mechanism of attentional selection
    Peter Lakatos
    Cognitive Neuroscience and Schizophrenia Program, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
    Science 320:110-3. 2008
    ..These instrumental functions of low-frequency oscillations support a conceptual framework that integrates numerous earlier findings...
  10. ncbi The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioural pharmacology and functional neurochemistry
    T W Robbins
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:362-80. 2002
    The developmental history and application of the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) for measuring effects of drugs and other manipulations on attentional performance (and stimulus control) in rats is reviewed.
  11. ncbi Motor-sensory recalibration leads to an illusory reversal of action and sensation
    Chess Stetson
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin Street, Suite 7046, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neuron 51:651-9. 2006
    ..This illusion-specific activation suggests that the brain maintains not only a recalibrated representation of timing, but also a less-plastic representation against which to compare it...
  12. ncbi Temporal prediction errors in a passive learning task activate human striatum
    Samuel M McClure
    Human Neuroimaging Lab, Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neuron 38:339-46. 2003
    ....
  13. ncbi The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology
    J M Williams
    Department of Psychology, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd
    Psychol Bull 120:3-24. 1996
    ..They address the causes and mechanisms underlying the phenomenon, focusing on J.D. Cohen, K. Dunbar, and J.L. McClelland's (1990) parallel distributed processing model...
  14. ncbi Emotion drives attention: detecting the snake in the grass
    A Ohman
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Exp Psychol Gen 130:466-78. 2001
    ..Thus, evolutionary relevant threatening stimuli were effective in capturing attention, and this effect was further facilitated if the stimulus was emotionally provocative...
  15. ncbi The activation of attentional networks
    Jin Fan
    Laboratory of Neuroimaging, Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    Neuroimage 26:471-9. 2005
    ..The attention network test (ANT) examines the effects of cues and targets within a single reaction time task to provide a means of exploring the efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive control networks ..
  16. ncbi Theta burst stimulation of the human motor cortex
    Ying Zu Huang
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuron 45:201-6. 2005
    ....
  17. ncbi The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition
    T A Salthouse
    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332 0170, USA
    Psychol Rev 103:403-28. 1996
    ....
  18. ncbi The neural bases of momentary lapses in attention
    D H Weissman
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychiatry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:971-8. 2006
    ..Our findings provide a new, system-wide understanding of the patterns of brain activity that are associated with brief attentional lapses, which informs both theoretical and clinical models of goal-directed behavior...
  19. ncbi Decision making, the P3, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychol Bull 131:510-32. 2005
    ....
  20. ncbi Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 85:197-216. 2003
    ..This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure...
  21. ncbi The neural basis of the speed-accuracy tradeoff
    Rafal Bogacz
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB, UK
    Trends Neurosci 33:10-6. 2010
    ..We also review current theories on how and where in the brain the SAT is controlled, and we end by proposing research directions that could distinguish between these theories...
  22. ncbi An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment
    J D Greene
    Center for the Study of Brain, Mind, and Behavior, Department of Philosophy, 1879 Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Science 293:2105-8. 2001
    ..These results may shed light on some puzzling patterns in moral judgment observed by contemporary philosophers...
  23. ncbi The neural basis of error detection: conflict monitoring and the error-related negativity
    Nick Yeung
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
    Psychol Rev 111:931-59. 2004
    ..It is concluded that the ERN can be explained in terms of response conflict and that monitoring for conflict may provide a simple mechanism for detecting errors...
  24. pmc The diffusion decision model: theory and data for two-choice decision tasks
    Roger Ratcliff
    Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, U S A
    Neural Comput 20:873-922. 2008
    ..The broad range of applications of the model is also reviewed, including research in the domains of aging and neurophysiology...
  25. ncbi Cortical and subcortical contributions to Stop signal response inhibition: role of the subthalamic nucleus
    Adam R Aron
    Department of Psychology, Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurosci 26:2424-33. 2006
    ..Future research is required to establish whether Stop-signal inhibition could be implemented via a direct functional neuroanatomic projection between IFC and STN (a "hyperdirect" pathway)...
  26. ncbi Probabilistic decision making by slow reverberation in cortical circuits
    Xiao Jing Wang
    Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254, USA
    Neuron 36:955-68. 2002
    ....
  27. ncbi Visual word recognition of single-syllable words
    David A Balota
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 133:283-316. 2004
    ..Discussion focuses on the utility of large-scale regression studies in providing a complementary approach to the standard factorial designs to investigate visual word recognition...
  28. pmc Interhemispheric inhibition of the human motor cortex
    A Ferbert
    MRC Human Movement and Balance Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London
    J Physiol 453:525-46. 1992
    ..Similarly, H reflexes in relaxed forearm flexor muscles were unaffected by conditioning stimuli to the ipsilateral hemisphere. However, inhibition was observed if the experiment was repeated with the muscles active...
  29. ncbi Anterior cingulate cortex and response conflict: effects of frequency, inhibition and errors
    T S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Cereb Cortex 11:825-36. 2001
    ....
  30. ncbi The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex
    Etienne Koechlin
    Institut National de la Sante et de Recherche Medicale, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 9, quai St Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Science 302:1181-5. 2003
    ..The results support an unified modular model of cognitive control that describes the overall functional organization of the human lateral PFC and has basic methodological and theoretical implications...
  31. ncbi Action anticipation and motor resonance in elite basketball players
    Salvatore M Aglioti
    Dipartimento di Psicologia, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Via dei Marsi 78, 1 00185, Roma, Italy
    Nat Neurosci 11:1109-16. 2008
    ....
  32. ncbi Response of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area during a combined visual discrimination reaction time task
    Jamie D Roitman
    Program in Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, and Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7290, USA
    J Neurosci 22:9475-89. 2002
    ..A threshold level of LIP activity appears to mark the completion of the decision process and to govern the tradeoff between accuracy and speed of perception...
  33. ncbi Horse-race model simulations of the stop-signal procedure
    Guido P H Band
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Leiden University, PO Box 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, The Netherlands
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 112:105-42. 2003
    ..The simulations indicate that, under most conditions, the latency, but not variability, of response inhibition can be reliably estimated...
  34. ncbi Distinct spatial frequency sensitivities for processing faces and emotional expressions
    Patrik Vuilleumier
    Laboratory for Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Geneva Medical Center, 1 Michel Servet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 6:624-31. 2003
    ..An activation of pulvinar and superior colliculus by fearful expressions occurred specifically with low-frequency faces, suggesting that these subcortical pathways may provide coarse fear-related inputs to the amygdala...
  35. ncbi The timing of action-monitoring processes in the anterior cingulate cortex
    Vincent van Veen
    University of Pittsburgh and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 14:593-602. 2002
    ..Second, caudal ACC activity might be temporally dissociated from rostral ACC activity during error trials, which possibly reflects a separate, affective component of the evaluative functions of the ACC...
  36. ncbi Contextual cueing: implicit learning and memory of visual context guides spatial attention
    M M Chun
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8205, USA
    Cogn Psychol 36:28-71. 1998
    ..The results show how implicit learning and memory of visual context can guide spatial attention towards task-relevant aspects of a scene...
  37. ncbi Transient induced gamma-band response in EEG as a manifestation of miniature saccades
    Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
    Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
    Neuron 58:429-41. 2008
    ..Thus, whereas neuronal gamma-band oscillations were shown conclusively with other methods, the broadband transient iGBR recorded by scalp EEG reflects properties of miniature saccade dynamics rather than neuronal oscillations...
  38. ncbi The simplest complete model of choice response time: linear ballistic accumulation
    Scott D Brown
    School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
    Cogn Psychol 57:153-78. 2008
    We propose a linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model of decision making and reaction time. The LBA is simpler than other models of choice response time, with independent accumulators that race towards a common response threshold...
  39. ncbi Both the hippocampus and striatum are involved in consolidation of motor sequence memory
    Geneviève Albouy
    Cyclotron Research Centre, University of Liege, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Neuron 58:261-72. 2008
    ..These results show that both structures interact during motor sequence consolidation to optimize subsequent behavior...
  40. ncbi Cortical sources of the early components of the visual evoked potential
    Francesco Di Russo
    Department of Neurosciences, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093 0608, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 15:95-111. 2002
    ..These findings clarify the anatomical origin of these VEP components, which have been studied extensively in relation to visual-perceptual processes...
  41. ncbi 'Oops!': performance correlates of everyday attentional failures in traumatic brain injured and normal subjects
    I H Robertson
    Applied Psychology Unit, Rehabilitation Research Group, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, U K
    Neuropsychologia 35:747-58. 1997
    ..We also report a highly significant correlation of -0.58 between SART performance and Glasgow Coma Scale Scores in the TBI group...
  42. ncbi ERP components on reaction errors and their functional significance: a tutorial
    M Falkenstein
    Institut fur Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universitat Dortmund IfADo, Abt für Sinnes und Neurophysiologie, Ardeystr 67, D 44139, Dortmund, Germany
    Biol Psychol 51:87-107. 2000
    ..Further research is necessary to specify the functional significance of the Pe...
  43. ncbi On the locus of speed-accuracy trade-off in reaction time: inferences from the lateralized readiness potential
    Gerhard Rinkenauer
    General Psychology and Research Methods, Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    J Exp Psychol Gen 133:261-82. 2004
    Lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) were used to determine the stage(s) of reaction time (RT) responsible for speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATs)...
  44. pmc A comparison of sequential sampling models for two-choice reaction time
    Roger Ratcliff
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Psychol Rev 111:333-67. 2004
    ..The relationship between these models and 3 recent, neurally inspired models was also examined...
  45. ncbi Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain
    Chun Siong Soon
    Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstrasse 1a, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 11:543-5. 2008
    ..This delay presumably reflects the operation of a network of high-level control areas that begin to prepare an upcoming decision long before it enters awareness...
  46. ncbi Frontal theta activity in humans increases with memory load in a working memory task
    Ole Jensen
    Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, FIN 02015 HUT, Finland
    Eur J Neurosci 15:1395-9. 2002
    ..Following the memory task the theta activity was reduced. These results suggest that theta oscillations generated in frontal brain regions play an active role in memory maintenance...
  47. ncbi Speed and accuracy of olfactory discrimination in the rat
    Naoshige Uchida
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724, USA
    Nat Neurosci 6:1224-9. 2003
    ....
  48. ncbi The effect of stimulus strength on the speed and accuracy of a perceptual decision
    John Palmer
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    J Vis 5:376-404. 2005
    ..The theory's analytic chronometric function allows one to extend theories of accuracy to response time...
  49. ncbi Functional links between motor and language systems
    Friedemann Pulvermüller
    Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Medical Research Council, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB2 2EF, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 21:793-7. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi Reward changes salience in human vision via the anterior cingulate
    Clayton Hickey
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Neurosci 30:11096-103. 2010
    ..We suggest that reward acts to change visual salience and thus plays an important and undervalued role in attentional control...
  51. ncbi Lesions of the human amygdala impair enhanced perception of emotionally salient events
    A K Anderson
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 411:305-9. 2001
    ..Our results reveal a neural substrate for affective influences on perception, indicating that similar neural mechanisms may underlie the affective modulation of both recollective and perceptual experience...
  52. pmc Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement
    Jeffrey W Dalley
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Science 315:1267-70. 2007
    ..These data demonstrate that trait impulsivity predicts cocaine reinforcement and that D2 receptor dysfunction in abstinent cocaine addicts may, in part, be determined by premorbid influences...
  53. ncbi Cognitive control, hierarchy, and the rostro-caudal organization of the frontal lobes
    David Badre
    Department of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences, Brown University, Box 1978, Providence, RI 02912 1978, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 12:193-200. 2008
    ..Distinctions among these frameworks are considered as a basis for future research...
  54. ncbi The capacity of visual short-term memory is set both by visual information load and by number of objects
    G A Alvarez
    Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Psychol Sci 15:106-11. 2004
    ..Thus, both the visual information load and number of objects impose capacity limits on visual short-term memory...
  55. pmc Striatum and pre-SMA facilitate decision-making under time pressure
    Birte U Forstmann
    Department of Psychology, Amsterdam Center for the Study of Adaptive Control in Brain and Behavior, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:17538-42. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that when people have to make decisions under time pressure their striatum and pre-SMA show increased levels of activation...
  56. ncbi Bounded integration in parietal cortex underlies decisions even when viewing duration is dictated by the environment
    Roozbeh Kiani
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Primate Research Center, and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 28:3017-29. 2008
    ..Thus, the readout of visual cortex embraces a termination rule to limit processing even when potentially useful information is available...
  57. ncbi Fitting the Ratcliff diffusion model to experimental data
    Joachm Vandekerckhove
    University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Psychon Bull Rev 14:1011-26. 2007
    Many experiments in psychology yield both reaction time and accuracy data. However, no off-the-shelf methods yet exist for the statistical analysis of such data...
  58. ncbi Control over location-based response activation in the Simon task: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence
    Birgit Stürmer
    Biological Psychology Psychophysiology, Institute for Psychology, Humboldt University at Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 28:1345-63. 2002
    ..Although exact repetitions of stimulus-response sequences caused a marked speed-up of responses, this 3rd mechanism is independent of unconditional route suppression and frequency-based adjustments in the conditional route...
  59. ncbi Conscious control over the content of unconscious cognition
    Wilfried Kunde
    Department of Psychology, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, 06099 Halle Saale, Germany
    Cognition 88:223-42. 2003
    ..The intentional creation of such triggers allows actors to control the way unconscious stimuli bias their behaviour...
  60. ncbi Look away: the anti-saccade task and the voluntary control of eye movement
    Douglas P Munoz
    Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Department of Physiology, CIHR Group in Sensory Motor Systems, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:218-28. 2004
  61. ncbi Compatibility between observed and executed finger movements: comparing symbolic, spatial, and imitative cues
    M Brass
    Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Leipzig, Germany
    Brain Cogn 44:124-43. 2000
    ..The results are discussed in relation to recent models of stimulus-response compatibility. Neurocognitive support for the strong relationship between movement observation and movement execution is reported...
  62. ncbi Behavioural characterisation of high impulsivity on the 5-choice serial reaction time task: specific deficits in 'waiting' versus 'stopping'
    E S J Robinson
    Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Experimental Psychology, Cambridge, UK
    Behav Brain Res 196:310-6. 2009
    ..Rats selected for high levels of impulsivity on a reaction time task analogous to the continuous performance test in humans exhibited correspondingly high levels of impulsive ..
  63. ncbi The gamma cycle
    Pascal Fries
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Trends Neurosci 30:309-16. 2007
    ..This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue Physiogenic and pathogenic oscillations: the beauty and the beast, based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (http://inmednet.com)...
  64. ncbi Cognitive control mechanisms resolve conflict through cortical amplification of task-relevant information
    Tobias Egner
    Functional MRI Research Center, Columbia University, Neurological Institute, Box 108, 710 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:1784-90. 2005
    ..These results implicate attentional target-feature amplification as the primary mechanism for conflict resolution through cognitive control...
  65. ncbi Listening to action-related sentences modulates the activity of the motor system: a combined TMS and behavioral study
    G Buccino
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma, Via Volturno 39, 43100 Parma, Italy
    Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 24:355-63. 2005
    ..The present data show that processing verbally presented actions activates different sectors of the motor system, depending on the effector used in the listened-to action...
  66. ncbi Word-category specific deficits after lesions in the right hemisphere
    Bettina Neininger
    Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, PO Box D25, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
    Neuropsychologia 41:53-70. 2003
    ..An account for these results in terms of distributed neuronal systems representing words is offered...
  67. ncbi Preconditioning of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation: evidence for homeostatic plasticity in the human motor cortex
    Hartwig R Siebner
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College of London, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 24:3379-85. 2004
    ..These preconditioning effects of TDCS suggest the existence of a homeostatic mechanism in the human motor cortex that stabilizes corticospinal excitability within a physiologically useful range...
  68. ncbi Topographic ERP analyses: a step-by-step tutorial review
    Micah M Murray
    Electroencephalography Brain Mapping Core, Center for Biomedical Imaging of Lausanne and Geneva, Radiologie CHUV BH08 078, Bugnon 46 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Brain Topogr 20:249-64. 2008
    ....
  69. ncbi Microsaccades: a neurophysiological analysis
    Susana Martinez-Conde
    Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Trends Neurosci 32:463-75. 2009
    ..We also point out the current gaps in our understanding of the neurobiology of microsaccades and identify the most promising lines of enquiry...
  70. ncbi Anterior cingulate cortex, conflict monitoring, and levels of processing
    V van Veen
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Neuroimage 14:1302-8. 2001
    ..Although both types of conflict caused reaction time interference, the fMRI data showed that the ACC is responsive only to response conflict, even when controlling ..
  71. ncbi Magnocellular projections as the trigger of top-down facilitation in recognition
    Kestutis Kveraga
    Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Neurosci 27:13232-40. 2007
    ....
  72. ncbi Motor sequence learning with the nondominant left hand. A PET functional imaging study
    Scott T Grafton
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, 6162 Moore Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Exp Brain Res 146:369-78. 2002
    ..Implicit sequence learning by the nondominant left hand was examined with the serial reaction time (SRT) task during functional brain imaging...
  73. pmc The cost of accumulating evidence in perceptual decision making
    Jan Drugowitsch
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Ecole Normale Superieure, 75005 Paris, France
    J Neurosci 32:3612-28. 2012
    ..to estimate the cost of making additional observations per unit of time from two monkeys and six humans in a reaction time (RT) random-dot motion discrimination task...
  74. ncbi A simultaneous ERP/fMRI investigation of the P300 aging effect
    Redmond G O'Connell
    Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Neurobiol Aging 33:2448-61. 2012
    ..parietal electrodes but larger amplitudes over frontal scalp with no between-group differences in accuracy or reaction time. Electroencephalogram/functional magnetic resonance imaging fusion revealed that the P3a age effects were ..
  75. ncbi Jackknife-based method for measuring LRP onset latency differences
    J Miller
    Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Psychophysiology 35:99-115. 1998
    ..The method can be used with both stimulus- and response-locked LRPs, and simulations indicate that it provides accurate estimates of onset latency differences in many common experimental conditions...
  76. pmc Meta-analysis of Go/No-go tasks demonstrating that fMRI activation associated with response inhibition is task-dependent
    Daniel J Simmonds
    Kennedy Krieger Institute, 707 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Neuropsychologia 46:224-32. 2008
    ....
  77. pmc Phase patterns of neuronal responses reliably discriminate speech in human auditory cortex
    Huan Luo
    Neuroscience and Cognitive Science Program, Department of Biology, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Neuron 54:1001-10. 2007
    ....
  78. pmc Changes of mind in decision-making
    Arbora Resulaj
    Computational and Biological Learning Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
    Nature 461:263-6. 2009
    ..The theoretical and experimental findings advance the understanding of decision-making to the highly flexible and cognitive acts of vacillation and self-correction...
  79. ncbi Emotion words, regardless of polarity, have a processing advantage over neutral words
    Stavroula Thaleia Kousta
    Research Department of Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, United Kingdom
    Cognition 112:473-81. 2009
    ..We found no asymmetry between negative and positive words and suggest that previous findings of such an asymmetry can be attributed to failure to control for a number of critical lexical variables and to a sampling bias...
  80. ncbi Neural time course of conflict adaptation effects on the Stroop task
    Michael J Larson
    Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States
    Neuropsychologia 47:663-70. 2009
    ..Findings provide clarification on the neural time course of conflict adaptation and raise further questions regarding the relative roles of the parietal conflict SP and fronto-medial N450 in conflict detection and processing...
  81. ncbi Neural activity in macaque parietal cortex reflects temporal integration of visual motion signals during perceptual decision making
    Alexander C Huk
    Center for Perceptual Systems, Department of Psychology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
    J Neurosci 25:10420-36. 2005
    ..Temporal integration may be a fundamental computation underlying higher cognitive functions that are dissociated from immediate sensory inputs or motor outputs...
  82. pmc Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years: evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching
    Matthew C Davidson
    Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA
    Neuropsychologia 44:2037-78. 2006
    ..Other effects (e.g., asymmetric switch costs and the interaction of switching rules and switching response-sites) differed fundamentally over age...
  83. ncbi A controlled-attention view of working-memory capacity
    M J Kane
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 130:169-83. 2001
    ..In both experiments, low-span participants performed poorly when task switching from antisaccade to prosaccade blocks. The findings support a controlled-attention view of WM capacity...
  84. pmc Models of response inhibition in the stop-signal and stop-change paradigms
    Frederick Verbruggen
    Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:647-61. 2009
    ..We present evidence that favors the independent horse-race model but also some evidence that challenges the model. We end with a discussion of recent models that elaborate the role of a stop process in inhibiting a response...
  85. ncbi Developmental dyscalculia and basic numerical capacities: a study of 8-9-year-old students
    Karin Landerl
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Cognition 93:99-125. 2004
    ..We conclude that dyscalculia is the result of specific disabilities in basic numerical processing, rather than the consequence of deficits in other cognitive abilities...
  86. ncbi Functional dissociation in right inferior frontal cortex during performance of go/no-go task
    Junichi Chikazoe
    Department of Physiology, The University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Cereb Cortex 19:146-52. 2009
    ..These results indicate that the pIFG and IFJ within the inferior frontal cortex are spatially close but are associated with different cognitive control processes in the go/no-go paradigm...
  87. ncbi Dissociable executive functions in the dynamic control of behavior: inhibition, error detection, and correction
    H Garavan
    Department of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Neuroimage 17:1820-9. 2002
    ..The results highlight how higher cognitive functions responsible for behavioral control can result from the dynamic interplay of distinct cortical systems...
  88. ncbi Ultra-rapid object detection with saccadic eye movements: visual processing speed revisited
    Holle Kirchner
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition UMR 5549, CNRS Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Faculte de Medecine de Rangueil, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France
    Vision Res 46:1762-76. 2006
    ..The results suggest a very fast and unexpected route linking visual processing in the ventral stream with the programming of saccadic eye movements...
  89. ncbi Perceiving numbers causes spatial shifts of attention
    Martin H Fischer
    Psychology Department, University of Dundee, DD1 4HN Scotland
    Nat Neurosci 6:555-6. 2003
    ..This observation implies obligatory activation of number meaning and signals a tight coupling of internal and external representations of space...
  90. ncbi The amygdala response to emotional stimuli: a comparison of faces and scenes
    Ahmad R Hariri
    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Neuroimage 17:317-23. 2002
    ..These results suggest that the human amygdala shows a stronger response to affective facial expressions than to scenes, a bias that should be considered in the design of experimental paradigms interested in probing amygdala function...
  91. ncbi Salience, relevance, and firing: a priority map for target selection
    Jillian H Fecteau
    Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 47, 1105BA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Trends Cogn Sci 10:382-90. 2006
    ..These observations have important ramifications for theories of attention. We conclude that priority--the combined representation of salience and relevance--best describes the firing properties of neurons...
  92. ncbi The relations among inhibition and interference control functions: a latent-variable analysis
    Naomi P Friedman
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 345 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 133:101-35. 2004
    ..These results suggest that the term inhibition has been overextended and that researchers need to be more specific when discussing and measuring inhibition-related functions...
  93. ncbi Efficiency and ambiguity in an adaptive neural code
    A L Fairhall
    NEC Research Institute, 4 Independence Way, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Nature 412:787-92. 2001
    ..The speed with which information is optimized and ambiguities are resolved approaches the physical limit imposed by statistical sampling and noise...
  94. ncbi Electrophysiological correlates of anterior cingulate function in a go/no-go task: effects of response conflict and trial type frequency
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 3:17-26. 2003
    ..Instead, the results are consistent with the view that the N2 in go/no-go tasks reflects conflict arising from competition between the execution and the inhibition of a single response...
  95. ncbi Hold your horses: impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and medication in parkinsonism
    Michael J Frank
    Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Science 318:1309-12. 2007
    ..These findings implicate independent mechanisms leading to impulsivity in treated Parkinson's patients and were predicted by a single neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia...
  96. pmc Timing, timing, timing: fast decoding of object information from intracranial field potentials in human visual cortex
    Hesheng Liu
    Department of Neuroscience and Ophthalmology, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 62:281-90. 2009
    ..The fast decoding in single trials is compatible with feedforward theories and provides strong constraints for computational models of human vision...
  97. ncbi Early activation of object names in visual search
    Antje S Meyer
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England
    Psychon Bull Rev 14:710-6. 2007
    ..The results imply that semantic and name information associated with the objects becomes rapidly available and affects the allocation of visual attention...
  98. ncbi Triangulating a cognitive control network using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI
    Adam R Aron
    Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Neurosci 27:3743-52. 2007
    ..The results also demonstrate a three-way functional-anatomical network in the right hemisphere that could either brake or completely stop responses...
  99. ncbi Dissociation of automatic and strategic lexical-semantics: functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for differing roles of multiple frontotemporal regions
    Brian T Gold
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Chandler Medical Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0298, USA
    J Neurosci 26:6523-32. 2006
    ..These studies provide reproducible evidence for a neural dissociation between three well established components of the lexical-semantic processing system...
  100. ncbi Impulsive personality predicts dopamine-dependent changes in frontostriatal activity during component processes of working memory
    Roshan Cools
    Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 3190, USA
    J Neurosci 27:5506-14. 2007
    ..The present results provide a key link between dopamine D2 receptor function, impulsivity, and frontostriatal activity during component processes of working memory...
  101. ncbi The time course of visual processing: from early perception to decision-making
    R VanRullen
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, France
    J Cogn Neurosci 13:454-61. 2001
    ..Although average ERP responses reflect the visual category of the stimulus shortly after visual processing has begun (e.g. 75-80 msec), this difference is not correlated with the subject's behavior until 150 msec poststimulus...

Research Grants79

  1. Contextual cueing and implicit learning
    Yuhong Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding its cognitive and neural mechanisms is the first step toward understanding this ability in normal adults as well as in those whose explicit learning and memory mechanisms are impaired. ..
  2. Post-Attentive Vision
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Taken together, the results of this program of research will test hypotheses that tie our understanding of visual search to our understanding of short and longer term visual memory. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  3. Effects of Anxiety on Interhemispheric Processing
    REBECCA COMPTON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Application of the ERP methodology for measuring interhemispheric transmission is expected to produce a detailed picture of how emotional relevance affects the spread of information from one hemisphere to another. ..
  4. Theoretical analysis of the effects of aging on memory and reaction time
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  5. NEUROBIOLOGY OF CANNABIS EFFECTS
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  6. NEURAL RECORDINGS AND REACTION TIME MODELS
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Response Selection as a Function of Age
    Robert Proctor; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These guidelines will lead to development of products and environments that allow elderly adults to remain more independent and to engage safely in more activities in their daily lives. ..
  8. RETRIEVAL PROCESSES IN MEMORY
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Investigation is planned in five, theoretically related domains. First, three models of choice reaction time will be tested using data from simple perceptual decision tasks and from higher level cognitive tasks...
  9. PSYCHOPHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN VISION
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..He will expand the Guided Search model to handle additional data (e.g. eye movements in visual search and the "attentional blink"). ..
  10. Hangover, Congeners, Sleep and Occupational Performance
    Jonathan Howland; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Our occupational model will be merchant ship navigation by maritime academy cadets. Performance will be measured using computer-based interactive ship training simulators. ..
  11. SPATIAL INFLUENCES ON LANGUAGE FUNCTION
    H Coslett; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. Neurocognitive Basis of Language Processing in Autism
    Diane Williams; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. Neural Correlates of Methamphetamine Use in Schizophrenia: An MRS Study
    Ruth Salo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These findings will have important implications for neurobiological models of comorbid substance abuse and treatment. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  14. Neural Substrates of Component Lexical Semantic Processes
    BRIAN GOLD; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Choices in time and neural activity in parietal cortex
    KENWAY LOUIE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This research seeks to explore both the neural basis of choice in time as well as the integration of temporal information into decision processes. ..
  16. Structural Brain Imaging in Psychopathy
    Yaling Yang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..By uncovering the neural basis of psychopathy, this proposal will hopefully provide valuable scientific knowledge that will facilitate the development of prevention and treatment of this disorder. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. TRIPTORELIN FOR OVARY PROTECTION IN CHILDHOOD LIPUS
    Hermine Brunner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Abstract Not Provided ..
  18. A Simple Measure for Studying Sensory Gating Deficits
    Neal Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. Global vs. Focal Neuroimaging Markers of Dementia Risk
    Caterina Rosano; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  20. Planning a Clinical Trial on Low Vision Rehabilitation
    Cynthia Owsley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. AAC Processing Support for Spoken Language in Aphasia
    Myrna Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. VESTIBULO-OCULAR FUNCTION IN THE ELDERLY
    Joseph Furman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Cognitive tasks will include both choice reaction time and disjunctive reaction time tasks using auditory cues that differ in either pitch or side of presentation...
  23. Neural Mechanisms of Interaural Time Difference Coding
    Kenneth Hancock; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  24. Novel Brain Neuroimaging Markers of Age-Related Mobility Impairment
    Caterina Rosano; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  25. Cannabinoids, Neural Synchrony and Information Processing
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  26. Disorders of Syntactic Comprehension
    DAVID NORMAN CAPLAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The results could have important consequences for howwe think of these disorders and the neural organization that supports these functions. ..
  27. Perceptual Processes Evidence and Configurality
    James Townsend; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Work toward these goals will involve theoretical, methodological, and empirical efforts. ..
  28. Sequence Induction in Infancy: A systematic approach
    Scott Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In the future, such understanding may aid in the formulation of diagnostics and treatments for some developmental disorders. ..
  29. Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Syntactic Comprehension
    David Caplan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  30. Tobacco Smoking, Nicotine and Negative Affect Relief
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In sum, this research will help address the fundamental question of why cigarette smoking is reinforcing. ..
  31. Neuro-Musculoskeletal Plasticity after SCI
    Richard K Shields; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed method not only has excellent potential for efficacy, but is also likely to be economical and easily integrated into the daily lives of people with SCI. ..
  32. Cooperative Lifestyle Intervention Program
    WALTER REJESKI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Analyses will also be conducted to determine whether changes in the primary outcome are mediated by changes in constructs from social cognitive theory. ..
  33. Neurocognitive Outcome of Infants of Diabetic Mothers
    Charles Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Given that approximately 10% of all pregnancies are complicated by maternal diabetes, the current project has important implications for public health. ..
  34. Visual Processing in Schizophrenia and SPD
    BRIAN O DONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These findings may identify neurobehavioral deficits common to SZ and SPD, as well as features which differentiate these disorders. ..
  35. Norepinephrine and Impulsivity
    Alan Swann; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The results of these experiments may suggest means for monitoring risk for impulsive behavior and for a rational treatment schema for impulsivity. ..
  36. Drug Abuse and Impulsivity: Tests of Animal Models
    Jerry B Richards; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed studies will provide important new information concerning putative animal models of impulsivity, and the ability of these models to predict cocaine self-administration. ..
  37. Neural Systems Underlying Sign Language Production
    Karen Emmorey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  38. LANGUAGE, MODALITY AND THE BRAIN
    Karen Emmorey; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY MDMA--MONOAMINERGIC MECHANISMS
    KATHRYN CUNNINGHAM; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. Real-time Examination of Childhood Language Impairment
    Richard Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The data should yield evidence that will elucidate the nature of SLI and suggest new approaches to assessment and intervention for this disorder. ..
  41. Treatment Outcome of Vascular Depression
    Yvette Sheline; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The proposed trial will provide information of value to the practitioner and also provide data to build a more comprehensive model of the prognostic impact of frontal-subcortical brain changes on the outcome of late-life depression. ..
  42. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF EARLY MEMORY DEVELOPMENT
    Charles Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The overall premise upon which this proposal is based is that experience with faces recruits regions within the inferior temporal cortex, leading to cortical specialization. ..
  43. ACUTE NICOTINE ABSTINENCE IN ADOLESCENTS
    Suchitra Krishnan Sarin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Determining physical dependence and related changes in adolescent tobacco users may also provide valuable information regarding the process of development and maintenance of nicotine dependence. ..
  44. Mathematical Development in Learning Diasbled Children
    DAVID GEARY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..g., working memory) that underlie MD children's developmental delays and deficits in these competencies. ..
  45. FMRI AND TMS STUDIES OF WORKING MEMORY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Dara Manoach; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  46. Learning Categories Many Ways at a Time
    Kenneth Kurtz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. CERVICAL INFLUENCES ON BALANCE
    Joseph Furman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..To address specific aim #3, postural sway will be measured in response to naso-occipital optic flow within a virtual reality environment during several yaw head-on-trunk positions. ..
  48. RESPIRATORY RELATED MOTOR OUTPUT TO UPPER AIRWAY MUSLCES
    SAMUEL KUNA; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This work is an expansion of work conducted to date by the PI, who has recently relocated to the University of Pennsylvania. ..
  49. MUSCULOSKELETAL PLASTICITY AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY
    RICHARD SHIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The benefits of this newly developed adaptive feedback controlled exercise may provide a standard that individuals with paralysis may use in an effort to maintain their musculoskeletal properties following paralysis. ..
  50. INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN NICOTINE SENSITIVITY IN HUMANS
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..e., in nicotine-naive individuals). Results will provide directions for future research on vulnerability to tobacco dependence and for targeted efforts to prevent smoking onset. ..
  51. LEARNING DISABILITIES IN ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS
    DAVID GEARY; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  52. Neural correlates of the precedence effect
    Kenneth Hancock; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The data obtained will help identify more precisely the strategies employed by the auditory system to localize sound in complex acoustic environments. ..
  53. GLYCINE-KETAMINE INTERACTIONS IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Pilot data (n=12) towards this proposal suggests that glycine reduces ketamine-induced perceptual alterations, negative symptoms and impairments on recall without worsening positive symptoms. ..
  54. MOTOR/COGNITIVE ASYMMETRY IN OLDER PSYCHOTIC PATIENTS
    James Lohr; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We hope these studies will provide insights into the localization of pathology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well as their relationship to each other. ..
  55. EXCITOTOXICITY IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS AFTER VIRAL INFECTION
    Bradley Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies aim to provide clues to the mechanisms by which an early viral infection could be involved in certain neurodevelopmental disorders. ..
  56. ORGANIZATION AND BREAKDOWN OF ROUTINE ACTION SKILLS
    Myrna Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  57. Cognitive Sequelae of Methamphetamine Abuse
    Ruth Salo; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. Affect, Context, and Placebo Responses to Nicotine
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Secondary analyses may identify important individual characteristics associated with placebo responses, aiding in the prediction of which smokers ultimately are likely to benefit most from manipulation of placebo effects. ..
  59. Contextual Influences on Visual Attention and Perception
    Barry Giesbrecht; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The intention of both studies is that by rigorously investigating the interaction between sources of visual context and selective attention, a better understanding of conscious behavior will be achieved. ..
  60. NEURAL CIRCUITRY OF SENSORIMOTOR GATING ACROSS SPECIES
    Neal Swerdlow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  61. Neurobehavioral correlates of bipolar disorder
    BRIAN O DONNELL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. Hearing Loss and the Utility of Speech Information
    Benjamin Hornsby; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  63. Genetic Analysis of Extreme Circadian/Sleep Phenotypes
    Anne Marie Chang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  64. Clinical Vision Research Unit at UAB
    Cynthia Owsley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Furthermore, UAB has already established many community relations and research infrastructure contacts with these subpopulations that will immediately facilitate our research efforts. ..
  65. Simultaneous fMRI/ERP of Auditory Change Detection
    Merav Sabri; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  66. Aging and vestibular disease on postural control
    PATRICK SPARTO; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  67. Suppression in simple recognition memory
    Stephen Dopkins; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  68. Self-Focused Attention and Nonconscious Self-Evaluation
    PAUL SILVIA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Examining the cognitive processes that give rise to automatic self-evaluation will enhance psychology's understanding of how to prevent, treat, and regulate maladaptive and self-defeating patterns of thought. ..
  69. BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL BY FOREBRAIN & BRAINSTEM NEURONS
    SUSAN BARMAN; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  70. MOLECULAR VARIABLES AFFECTING CHOICE BEHAVIOR
    JAMES MAZUR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  71. PREDICTORS OF ADOLESCENT ECSTASY USE IN THE NATIONAL SURVEY OF PARENTS AND YOUTH
    Silvia Martins; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, we believe that our study will bring public health contributions to better understand potential determinants of ecstasy use. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  72. Development and Evaluation of a Virtual Aphasia Clinici*
    Cynthia Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..If successful, this work will result in new directions for the management of speech and language disorders that incorporate and take advantage of advances in computer technology. ..
  73. ROLE OF WALKING STABILITY IN FALLS AMONG THE ELDERLY
    Yi Chung Pai; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 3: We will determine whether older adults decrease their fall incidence after repeated exposure to slips by improving gait stability and/or by enhancing their reactive responses. ..
  74. Developing an Instrument to Measure Keyboarding Style
    Nancy Baker; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This information will be integrated into the final tool, the PECKS. The PECKS can then be used to identify an individual who have keyboarding...styles that have been associated with MSD-UE. ..
  75. Cannabinoid Regulation of Basal Ganglia Glutamate and GABA
    SCOTT RAWLS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our outcomes will be a first step in determining whether blocking endocannabinoid inactivation offers any therapeutic advantage over direct activation of cannabinoid receptors with marijuana. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  76. Optimizing Hearing Aid Fitting for Older Adults
    Robyn Cox; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..For these individuals, resources presently allocated to hearing aid purchase would be used more effectively for alternate rehabilitation methods. Outcomes of 100 bilateral hearing aid fittings will be evaluated. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  77. INTERMODAL TEMPORAL INFORMATION PROCESSING IN INFANTS
    DAVID LEWKOWICZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  78. Genetic Manipulation of Phasic Dopaminergic Activity
    Jeff Beeler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A computational model formalizing a hypothesized relationship between reinforcement learning and motivation and incorporating both phasic and tonic activity will be developed. ..
  79. Can beta-lactam antibiotics decrease morphine physical dependence?
    SCOTT RAWLS; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..