reaction time

Summary

Summary: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Speed of processing in the human visual system
    S Thorpe
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau and Cognition, Toulouse, France
    Nature 381:520-2. 1996
  2. ncbi The mismatch negativity (MMN) in basic research of central auditory processing: a review
    R Naatanen
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Neurophysiol 118:2544-90. 2007
  3. ncbi Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control
    John G Kerns
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Science 303:1023-6. 2004
  4. pmc The NimStim set of facial expressions: judgments from untrained research participants
    Nim Tottenham
    Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Psychiatry Res 168:242-9. 2009
  5. ncbi Theta burst stimulation of the human motor cortex
    Ying Zu Huang
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuron 45:201-6. 2005
  6. ncbi Grounding language in action
    Arthur M Glenberg
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 9:558-65. 2002
  7. ncbi Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices
    Timothy J Buschman
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, and Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 315:1860-2. 2007
  8. pmc The diffusion decision model: theory and data for two-choice decision tasks
    Roger Ratcliff
    Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, U S A
    Neural Comput 20:873-922. 2008
  9. ncbi The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex
    Etienne Koechlin
    Institut National de la Sante et de Recherche Medicale, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 9, quai St Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Science 302:1181-5. 2003
  10. ncbi Emotion drives attention: detecting the snake in the grass
    A Ohman
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Exp Psychol Gen 130:466-78. 2001

Research Grants

  1. Contextual cueing and implicit learning
    Yuhong Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. Contextual cueing and implicit learning
    Yuhong Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Post-Attentive Vision
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. Theoretical analysis of the effects of aging on memory and reaction time
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2010
  5. 3/4 Collaboration to Advance Negative Symptom Assessment in Schizophrenia
    William P Horan; Fiscal Year: 2010
  6. PSYCHOPHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN VISION
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 1993
  7. Effects of Anxiety on Interhemispheric Processing
    REBECCA COMPTON; Fiscal Year: 2004
  8. POSTATTENTIVE VISION
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2001
  9. Imaging Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Schizophrenia
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2009
  10. GLYCINE-KETAMINE INTERACTIONS IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2002

Detail Information

Publications235 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Speed of processing in the human visual system
    S Thorpe
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau and Cognition, Toulouse, France
    Nature 381:520-2. 1996
    ..ERP analysis revealed a frontal negativity specific to no-go trials that develops roughly 150 ms after stimulus onset. We conclude that the visual processing needed to perform this highly demanding task can be achieved in under 150 ms...
  2. ncbi The mismatch negativity (MMN) in basic research of central auditory processing: a review
    R Naatanen
    Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Neurophysiol 118:2544-90. 2007
    ..In addition, the MMN enables one to establish the brain processes underlying the initiation of attention switch to, conscious perception of, sound change in an unattended stimulus stream...
  3. ncbi Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control
    John G Kerns
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Science 303:1023-6. 2004
    ....
  4. pmc The NimStim set of facial expressions: judgments from untrained research participants
    Nim Tottenham
    Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Psychiatry Res 168:242-9. 2009
    ..The results lend empirical support for the validity and reliability of this set of facial expressions as determined by accurate identification of expressions and high intra-participant agreement across two testing sessions, respectively...
  5. ncbi Theta burst stimulation of the human motor cortex
    Ying Zu Huang
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuron 45:201-6. 2005
    ....
  6. ncbi Grounding language in action
    Arthur M Glenberg
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 9:558-65. 2002
    ..Instead, the data support an embodied theory of meaning that relates the meaning of sentences to human action...
  7. ncbi Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices
    Timothy J Buschman
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, and Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 315:1860-2. 2007
    ..This result indicates that top-down and bottom-up signals arise from the frontal and sensory cortex, respectively, and different modes of attention may emphasize synchrony at different frequencies...
  8. pmc The diffusion decision model: theory and data for two-choice decision tasks
    Roger Ratcliff
    Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, U S A
    Neural Comput 20:873-922. 2008
    ..The broad range of applications of the model is also reviewed, including research in the domains of aging and neurophysiology...
  9. ncbi The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex
    Etienne Koechlin
    Institut National de la Sante et de Recherche Medicale, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 9, quai St Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Science 302:1181-5. 2003
    ..The results support an unified modular model of cognitive control that describes the overall functional organization of the human lateral PFC and has basic methodological and theoretical implications...
  10. ncbi Emotion drives attention: detecting the snake in the grass
    A Ohman
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Exp Psychol Gen 130:466-78. 2001
    ..Thus, evolutionary relevant threatening stimuli were effective in capturing attention, and this effect was further facilitated if the stimulus was emotionally provocative...
  11. ncbi The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition
    T A Salthouse
    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332 0170, USA
    Psychol Rev 103:403-28. 1996
    ....
  12. doi Entrainment of neuronal oscillations as a mechanism of attentional selection
    Peter Lakatos
    Cognitive Neuroscience and Schizophrenia Program, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
    Science 320:110-3. 2008
    ..These instrumental functions of low-frequency oscillations support a conceptual framework that integrates numerous earlier findings...
  13. ncbi The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioural pharmacology and functional neurochemistry
    T W Robbins
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:362-80. 2002
    The developmental history and application of the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) for measuring effects of drugs and other manipulations on attentional performance (and stimulus control) in rats is reviewed.
  14. ncbi The neural basis of error detection: conflict monitoring and the error-related negativity
    Nick Yeung
    Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
    Psychol Rev 111:931-59. 2004
    ..It is concluded that the ERN can be explained in terms of response conflict and that monitoring for conflict may provide a simple mechanism for detecting errors...
  15. ncbi Motor-sensory recalibration leads to an illusory reversal of action and sensation
    Chess Stetson
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin Street, Suite 7046, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neuron 51:651-9. 2006
    ..This illusion-specific activation suggests that the brain maintains not only a recalibrated representation of timing, but also a less-plastic representation against which to compare it...
  16. ncbi Temporal prediction errors in a passive learning task activate human striatum
    Samuel M McClure
    Human Neuroimaging Lab, Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neuron 38:339-46. 2003
    ....
  17. ncbi Probabilistic decision making by slow reverberation in cortical circuits
    Xiao Jing Wang
    Volen Center for Complex Systems, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254, USA
    Neuron 36:955-68. 2002
    ....
  18. ncbi Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm
    Anthony G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 85:197-216. 2003
    ..This new algorithm strongly outperforms the earlier (conventional) procedure...
  19. ncbi The neural bases of momentary lapses in attention
    D H Weissman
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychiatry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Nat Neurosci 9:971-8. 2006
    ..Our findings provide a new, system-wide understanding of the patterns of brain activity that are associated with brief attentional lapses, which informs both theoretical and clinical models of goal-directed behavior...
  20. ncbi Response of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area during a combined visual discrimination reaction time task
    Jamie D Roitman
    Program in Neurobiology and Behavior, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, and Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7290, USA
    J Neurosci 22:9475-89. 2002
    ..A threshold level of LIP activity appears to mark the completion of the decision process and to govern the tradeoff between accuracy and speed of perception...
  21. ncbi Decision making, the P3, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychol Bull 131:510-32. 2005
    ....
  22. doi The neural basis of the speed-accuracy tradeoff
    Rafal Bogacz
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB, UK
    Trends Neurosci 33:10-6. 2010
    ..We also review current theories on how and where in the brain the SAT is controlled, and we end by proposing research directions that could distinguish between these theories...
  23. ncbi Functional links between motor and language systems
    Friedemann Pulvermüller
    Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Medical Research Council, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB2 2EF, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 21:793-7. 2005
    ....
  24. pmc Nucleus accumbens D2/3 receptors predict trait impulsivity and cocaine reinforcement
    Jeffrey W Dalley
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Science 315:1267-70. 2007
    ..These data demonstrate that trait impulsivity predicts cocaine reinforcement and that D2 receptor dysfunction in abstinent cocaine addicts may, in part, be determined by premorbid influences...
  25. ncbi Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory
    Michael W Eysenck
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London, London, United Kingdom
    Emotion 7:336-53. 2007
    ..g., enhanced effort; increased use of processing resources). Directions for future research are discussed...
  26. ncbi Visual word recognition of single-syllable words
    David A Balota
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 133:283-316. 2004
    ..Discussion focuses on the utility of large-scale regression studies in providing a complementary approach to the standard factorial designs to investigate visual word recognition...
  27. pmc Interhemispheric inhibition of the human motor cortex
    A Ferbert
    MRC Human Movement and Balance Unit, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London
    J Physiol 453:525-46. 1992
    ..Similarly, H reflexes in relaxed forearm flexor muscles were unaffected by conditioning stimuli to the ipsilateral hemisphere. However, inhibition was observed if the experiment was repeated with the muscles active...
  28. ncbi Cortical and subcortical contributions to Stop signal response inhibition: role of the subthalamic nucleus
    Adam R Aron
    Department of Psychology, Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Neurosci 26:2424-33. 2006
    ..Future research is required to establish whether Stop-signal inhibition could be implemented via a direct functional neuroanatomic projection between IFC and STN (a "hyperdirect" pathway)...
  29. pmc Changes of mind in decision-making
    Arbora Resulaj
    Computational and Biological Learning Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
    Nature 461:263-6. 2009
    ..The theoretical and experimental findings advance the understanding of decision-making to the highly flexible and cognitive acts of vacillation and self-correction...
  30. ncbi ERP components on reaction errors and their functional significance: a tutorial
    M Falkenstein
    Institut fur Arbeitsphysiologie an der Universitat Dortmund IfADo, Abt für Sinnes und Neurophysiologie, Ardeystr 67, D 44139, Dortmund, Germany
    Biol Psychol 51:87-107. 2000
    ..Further research is necessary to specify the functional significance of the Pe...
  31. ncbi The timing of action-monitoring processes in the anterior cingulate cortex
    Vincent van Veen
    University of Pittsburgh and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 14:593-602. 2002
    ..Second, caudal ACC activity might be temporally dissociated from rostral ACC activity during error trials, which possibly reflects a separate, affective component of the evaluative functions of the ACC...
  32. ncbi The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology
    J M Williams
    Department of Psychology, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd
    Psychol Bull 120:3-24. 1996
    ..They address the causes and mechanisms underlying the phenomenon, focusing on J.D. Cohen, K. Dunbar, and J.L. McClelland's (1990) parallel distributed processing model...
  33. ncbi Cortical sources of the early components of the visual evoked potential
    Francesco Di Russo
    Department of Neurosciences, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093 0608, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 15:95-111. 2002
    ..These findings clarify the anatomical origin of these VEP components, which have been studied extensively in relation to visual-perceptual processes...
  34. doi Both the hippocampus and striatum are involved in consolidation of motor sequence memory
    Geneviève Albouy
    Cyclotron Research Centre, University of Liege, B 4000 Liege, Belgium
    Neuron 58:261-72. 2008
    ..These results show that both structures interact during motor sequence consolidation to optimize subsequent behavior...
  35. doi The simplest complete model of choice response time: linear ballistic accumulation
    Scott D Brown
    School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
    Cogn Psychol 57:153-78. 2008
    We propose a linear ballistic accumulator (LBA) model of decision making and reaction time. The LBA is simpler than other models of choice response time, with independent accumulators that race towards a common response threshold...
  36. ncbi Anterior cingulate cortex and response conflict: effects of frequency, inhibition and errors
    T S Braver
    Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
    Cereb Cortex 11:825-36. 2001
    ....
  37. ncbi 'Oops!': performance correlates of everyday attentional failures in traumatic brain injured and normal subjects
    I H Robertson
    Applied Psychology Unit, Rehabilitation Research Group, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, U K
    Neuropsychologia 35:747-58. 1997
    ..We also report a highly significant correlation of -0.58 between SART performance and Glasgow Coma Scale Scores in the TBI group...
  38. ncbi Electrophysiological correlates of anterior cingulate function in a go/no-go task: effects of response conflict and trial type frequency
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 3:17-26. 2003
    ..Instead, the results are consistent with the view that the N2 in go/no-go tasks reflects conflict arising from competition between the execution and the inhibition of a single response...
  39. ncbi Frontal theta activity in humans increases with memory load in a working memory task
    Ole Jensen
    Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, FIN 02015 HUT, Finland
    Eur J Neurosci 15:1395-9. 2002
    ..Following the memory task the theta activity was reduced. These results suggest that theta oscillations generated in frontal brain regions play an active role in memory maintenance...
  40. ncbi On the locus of speed-accuracy trade-off in reaction time: inferences from the lateralized readiness potential
    Gerhard Rinkenauer
    General Psychology and Research Methods, Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    J Exp Psychol Gen 133:261-82. 2004
    Lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) were used to determine the stage(s) of reaction time (RT) responsible for speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATs)...
  41. pmc A comparison of sequential sampling models for two-choice reaction time
    Roger Ratcliff
    Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Psychol Rev 111:333-67. 2004
    ..The relationship between these models and 3 recent, neurally inspired models was also examined...
  42. doi Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain
    Chun Siong Soon
    Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstrasse 1a, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Nat Neurosci 11:543-5. 2008
    ..This delay presumably reflects the operation of a network of high-level control areas that begin to prepare an upcoming decision long before it enters awareness...
  43. doi Transient induced gamma-band response in EEG as a manifestation of miniature saccades
    Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
    Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
    Neuron 58:429-41. 2008
    ..Thus, whereas neuronal gamma-band oscillations were shown conclusively with other methods, the broadband transient iGBR recorded by scalp EEG reflects properties of miniature saccade dynamics rather than neuronal oscillations...
  44. ncbi Listening to action-related sentences modulates the activity of the motor system: a combined TMS and behavioral study
    G Buccino
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma, Via Volturno 39, 43100 Parma, Italy
    Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 24:355-63. 2005
    ..The present data show that processing verbally presented actions activates different sectors of the motor system, depending on the effector used in the listened-to action...
  45. ncbi Horse-race model simulations of the stop-signal procedure
    Guido P H Band
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Leiden University, PO Box 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, The Netherlands
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 112:105-42. 2003
    ..The simulations indicate that, under most conditions, the latency, but not variability, of response inhibition can be reliably estimated...
  46. ncbi A controlled-attention view of working-memory capacity
    M J Kane
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 130:169-83. 2001
    ..In both experiments, low-span participants performed poorly when task switching from antisaccade to prosaccade blocks. The findings support a controlled-attention view of WM capacity...
  47. ncbi Lesions of the human amygdala impair enhanced perception of emotionally salient events
    A K Anderson
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 411:305-9. 2001
    ..Our results reveal a neural substrate for affective influences on perception, indicating that similar neural mechanisms may underlie the affective modulation of both recollective and perceptual experience...
  48. pmc Meta-analysis of Go/No-go tasks demonstrating that fMRI activation associated with response inhibition is task-dependent
    Daniel J Simmonds
    Kennedy Krieger Institute, 707 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Neuropsychologia 46:224-32. 2008
    ....
  49. ncbi The capacity of visual short-term memory is set both by visual information load and by number of objects
    G A Alvarez
    Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Psychol Sci 15:106-11. 2004
    ..Thus, both the visual information load and number of objects impose capacity limits on visual short-term memory...
  50. pmc Striatum and pre-SMA facilitate decision-making under time pressure
    Birte U Forstmann
    Department of Psychology, Amsterdam Center for the Study of Adaptive Control in Brain and Behavior, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:17538-42. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that when people have to make decisions under time pressure their striatum and pre-SMA show increased levels of activation...
  51. ncbi Conscious control over the content of unconscious cognition
    Wilfried Kunde
    Department of Psychology, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, 06099 Halle Saale, Germany
    Cognition 88:223-42. 2003
    ..The intentional creation of such triggers allows actors to control the way unconscious stimuli bias their behaviour...
  52. ncbi Control over location-based response activation in the Simon task: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence
    Birgit Stürmer
    Biological Psychology Psychophysiology, Institute for Psychology, Humboldt University at Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 28:1345-63. 2002
    ..Although exact repetitions of stimulus-response sequences caused a marked speed-up of responses, this 3rd mechanism is independent of unconditional route suppression and frequency-based adjustments in the conditional route...
  53. ncbi Fitting the Ratcliff diffusion model to experimental data
    Joachm Vandekerckhove
    University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Psychon Bull Rev 14:1011-26. 2007
    Many experiments in psychology yield both reaction time and accuracy data. However, no off-the-shelf methods yet exist for the statistical analysis of such data...
  54. doi Bounded integration in parietal cortex underlies decisions even when viewing duration is dictated by the environment
    Roozbeh Kiani
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Primate Research Center, and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Neurosci 28:3017-29. 2008
    ..Thus, the readout of visual cortex embraces a termination rule to limit processing even when potentially useful information is available...
  55. ncbi The gamma cycle
    Pascal Fries
    F C Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 EN Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Trends Neurosci 30:309-16. 2007
    ..This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue Physiogenic and pathogenic oscillations: the beauty and the beast, based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (http://inmednet.com)...
  56. ncbi Cognitive control mechanisms resolve conflict through cortical amplification of task-relevant information
    Tobias Egner
    Functional MRI Research Center, Columbia University, Neurological Institute, Box 108, 710 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nat Neurosci 8:1784-90. 2005
    ..These results implicate attentional target-feature amplification as the primary mechanism for conflict resolution through cognitive control...
  57. doi Behavioural characterisation of high impulsivity on the 5-choice serial reaction time task: specific deficits in 'waiting' versus 'stopping'
    E S J Robinson
    Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Experimental Psychology, Cambridge, UK
    Behav Brain Res 196:310-6. 2009
    ..Rats selected for high levels of impulsivity on a reaction time task analogous to the continuous performance test in humans exhibited correspondingly high levels of impulsive ..
  58. ncbi Look away: the anti-saccade task and the voluntary control of eye movement
    Douglas P Munoz
    Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Department of Physiology, CIHR Group in Sensory Motor Systems, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:218-28. 2004
  59. ncbi Compatibility between observed and executed finger movements: comparing symbolic, spatial, and imitative cues
    M Brass
    Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Leipzig, Germany
    Brain Cogn 44:124-43. 2000
    ..The results are discussed in relation to recent models of stimulus-response compatibility. Neurocognitive support for the strong relationship between movement observation and movement execution is reported...
  60. ncbi Anterior cingulate cortex, conflict monitoring, and levels of processing
    V van Veen
    Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Neuroimage 14:1302-8. 2001
    ..Although both types of conflict caused reaction time interference, the fMRI data showed that the ACC is responsive only to response conflict, even when controlling ..
  61. ncbi Magnocellular projections as the trigger of top-down facilitation in recognition
    Kestutis Kveraga
    Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    J Neurosci 27:13232-40. 2007
    ....
  62. doi Microsaccades: a neurophysiological analysis
    Susana Martinez-Conde
    Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA
    Trends Neurosci 32:463-75. 2009
    ..We also point out the current gaps in our understanding of the neurobiology of microsaccades and identify the most promising lines of enquiry...
  63. ncbi Ultra-rapid object detection with saccadic eye movements: visual processing speed revisited
    Holle Kirchner
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition UMR 5549, CNRS Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Faculte de Medecine de Rangueil, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France
    Vision Res 46:1762-76. 2006
    ..The results suggest a very fast and unexpected route linking visual processing in the ventral stream with the programming of saccadic eye movements...
  64. ncbi Hold your horses: impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and medication in parkinsonism
    Michael J Frank
    Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Science 318:1309-12. 2007
    ..These findings implicate independent mechanisms leading to impulsivity in treated Parkinson's patients and were predicted by a single neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia...
  65. pmc Timing, timing, timing: fast decoding of object information from intracranial field potentials in human visual cortex
    Hesheng Liu
    Department of Neuroscience and Ophthalmology, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 62:281-90. 2009
    ..The fast decoding in single trials is compatible with feedforward theories and provides strong constraints for computational models of human vision...
  66. doi Topographic ERP analyses: a step-by-step tutorial review
    Micah M Murray
    Electroencephalography Brain Mapping Core, Center for Biomedical Imaging of Lausanne and Geneva, Radiologie CHUV BH08 078, Bugnon 46 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Brain Topogr 20:249-64. 2008
    ....
  67. ncbi Dissociation of automatic and strategic lexical-semantics: functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for differing roles of multiple frontotemporal regions
    Brian T Gold
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Chandler Medical Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 0298, USA
    J Neurosci 26:6523-32. 2006
    ..These studies provide reproducible evidence for a neural dissociation between three well established components of the lexical-semantic processing system...
  68. ncbi Impulsive personality predicts dopamine-dependent changes in frontostriatal activity during component processes of working memory
    Roshan Cools
    Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 3190, USA
    J Neurosci 27:5506-14. 2007
    ..The present results provide a key link between dopamine D2 receptor function, impulsivity, and frontostriatal activity during component processes of working memory...
  69. ncbi Triangulating a cognitive control network using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI
    Adam R Aron
    Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Neurosci 27:3743-52. 2007
    ..The results also demonstrate a three-way functional-anatomical network in the right hemisphere that could either brake or completely stop responses...
  70. ncbi The time course of visual processing: from early perception to decision-making
    R VanRullen
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, France
    J Cogn Neurosci 13:454-61. 2001
    ..Although average ERP responses reflect the visual category of the stimulus shortly after visual processing has begun (e.g. 75-80 msec), this difference is not correlated with the subject's behavior until 150 msec poststimulus...
  71. ncbi Early activation of object names in visual search
    Antje S Meyer
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England
    Psychon Bull Rev 14:710-6. 2007
    ..The results imply that semantic and name information associated with the objects becomes rapidly available and affects the allocation of visual attention...
  72. ncbi Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test
    A G Greenwald
    Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 1525, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 74:1464-80. 1998
    ..Korean + pleasant for Japanese vs. Korean subjects), and (c) consciously disavowed evaluative differences (Black + pleasant vs. White + pleasant for self-described unprejudiced White subjects)...
  73. ncbi Facilitation of implicit motor learning by weak transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex in the human
    Michael A Nitsche
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
    J Cogn Neurosci 15:619-26. 2003
    ..During performance of a serial reaction time task, the primary motor cortex, premotor, or prefrontal cortices were stimulated contralaterally to the ..
  74. ncbi How two share a task: corepresenting stimulus-response mappings
    Natalie Sebanz
    Department of Psychology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark College of Arts and Sciences, Newark, NJ 07102, USA
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 31:1234-46. 2005
    ..Pairs of participants performed a reaction time (RT) task alongside each other, responding to 2 different dimensions of the same stimulus...
  75. pmc Capture of the eyes by relevant and irrelevant onsets
    Manon Mulckhuyse
    Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Exp Brain Res 186:225-35. 2008
    ..We conclude that the task relevance of a salient event is not crucial for capture of the eyes to occur. Moreover, task-relevant information may integrate with saliency information to initiate saccades, but only later in time...
  76. doi Extent of microstructural white matter injury in postconcussive syndrome correlates with impaired cognitive reaction time: a 3T diffusion tensor imaging study of mild traumatic brain injury
    S N Niogi
    Department of Psychiatry, Sackler Institute, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29:967-73. 2008
    ..We hypothesized that for mild TBI, DTI measures of DAI would correlate with impairments in reaction time, whereas the number of focal lesions on conventional 3T MR imaging would not.
  77. ncbi The face-sensitive N170 and VPP components manifest the same brain processes: the effect of reference electrode site
    Carrie Joyce
    Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 116:2613-31. 2005
    ....
  78. ncbi Sleep inspires insight
    Ullrich Wagner
    Department of Neuroendocrinology, University of Lubeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    Nature 427:352-5. 2004
    ..We conclude that sleep, by restructuring new memory representations, facilitates extraction of explicit knowledge and insightful behaviour...
  79. ncbi A limit to the speed of processing in ultra-rapid visual categorization of novel natural scenes
    M Fabre-Thorpe
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau and Cognition UMR 5549, CNRS UPS, Faculte de Medecine de Rangueil, Toulouse, France
    J Cogn Neurosci 13:171-80. 2001
    ....
  80. ncbi Top-down search strategies cannot override attentional capture
    Jan Theeuwes
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychon Bull Rev 11:65-70. 2004
    ..It is argued that the notion of differential search modes may be incorrect and that the results can be explained in terms of bottom-up salience signals...
  81. doi A candidate for the attentional bottleneck: set-size specific modulation of the right TPJ during attentive enumeration
    Petra Vetter
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, UK
    J Cogn Neurosci 23:728-36. 2011
    ..Thus, the rTPJ may play an important role for the emergence of a capacity limit in both enumeration and visual short-term memory...
  82. ncbi A computational account of altered error processing in older age: dopamine and the error-related negativity
    Sander Nieuwenhuis
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2:19-36. 2002
    ..These age changes could be simulated by manipulation of a single parameter of the neurocomputational model, this manipulation corresponding to weakened phasic activity of the mesencephalic dopamine system...
  83. doi Sub-optimal performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats was sensitive to methylphenidate, atomoxetine and d-amphetamine, but unaffected by the COMT inhibitor tolcapone
    Neil E Paterson
    Behavioral Pharmacology, PsychoGenics, Inc, Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA
    Neurosci Res 69:41-50. 2011
    ..norepinephrine (NE) are implicated in multiple aspects of cognitive function assessed via the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in rodents...
  84. ncbi A neural basis for social cooperation
    James Rilling
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Neuron 35:395-405. 2002
    ..We propose that activation of this neural network positively reinforces reciprocal altruism, thereby motivating subjects to resist the temptation to selfishly accept but not reciprocate favors...
  85. ncbi Is it a bird? Is it a plane? Ultra-rapid visual categorisation of natural and artifactual objects
    R VanRullen
    Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, UMR 5549, CNRS UPS, 133 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse, France
    Perception 30:655-68. 2001
    ....
  86. doi Does subitizing reflect numerical estimation?
    Susannah K Revkin
    INSERM, U562, Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, Gif Yvette, France
    Psychol Sci 19:607-14. 2008
    ....
  87. doi This is the rhythm of your eyes: the phase of ongoing electroencephalogram oscillations modulates saccadic reaction time
    Jan Drewes
    Universite de Toulouse, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse, France
    J Neurosci 31:4698-708. 2011
    ..Although classic models of reaction time generation consider this variability to reflect intrinsic noise, some portion of it could also be attributed ..
  88. doi Unconscious attentional orienting to exogenous cues: A review of the literature
    Manon Mulckhuyse
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Acta Psychol (Amst) 134:299-309. 2010
    ..Moreover, a possible neural network including superior colliculus, pulvinar and amygdala is suggested as the underlying mechanism...
  89. ncbi Prefrontal-cingulate interactions in action monitoring
    W J Gehring
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 525 East University Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Nat Neurosci 3:516-20. 2000
    ..Lateral prefrontal damage also affected corrective behavior. Thus the lateral prefrontal cortex seemed to interact with the anterior cingulate cortex in monitoring behavior and in guiding compensatory systems...
  90. ncbi The brain locus of interaction between number and size: a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potential study
    Roi Cohen Kadosh
    Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    J Cogn Neurosci 19:957-70. 2007
    ..We concluded that the processing of magnitude can be subserved by shared or distinct neural substrates, depending on task requirements...
  91. ncbi Bridging the gap between monkey neurophysiology and human perception: an ambiguity resolution theory of visual selective attention
    S J Luck
    Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242 1407, USA
    Cogn Psychol 33:64-87. 1997
    ..These human electrophysiological results provide a bridge between cognitive-level theories of visual attention and the behavior of individual neurons in visual cortex...
  92. ncbi Capacity limits for face processing
    Markus Bindemann
    Department of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Cognition 98:177-97. 2005
    ..We suggest that these experiments demonstrate a capacity limit for visual processing in these conditions, such that no more than one face is processed at a time...
  93. ncbi The human striatum is necessary for responding to changes in stimulus relevance
    R Cools
    Behavioral and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, UK
    J Cogn Neurosci 18:1973-83. 2006
    ....
  94. ncbi Differential effects of psychomotor stimulants on attentional performance in rats: nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate
    L Bizarro
    Section of Behavioural Pharmacology, Institute of Psychiatry P049, King s College London, UK
    Behav Pharmacol 15:195-206. 2004
    Nicotine can improve attentional performance in the rat as assessed by a modified five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), but it is not known if the effect is shared with other psychomotor stimulants...
  95. ncbi Haloperidol impairs learning and error-related negativity in humans
    Patrick J Zirnheld
    Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 16:1098-112. 2004
    ..on the stimulus-locked P1 and N2 ERPs or on behavioral response latencies, but tended to affect post-error reaction time (RT) latencies in opposite ways (haloperidol decreased and diphenhydramine increased RTs)...
  96. ncbi Cognitive and brain consequences of conflict
    Jin Fan
    Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, 10021, USA
    Neuroimage 18:42-57. 2003
    ....
  97. ncbi Motor processes in mental rotation
    M Wexler
    Laboratoire de la Physiologie de la Perception et de l Action, CNRS College de France, Paris, France
    Cognition 68:77-94. 1998
    ..Fourth, the preceding effect is sensitive not only to the direction of the motor rotation, but also to the motor speed. A change in the speed of motor rotation can correspondingly slow down or speed up the mental rotation...
  98. pmc The effect of non-visual working memory load on top-down modulation of visual processing
    Jesse Rissman
    Henry H Wheeler Jr Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, USA
    Neuropsychologia 47:1637-46. 2009
    ..Cooney, J. W., Rissman, J., & D'Esposito, M. (2005). Top-down suppression deficit underlies working memory impairment in normal aging. Nature Neuroscience 8, 1298-1300], suggesting the possibility of a common underlying mechanism...
  99. ncbi Effects of distracting stimuli on CNV amplitude and reaction time
    F Travis
    Psychology Department, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, IA 52557, USA
    Int J Psychophysiol 31:45-50. 1998
    The present study investigated the reliability of CNV distraction and rebound effects, and their relation with reaction time. Twenty-four subjects were presented three blocks of trials: (1) a control block--a fixed foreperiod reaction ..
  100. doi Revisiting the role of spatial frequencies in the holistic processing of faces
    Olivia S Cheung
    Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37203, USA
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 34:1327-36. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that it is necessary to use measures that take response biases into account in order to fully understand the holistic nature of face processing...
  101. doi Salience representation in the parietal and frontal cortex
    Alexandre Zenon
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Neuroscience, Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Bruxelles, Belgium
    J Cogn Neurosci 22:918-30. 2010
    ..In particular, the present study suggests that ANG is involved in goal-directed salience representation, whereas FEF would rather house a global salience map integrating both goal-directed and stimulus-driven factors...

Research Grants209 found, 100 shown here

  1. Contextual cueing and implicit learning
    Yuhong Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding its cognitive and neural mechanisms is the first step toward understanding this ability in normal adults as well as in those whose explicit learning and memory mechanisms are impaired. ..
  2. Contextual cueing and implicit learning
    Yuhong Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Understanding its cognitive and neural mechanisms is the first step toward understanding this ability in normal adults as well as in those whose explicit learning and memory mechanisms are impaired. ..
  3. Post-Attentive Vision
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Taken together, the results of this program of research will test hypotheses that tie our understanding of visual search to our understanding of short and longer term visual memory. ..
  4. Theoretical analysis of the effects of aging on memory and reaction time
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  5. 3/4 Collaboration to Advance Negative Symptom Assessment in Schizophrenia
    William P Horan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This state-of-the art instrument will play a central role in the NIMH initiative to stimulate the development of new treatments aimed at reducing the disability associated with negative symptoms. ..
  6. PSYCHOPHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN VISION
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..g. Can the color module be asked simultaneously about "red" and "green" items?)...
  7. Effects of Anxiety on Interhemispheric Processing
    REBECCA COMPTON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Application of the ERP methodology for measuring interhemispheric transmission is expected to produce a detailed picture of how emotional relevance affects the spread of information from one hemisphere to another. ..
  8. POSTATTENTIVE VISION
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In a second, curve tracing paradigm, Ss must determine if two dots lie on the same of different curves. Reaction time in this task is dependent on the distance along the curve between the dots...
  9. Imaging Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Schizophrenia
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This grant application proposes to use brain imaging to study the nicotine receptor system in schizophrenia. ..
  10. GLYCINE-KETAMINE INTERACTIONS IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Pilot data (n=12) towards this proposal suggests that glycine reduces ketamine-induced perceptual alterations, negative symptoms and impairments on recall without worsening positive symptoms. ..
  11. Prevalence effects in visual search: Theoretical and practical implications
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  12. NEUROBIOLOGY OF CANNABIS EFFECTS
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  13. NEURAL RECORDINGS AND REACTION TIME MODELS
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Prevalence effects in visual search: Theoretical and practical implications
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  15. Response Selection as a Function of Age
    Robert Proctor; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These guidelines will lead to development of products and environments that allow elderly adults to remain more independent and to engage safely in more activities in their daily lives. ..
  16. Modeling the Effects of Aging on Memory
    Robert Proctor; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In addition, the studies will demonstrate that perceptual processing abilities must be considered and either controlled for or manipulated in cognitive aging research. ..
  17. RETRIEVAL PROCESSES IN MEMORY
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Investigation is planned in five, theoretically related domains. First, three models of choice reaction time will be tested using data from simple perceptual decision tasks and from higher level cognitive tasks...
  18. NEUROBIOLOGY OF CANNABIS BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Secondary measures include measures of drug liking, movement rating scales and long term follow-up assessment of cannabis use. ..
  19. Imaging Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Schizophrenia
    DEEPAK CYRIL contact D apos SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This grant application proposes to use brain imaging to study the nicotine receptor system in schizophrenia. ..
  20. NEUROBIOLOGY OF CANNABIS EFFECTS
    DEEPAK D SOUZA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  21. PSYCHOPHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN VISION
    Jeremy Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..He will expand the Guided Search model to handle additional data (e.g. eye movements in visual search and the "attentional blink"). ..
  22. Prevalence effects in visual search: Theoretical and practical implications
    Jeremy M Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  23. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: clinical and neurobiological features
    Jamie Feusner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This project will also allow Dr. Feusner to meet his training objectives. ..
  24. Cognitive neuroscience of temporal processing
    H Coslett; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Finally, we propose to use transcranial magnetic stimulation to identify specific brain regions that are necessary for normal temporal processing. ..
  25. RETRIEVAL PROCESSES IN MEMORY
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Investigation is planned in five theoretically related domains. In the first domain, three models of choice reaction time (the diffusion model, the OU model, and the accumulator model) will be tested against data from simple ..
  26. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF AGING ON REACTION TIME
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..adapted from investigator's abstract): The investigator proposes to bring theoretical modeling from the reaction time domain to bear on the domain of aging and reaction time...
  27. Hangover, Congeners, Sleep and Occupational Performance
    Jonathan Howland; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Our occupational model will be merchant ship navigation by maritime academy cadets. Performance will be measured using computer-based interactive ship training simulators. ..
  28. Dynamics of Spoken Word Comprehension in Aphasia
    Daniel Mirman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The investigations are likely to contribute substantially to the understanding of language impairments in aphasia and to the development of novel rehabilitation strategies for aphasia. ..
  29. Developing Brain Function in Adolescent Bipolar Disorder
    Mani N Pavuluri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  30. ARE FEDERAL REGULATIONS ON ALCOHOL USE SAFE
    Jonathan Howland; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The results of this study will provide information on the risks of hangovers for injury and may inform public policy on alcohol use in conjunction with commercial ship operation. ..
  31. AUDITORY ADAPTATION FOR SUPRATHRESHOLD STIMULI
    Dennis McFadden; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Listening sessions will run about 2 hours/day, 5 days/week, for the full semester. For the aspirin experiments, there will be full medical screening and oversight...
  32. ARE FEDERAL REGULATIONS ON ALCOHOL USE SAFE
    Jonathan Howland; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The results of this study will provide information on the risks of hangovers for injury and may inform public policy on alcohol use in conjunction with commercial ship operation. ..
  33. Developing Brain Function in Adolescent Bipolar Disorder
    Mani N Pavuluri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  34. Medullary Circuitry of Pain Facilitation
    Mary M Heinricher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The work proposed in this application will study the properties of pain-modulating neurons in the brainstem to determine how they are altered to support chronic pain. ..
  35. SPATIAL INFLUENCES ON LANGUAGE FUNCTION
    H Coslett; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Affective Neuroscience of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder
    Mani N Pavuluri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This model will provide future opportunities for preventive efforts by facilitating early identification, moving a step closer to safer, more effective and neurobiologically informed early interventions for youths affected by PBD. ..
  37. MOTOR TRAINING FOR FALL PREVENTION: ADAPTATION AND RETENTION IN OLDER ADULTS
    YI CHUNG CLIVE PAI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  38. MOLECULAR VARIABLES AFFECTING CHOICE BEHAVIOR
    JAMES MAZUR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  39. MOTOR TRAINING FOR FALL PREVENTION: ADAPTATION AND RETENTION IN OLDER ADULTS
    Yi Chung Pai; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  40. Predictors of Pathological Gambling among African-American Young Adults
    Silvia Martins; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....