reinforcement schedule

Summary

Summary: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Nucleus accumbens core lesions retard instrumental learning and performance with delayed reinforcement in the rat
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    BMC Neurosci 6:9. 2005
  2. pmc Stimuli inevitably generated by behavior that avoids electric shock are inherently reinforcing
    J A Dinsmoor
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405 7007, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 75:311-33. 2001
  3. ncbi Second-order schedules of drug reinforcement in rats and monkeys: measurement of reinforcing efficacy and drug-seeking behaviour
    B J Everitt
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 153:17-30. 2000
  4. ncbi Alcohol seeking by rats: action or habit?
    Anthony Dickinson
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Q J Exp Psychol B 55:331-48. 2002
  5. pmc Alpha-conotoxin MII-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell regulate progressive ratio responding maintained by nicotine
    Darlene H Brunzell
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:665-73. 2010
  6. pmc Distinct contributions of dopamine in the dorsolateral striatum and nucleus accumbens shell to the reinforcing properties of cocaine
    Maartje M J Veeneman
    Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:487-98. 2012
  7. pmc Choice between reinforcer delays versus choice between reinforcer magnitudes: differential Fos expression in the orbital prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core
    S da Costa Araújo
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
    Behav Brain Res 213:269-77. 2010
  8. pmc Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala
    J M Moscarello
    Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 9660, USA
    Behav Brain Res 197:9-15. 2009
  9. pmc Bouts of responding from variable-interval reinforcement of lever pressing by rats
    Richard L Shull
    Department of Psychology, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6170, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 80:159-71. 2003
  10. ncbi Stimulation of serotonin2C receptors influences cocaine-seeking behavior in response to drug-associated stimuli in rats
    Silvia Burbassi
    Experimental Psychopharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 196:15-27. 2008

Detail Information

Publications268 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Nucleus accumbens core lesions retard instrumental learning and performance with delayed reinforcement in the rat
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    BMC Neurosci 6:9. 2005
    ....
  2. pmc Stimuli inevitably generated by behavior that avoids electric shock are inherently reinforcing
    J A Dinsmoor
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405 7007, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 75:311-33. 2001
    ....
  3. ncbi Second-order schedules of drug reinforcement in rats and monkeys: measurement of reinforcing efficacy and drug-seeking behaviour
    B J Everitt
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 153:17-30. 2000
    ....
  4. ncbi Alcohol seeking by rats: action or habit?
    Anthony Dickinson
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Q J Exp Psychol B 55:331-48. 2002
    ....
  5. pmc Alpha-conotoxin MII-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell regulate progressive ratio responding maintained by nicotine
    Darlene H Brunzell
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:665-73. 2010
    ..These data suggest that alpha6beta2(*)nAChRs in the NAc shell regulate motivational aspects of nicotine reinforcement but not nicotine-associated locomotor activation...
  6. pmc Distinct contributions of dopamine in the dorsolateral striatum and nucleus accumbens shell to the reinforcing properties of cocaine
    Maartje M J Veeneman
    Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:487-98. 2012
    ..We suggest that the DLS and the NAcc shell mediate somewhat distinct facets of the reinforcing properties of cocaine, related to its rewarding and motivational aspects, respectively...
  7. pmc Choice between reinforcer delays versus choice between reinforcer magnitudes: differential Fos expression in the orbital prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core
    S da Costa Araújo
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
    Behav Brain Res 213:269-77. 2010
    ..The results are consistent with previous findings that implicated the AcbC and OPFC in delay discounting, and the OPFC in sensitivity to reinforcer size...
  8. pmc Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala
    J M Moscarello
    Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 9660, USA
    Behav Brain Res 197:9-15. 2009
    ....
  9. pmc Bouts of responding from variable-interval reinforcement of lever pressing by rats
    Richard L Shull
    Department of Psychology, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6170, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 80:159-71. 2003
    Four rats obtained food pellets by lever pressing. A variable-interval reinforcement schedule assigned reinforcers on average every 2 min during one block of 20 sessions and on average every 8 min during another block...
  10. ncbi Stimulation of serotonin2C receptors influences cocaine-seeking behavior in response to drug-associated stimuli in rats
    Silvia Burbassi
    Experimental Psychopharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 196:15-27. 2008
    ....
  11. pmc The neural correlates of subjective value during intertemporal choice
    Joseph W Kable
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:1625-33. 2007
    ..This similarity provides unambiguous evidence that the subjective value of potential rewards is explicitly represented in the human brain...
  12. ncbi Nicotine maintains robust self-administration in rats on a limited-access schedule
    W A Corrigall
    Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 99:473-8. 1989
    ..These results demonstrate that intravenous nicotine can maintain substantial self-administration behavior in rodents...
  13. pmc Dynamic response-by-response models of matching behavior in rhesus monkeys
    Brian Lau
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 84:555-79. 2005
    ....
  14. pmc Weighing up the benefits of work: behavioral and neural analyses of effort-related decision making
    M E Walton
    Department of Experimental Psychology, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK
    Neural Netw 19:1302-14. 2006
    ..We suggest that top-down signals from ACC to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and/or midbrain DA cells may be vital for overcoming effort-related response costs...
  15. ncbi Double dissociation of the effects of selective nucleus accumbens core and shell lesions on impulsive-choice behaviour and salience learning in rats
    Helen H J Pothuizen
    Laboratory of Behavioural Neurobiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Schorenstrasse 16, CH 8603 Schwerzenbach, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 22:2605-16. 2005
    ....
  16. ncbi Effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on inter-temporal choice: further observations with an adjusting-delay procedure
    S da Costa Araújo
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Behav Brain Res 202:272-7. 2009
    ..The results are consistent with previous findings that indicate a role for the AcbC in delay discounting...
  17. ncbi The misbehavior of value and the discipline of the will
    Peter Dayan
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, UCL, 17 Queen Square, London, UK
    Neural Netw 19:1153-60. 2006
    ..The misbehavior created by Pavlovian values can be quite debilitating; we discuss how it may be disciplined...
  18. pmc Interactive effects of the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP and the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 on nicotine self-administration and reward deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats
    Matthias E Liechti
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 554:164-74. 2007
    ....
  19. ncbi Enhancing effects of nicotine and impairing effects of scopolamine on distinct aspects of performance in computerized attention and working memory tasks in marmoset monkeys
    Simona Spinelli
    Behavioural Neurobiology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Schorenstrasse 16, CH 8603 Schwerzenbach, Switzerland
    Neuropharmacology 51:238-50. 2006
    ..These data are consistent with a dissociation of the roles of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the regulation of both sustained attention and working memory in primates...
  20. pmc Effect of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on performance on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement: implications for inter-temporal choice
    G Bezzina
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 197:339-50. 2008
    ..Recent evidence suggests that it is not crucial for determining the incentive value of immediately available reinforcers, but is important for maintaining the values of delayed reinforcers...
  21. ncbi Quantitative analysis of the effects of some "atypical" and "conventional" antipsychotics on progressive ratio schedule performance
    Z Zhang
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:489-97. 2005
    ..In a previous experiment we found that the "atypical" antipsychotic clozapine increased alpha, indicating an increase in the efficacy of a food reinforcer...
  22. pmc Role of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCvarepsilon) in the reduction of ethanol reinforcement due to mGluR5 antagonism in the nucleus accumbens shell
    Justin T Gass
    Center for Drug and Alcohol Programs, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 67 President Street, MSC 861, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:587-97. 2009
    ....
  23. pmc The delta opioid receptor antagonist, SoRI-9409, decreases yohimbine stress-induced reinstatement of ethanol-seeking
    Carsten K Nielsen
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California San Francisco, 5858 Horton Street, Emeryville, CA, USA
    Addict Biol 17:224-34. 2012
    ..This suggests that the DOP-R plays an important role in yohimbine-stress-induced reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior, and DOP-R antagonists may be promising candidates for further development as a treatment for AUDs...
  24. pmc Attenuation of reinstatement of methamphetamine-, sucrose-, and food-seeking behavior in rats by fenobam, a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 negative allosteric modulator
    Lucas R Watterson
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, PO Box 871104, 950 S McAllister Avenue, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:151-9. 2013
    ..Furthermore, there are currently no pharmacological treatment interventions approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment of METH addiction...
  25. pmc Within-subject comparison of real and hypothetical money rewards in delay discounting
    Matthe W Johnson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 77:129-46. 2002
    ..A hyperbolic decay model described the data better than an exponential model...
  26. ncbi Cocaine seeking by rats is a goal-directed action
    M C Olmstead
    Department of Psychology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    Behav Neurosci 115:394-402. 2001
    ..These findings demonstrate that seeking responses for cocaine and food rewards are mediated by a representation of the contingency between seeking responses and the opportunity to take the reward...
  27. pmc Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) microinfusions into the nucleus accumbens shell or ventral tegmental area attenuate the reinforcing effects of nicotine in rats
    Manoranjan S D'Souza
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Neuropharmacology 61:1399-405. 2011
    ..In conclusion, MPEP microinfusions in the VTA or NAcc shell attenuates the reinforcing effects of nicotine possibly via blockade of mGlu5 receptors located in these regions...
  28. pmc A comparison of economic demand and conditioned-cued reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking or food-seeking in rats
    Chad M Galuska
    Department of Psychology, College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina 29424, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 22:312-23. 2011
    ..Demand elasticity thus provides a useful measure of abuse liability that may predict future relapse to renewed drug-seeking and drug use...
  29. pmc Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the striatum of non-human primates: dysregulation following chronic cocaine self-administration
    T J R Beveridge
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Neurosci Lett 496:15-9. 2011
    ..Cocaine-induced dysregulation of the glutamate system, and its consequent impact on plasticity and synaptic remodeling, will likely be an important consideration in the development of novel pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction...
  30. pmc Effects of step size and break-point criterion on progressive-ratio performance
    D Stafford
    University of Florida, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 70:123-38. 1998
    ..This function also provided an excellent description of data drawn from previous reports...
  31. ncbi The GABA-B positive modulator GS39783 decreases psychostimulant conditioned-reinforcement and conditioned-reward
    Briac Halbout
    Department of Biology, Neurosciences CEDD, Italy
    Addict Biol 16:416-27. 2011
    ....
  32. ncbi Behavioral effects of intra-cranial self-stimulation in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Espen Borgå Johansen
    Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, P O Box 1103, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Behav Brain Res 162:32-46. 2005
    ..Overall, more responses with short inter-response times (IRT) were found in the SHR compared to the controls during intermittent reinforcement. The results are consistent with a steepened delay-of-reinforcement gradient in SHR...
  33. ncbi Occasion setting of timing behavior
    Charlotte Bonardi
    School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 33:339-48. 2007
    ..This manipulation did not have a substantial effect on discrimination performance. These results are discussed with reference to theories of occasion setting, timing, and configural learning...
  34. ncbi N-Acetylcysteine reduces early- and late-stage cocaine seeking without affecting cocaine taking in rats
    Jennifer E Murray
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Addict Biol 17:437-40. 2012
    ..The results indicate that NAC is able to significantly diminish the propensity to seek cocaine early and late in the development of addiction and, taken together with previous work, indicates significant potential in relapse prevention...
  35. pmc Interresponse time structures in variable-ratio and variable-interval schedules
    Matthew T Bowers
    Department of Psychology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL 36265, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 90:345-62. 2008
    ....
  36. pmc The sensitivity of response rate to the rate of variable-interval reinforcement for pigeons and rats: a review
    Richard L Shull
    Department of Psychology, Box 26170, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27402 6170, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 84:99-110. 2005
    ....
  37. ncbi Learning about associations: evidence for a hierarchical account of occasion setting
    Charlotte Bonardi
    School of Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, University Park Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 35:440-5. 2009
    ..e., x --> -, y --> +). The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to theories of occasion setting and of configural learning...
  38. pmc Evidence for motivational effects elicited by activation of GABA-A or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell
    David Wirtshafter
    Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Psychology M C 285, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1007 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60607 7137, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 96:342-6. 2010
    ..Breaking points were also increased by injections of amphetamine into the AcbSh...
  39. ncbi Dynamic behavioural changes in the Spontaneously Hyperactive Rat: 1. Control by place, timing, and reinforcement rate
    Jonathan Williams
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, United Kingdom
    Behav Brain Res 198:273-82. 2009
    ..We therefore test the prediction that the SHR learns too fast. Using a variable interval reinforcement schedule, we looked for increased responding within each interval, at around the durations of the last three ..
  40. pmc Bouts of responding on variable-interval schedules: effects of deprivation level
    Richard L Shull
    Department of Psychology, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6170, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 81:155-67. 2004
    ..Thus, when the focus is on bouts, the performances maintained by variable-interval schedules and fixed-ratio schedules are similarly affected by deprivation...
  41. pmc Reinforcing effects of stimulants in humans: sensitivity of progressive-ratio schedules
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 College of Medicine Office Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 16:503-12. 2008
    ..Future research is necessary, however, to understand better how pharmacological factors like route of administration, onset of effects, and pretreatment influence the reinforcing effects of stimulants under progressive-ratio schedules...
  42. pmc Characterizing operant hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat
    Jade C Hill
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 1104, USA
    Behav Brain Funct 8:5. 2012
    ..This claim was evaluated in the present study using a novel strategy, based on the organization of behavior in bouts of reinforced responses separated by pauses...
  43. ncbi The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A reduces appetitive and consummatory responses for food
    Zoe D Thornton-Jones
    Department of Psychology, John Maynard Smith Building, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex, BN1 9QG, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:452-60. 2005
    ..The CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A reduces food intake in rats. This effect is likely to depend on modulation of reward related processes...
  44. pmc Control of within-binge cocaine-seeking by dopamine and glutamate in the core of nucleus accumbens
    Nobuyoshi Suto
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, NIDA NIH DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:431-9. 2009
    ..Dopamine and glutamate are thought to interact in the ventral striatum and to play important roles there in the cocaine-seeking of cocaine-experienced animals...
  45. pmc Fos expression in the orbital prefrontal cortex after exposure to the fixed-interval peak procedure
    L Valencia-Torres
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Behav Brain Res 229:372-7. 2012
    ..However, there was no significant difference between the levels of Fos expression in the dorsal or ventral striatum of the rats trained under the two schedules...
  46. pmc Shifts in the psychophysical function in rats
    Paulo Guilhardi
    Department of Psychology, Brown University, Box 1853, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Behav Processes 75:167-75. 2007
    ..In addition, results not originally reported were also consistent between rats and pigeons, and provided insights into the perception, memory, and decision processes in Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time Theory...
  47. pmc The role of the nucleus accumbens core in impulsive choice, timing, and reward processing
    Tiffany Galtress
    Department of Psychology, University of York, UK
    Behav Neurosci 124:26-43. 2010
    ..The results indicate that the nucleus accumbens core is critical for determining the incentive value of rewards, but does not participate in the timing of reward delays...
  48. ncbi Schedule-dependent effects of haloperidol and amphetamine: multiple-schedule task shows within-subject effects
    W F Caul
    Department of Psychology, Wilson Hall, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 68:53-63. 2001
    ..The results with AM emphasize that statements about the effects of the drug on positively reinforced behavior cannot be made without reference to specific schedules of reinforcement...
  49. pmc Response rate viewed as engagement bouts: resistance to extinction
    Richard L Shull
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6164, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 77:211-31. 2002
    ..g., Nevin & Grace, 2000) that resistance to extinction in the presence of a discriminative stimulus is determined more by the stimulus-reinforcer (Pavlovian) than by the stimulus-response-reinforcer (operant) contingency...
  50. ncbi Response disinhibition may be explained as an extinction deficit in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Espen Borgå Johansen
    Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, P O Box 1103, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Behav Brain Res 149:183-96. 2004
    ..The extinction deficit in the SHR may be linked to reinforcer unpredictability and the presence of conditioned reinforcers, and may explain response disinhibition seen in children with ADHD...
  51. ncbi Genetic and pharmacological evidence that 5-HT2C receptor activation, but not inhibition, affects motivation to feed under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement
    Paul J Fletcher
    Section of Biopsychology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 97:170-8. 2010
    ....
  52. pmc The isolation of motivational, motoric, and schedule effects on operant performance: a modeling approach
    Ryan J Brackney
    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 96:17-38. 2011
    ..These findings support the use of response-bout analyses to identify the influence of pharmacological manipulations on processes underlying operant performance...
  53. ncbi The role of prelimbic cortex in instrumental conditioning
    Laura H Corbit
    Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Behav Brain Res 146:145-57. 2003
    ....
  54. ncbi Compulsive drug seeking by rats under punishment: effects of drug taking history
    Yann Pelloux
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 194:127-37. 2007
    ..Abstinence from drug occurs in human addicts for several reasons, including the avoidance of adverse consequences...
  55. ncbi Supply of a nondrug substitute reduces escalated heroin consumption
    Magalie Lenoir
    University Victor Segalen Bordeaux2, CNRS UMR 5227, 146 rue Leo Saignat, Bordeaux, France
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:2272-82. 2008
    ..Escalated drug use may therefore persist, not so much because of a relative devaluation of nondrug substitutes, but because of a loss or reduction of their availability...
  56. ncbi Slower extinction of responses maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Espen Borgå Johansen
    Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, Norway Centre for Advanced Study, P O Box 1103 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Behav Brain Res 162:22-31. 2005
    ..Slower extinction of previously reinforced behavior is suggested as an alternative explanation for the frequently observed increased behavioral output that has previously been interpreted as "disinhibition" of behavior in ADHD...
  57. ncbi Effects of extended-access self-administration and deprivation on breakpoints maintained by cocaine in rats
    Yu Liu
    Neuroscience Program, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:644-51. 2005
    ..Animal models that identify the effects of self-administration histories on subsequent patterns, levels of intake, and other aspects of reinforcement will help clarify the controlling variables of human drug use...
  58. ncbi Effects of delayed reinforcers on the behavior of an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Espen Borgå Johansen
    Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, P O Box 1003, Blindern, N 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Behav Brain Res 162:47-61. 2005
    ..In general, the results support predictions from the suggested steepened delay gradient in SHR. However, the predictions were only partly confirmed by the analyses of the decay parameter...
  59. ncbi Dopamine neuronal responses in monkeys performing visually cued reward schedules
    Sabrina Ravel
    Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bldg 49, Rm 1B80, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 24:277-90. 2006
    ..Thus, dopamine neurons seem to respond to behaviourally important, i.e. salient, events even when the events have been well-predicted...
  60. ncbi The beta2 but not alpha7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is required for nicotine-conditioned place preference in mice
    Carrie L Walters
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184:339-44. 2006
    ..Although it is generally recognized that tobacco use is correlated with a variety of health-related complications, many smokers are unsuccessful in their efforts to stop smoking using current cessation therapies...
  61. ncbi Comparison of the reinforcing effects of cocaine and cocaine/heroin combinations under progressive ratio and choice schedules in rats
    Sara Jane Ward
    Neuroscience Program, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:286-95. 2005
    ..These apparently discrepant results demonstrate that these models are measuring different aspects of drug reinforcement, and suggest that choice procedures in rats provide a useful tool to study speedball self-administration...
  62. ncbi Cooperative activation of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell is required for the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in the rat
    H D Schmidt
    Department of Pharmacology, L 603, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Neuroscience 142:451-61. 2006
    ..1 microg) promoted cocaine-seeking behavior. Collectively, these results indicate that cooperative activation of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell is necessary to reinstate cocaine seeking in rats...
  63. ncbi Memory for timing visual and auditory signals in albino and pigmented rats
    Catalin V Buhusi
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 31:18-30. 2005
    ....
  64. ncbi Nucleus accumbens and delay discounting in rats: evidence from a new quantitative protocol for analysing inter-temporal choice
    L Valencia-Torres
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 219:271-83. 2012
    ..There is evidence that the core of the nucleus accumbens (AcbC) is involved in inter-temporal choice behaviour...
  65. pmc Demand for cocaine and food over time
    Chesley J Christensen
    American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20016, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 91:209-16. 2008
    ..These results show that the strength of cocaine, but not food, increases with increased experience. Measures of time-based changes in essential value may serve as a basis for distinguishing addictive from non-addictive reinforcers...
  66. pmc Response rate viewed as engagement bouts: effects of relative reinforcement and schedule type
    R L Shull
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6164, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 75:247-74. 2001
    ..The tandem VR, in contrast, increased the number of responses per visit. Thus, variables that have similar effects on total response rate can be differentiated based on their effects on the componemts of response rate...
  67. ncbi Subthalamic nucleus lesions increase impulsive action and decrease impulsive choice - mediation by enhanced incentive motivation?
    Jason M Uslaner
    Biopsychology and Neuroscience Programs, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, East Hall, 525 E University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48019 1109, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 24:2345-54. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that the STN may serve as a novel target for the treatment of psychological disorders characterized by deficits in behavioral control, such as drug addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
  68. pmc Shifts in the psychometric function and their implications for models of timing
    A Machado
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 74:25-54. 2000
    ..This pattern of shifts of the psychometric function is inconsistent with SET. In contrast, LeT provided a good quantitative fit to the data...
  69. pmc Hippocampal regulation of contextual cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior
    Alison L Atkins
    Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:481-91. 2008
    ..The hippocampus is important for acquisition of the association between cocaine and context and in maintaining discrimination between cocaine-relevant and -irrelevant contextual cues...
  70. ncbi Sensitivity to delay of reinforcement in two animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Karen R Sutherland
    Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Behav Brain Res 205:372-6. 2009
    ..These findings support the use of the SHR and GH rat to model altered response to reinforcement, and demonstrate the additional value of the GH strain to model the effects of individual instances of reinforcement in children with ADHD...
  71. ncbi Baclofen prevents drug-induced reinstatement of extinguished nicotine-seeking behaviour and nicotine place preference in rodents
    Liana Fattore
    Institute of Neuroscience, Section of Cagliari, National Research Council CNR, c o Department of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria of Monserrato, Italy
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 19:487-98. 2009
    ..3 mg/kg) CPP in mice. Altogether, our results showed that baclofen is able to antagonise reinstatement of nicotine-seeking and CPP triggered by nicotine primings, suggesting its potential clinical utility as an anti-relapse agent...
  72. ncbi Nucleus accumbens opioid, GABaergic, and dopaminergic modulation of palatable food motivation: contrasting effects revealed by a progressive ratio study in the rat
    Min Zhang
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, 53715, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:202-11. 2003
    ....
  73. pmc Delayed reinforcement of operant behavior
    Kennon A Lattal
    Department of Psychology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26056 6040, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 93:129-39. 2010
    ..The final question is one of interpreting delay of reinforcement effects. It centers on the role of the response-reinforcer temporal relation in the context of other, concurrently operating behavioral processes...
  74. ncbi The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP decreased nicotine self-administration in rats and mice
    Neil E Paterson
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:257-64. 2003
    ..Metabotropic glutamate receptors 5 (mGluR5) are found in the nucleus accumbens and may play a role in modulating the post-synaptic response to both glutamate and dopamine...
  75. ncbi The role of dopamine in the prelimbic cortex and the dorsomedial striatum in instrumental conditioning
    Bjoern Lex
    Abteilung Tierphysiologie, Biologisches Institut, Universitat Stuttgart, D 70550 Stuttgart, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 20:873-83. 2010
    ..Therefore, pDMS DA signaling seems not to be involved in maintaining lever pressing but instead contributes to instrumental conditioning by supporting the detection of causal relationships between an action and its consequences...
  76. ncbi Variability of drug self-administration in rats
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:9-19. 2003
    ..Although temporal patterns of drug self-administration in animals are known to be highly regular, this regularity has rarely been quantified or systematically compared across reinforcers...
  77. ncbi Lead exposure and dorsomedial striatum mediation of fixed interval schedule-controlled behavior
    Deborah A Cory-Slechta
    Samueli Institute for Informational Biology, Program on Neuroprotection, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:313-27. 2002
    ....
  78. pmc Dissociation of the effects of MTEP [3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]piperidine] on conditioned reinstatement and reinforcement: comparison between cocaine and a conventional reinforcer
    R Martin-Fardon
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, SP30 2120, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329:1084-90. 2009
    ..These observations identify mGluR5 as potential treatment targets for cocaine relapse prevention, although the profile of action of mGluR5 antagonists remains to be more closely examined for potential anhedonic effects...
  79. ncbi Reinforcement value of sucrose measured by progressive ratio operant licking in the rat
    Anthony Sclafani
    Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College and the Graduate School, The City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11210 2889, USA
    Physiol Behav 79:663-70. 2003
    ..These results are similar to those reported with PR lever-pressing tasks. Thus, PR operant licking, which requires minimal training and equipment, is a useful alternate measure of fluid reward in rodents...
  80. ncbi Rats self-administer intravenous nicotine delivered in a novel smoking-relevant procedure: effects of dopamine antagonists
    Robert E Sorge
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 330:633-40. 2009
    ..In conclusion, our new slow/low nicotine self-administration procedure, designed to better mimic smoking-associated nicotine intake, is pharmacologically distinct from the conventional fast delivery/high-dose procedure...
  81. ncbi Effects of postnatal exposure of monkeys to a PCB mixture on spatial discrimination reversal and DRL performance
    D C Rice
    Toxicology Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 20:391-400. 1998
    ....
  82. ncbi Sex differences in operant discrimination behaviour in an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    D F Berger
    Department of Psychology, State University of New York College at Cortland, 13045, USA
    Behav Brain Res 94:73-82. 1998
    ..The present study strengthens the position of SHR as an animal model of ADHD for future studies that may elucidate details in the underlying neurobiological deficits and for testing various treatment strategies...
  83. ncbi The subthalamic nucleus exerts opposite control on cocaine and 'natural' rewards
    Christelle Baunez
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de la Cognition, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6155 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université de Provence, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Nat Neurosci 8:484-9. 2005
    ..Modulating the activity of the subthalamic nucleus might prove to be a new target for the treatment of cocaine addiction...
  84. pmc Delay-amount tradeoffs in choices by pigeons and rats: hyperbolic versus exponential discounting
    James E Mazur
    Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 91:197-211. 2009
    ....
  85. pmc Operant sensation seeking engages similar neural substrates to operant drug seeking in C57 mice
    Christopher M Olsen
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 0615, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1685-94. 2009
    ..OSS may have predictive validity for screening compounds for use in the treatment of drug addiction. In addition, we also discuss the potential relevance of this animal model to the field of behavioral addictions...
  86. ncbi Schedule-controlled behavior in rats exposed perinatally to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254
    M M Taylor
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 24:511-8. 2002
    ..These data are inconsistent with previous findings and suggest that perinatal A1254 exposure in the rat does not disrupt temporally organized behavior...
  87. ncbi New operant model of nicotine-seeking behaviour in mice
    Elena Martin-Garcia
    Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12:343-56. 2009
    ..The validation of this new model of nicotine-seeking behaviour and reinstatement in mice provides an important tool to help clarify the genetic and neurochemical bases of nicotine addiction...
  88. ncbi Effects of 8-OH-DPAT and WAY-100635 on performance on a time-constrained progressive-ratio schedule
    M Y Ho
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, NG7 2UH, Nottingham, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:137-44. 2003
    ....
  89. ncbi A reliable method to study cue-, priming-, and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine self-administration in mice
    Guadalupe Soria
    Laboratorio de Neurofarmacologia, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, C Dr Aiguader 88, Barcelona, Spain
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:593-603. 2008
    ..The design of an appropriate reinstatement model in mice is required in order to use genetically modified animals with the aim of clarifying the mechanisms involved in cocaine relapse...
  90. ncbi Effects of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the orbital prefrontal cortex on inter-temporal choice: a quantitative analysis
    S Kheramin
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165:9-17. 2002
    ..Inter-temporal choice behaviour (choice between reinforcers differing in size and delay) has been proposed as a model of "impulsive choice" in animals...
  91. ncbi Differential effects of nucleus accumbens core, shell, or dorsal striatal inactivations on the persistence, reacquisition, or reinstatement of responding for a drug-paired conditioned reinforcer
    Patricia Di Ciano
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1413-25. 2008
    ..These results are discussed with reference to the neural systems involved in different aspects of responding maintained by drug-paired conditioned reinforcers...
  92. pmc Effects of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on inter-temporal choice: a quantitative analysis
    G Bezzina
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109 Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 195:71-84. 2007
    ..It is not known whether this reflects an effect of the lesion on the rate of delay discounting, on sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude, or both...
  93. pmc Isolating behavioral mechanisms of intertemporal choice: nicotine effects on delay discounting and amount sensitivity
    Matthew L Locey
    Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 91:213-23. 2009
    ..In addition, it may be necessary to include an amount sensitivity parameter in any mathematical model of choice when the alternatives differ in reinforcer amount...
  94. ncbi Cocaine self-administration under fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement: comparison of C57BL/6J, 129X1/SvJ, and 129S6/SvEvTac inbred mice
    Morgane Thomsen
    Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, McLean Hospital Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA, 02478, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184:145-54. 2006
    ..Specifically, cocaine may have reduced reinforcing effects in 129 substrains compared to the C57BL/6 strain, commonly used for ES cells and breeding, respectively...
  95. pmc Response inhibition during Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL) schedules may be sensitive to low-level polychlorinated biphenyl, methylmercury, and lead exposure in children
    Paul W Stewart
    Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Oswego, Oswego, New York 13126, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1923-9. 2006
    ..The Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates task (DRL) has been shown to be especially sensitive to low-level PCB exposure in monkeys...
  96. ncbi Interactions of the basolateral amygdala with the dorsal hippocampus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex regulate drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats
    Rita A Fuchs
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, CB 3270, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3270, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 26:487-98. 2007
    ....
  97. pmc Nucleus accumbens shell and core involvement in drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats
    Rita A Fuchs
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, CB no 3270, Davie Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3270, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 200:545-56. 2008
    ..However, it is not known whether the NAC or its subregions are critical for reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior produced by re-exposure to a previously cocaine-paired environmental context...
  98. pmc Nucleus accumbens lesions decrease sensitivity to rapid changes in the delay to reinforcement
    Ashley Acheson
    University of Chicago, Department of Psychiatry, Chicago, IL 60637, United States
    Behav Brain Res 173:217-28. 2006
    ..NAC lesions may disrupt the ability of the animals to predict the timing of delayed rewards when the delay to reward is changed frequently...
  99. pmc Effect of reinforcer magnitude on performance maintained by progressive-ratio schedules
    J F Rickard
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    J Exp Anal Behav 91:75-87. 2009
    ..Implications of the results for the quantification of reinforcer value and for the use of progressive-ratio schedules in behavioral neuroscience are discussed...
  100. ncbi Effect of postnatal exposure to a PCB mixture in monkeys on multiple fixed interval-fixed ratio performance
    D C Rice
    Toxicology Research Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 19:429-34. 1997
    ....
  101. ncbi Non-linear dynamics of operant behavior: a new approach via the extended return map
    Jay Shake Li
    Institute of Physiological Psychology, Center for Biological and Medical Research, University of Dusseldorf, Germany
    Rev Neurosci 13:31-57. 2002
    ..This example demonstrated the ERM to be a useful tool for the analysis of IRT accompanying intermittent reinforcement schedules and for the study of the non-linear dynamics of operant behavior...

Research Grants66

  1. Behavioral economy to treat physical inactivity
    Alejandro Terrazas; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The embedded processors enable the implementation of an individually-tailored reinforcement schedule allowing the user to begin an exercise program at their appropriate fitness level and progress ..
  2. Novel Delta Opioids: Analgesic Effects & Abuse Liability
    SIDNEY NEGUS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  3. Transporter maintenance of dopamine homeostasis
    CLARE WILHELM; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  4. IV COCAINE ABUSE TREATMENT: A LABORATORY MODEL
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Behavioral Factors in Drug Tolerance
    MARC BRANCH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Understanding of the processes that occur under long-term, intermittent exposure should facilitate the development of effective treatment and, especially, prevention programs. ..
  6. Uncertainty and stimulant self-administration
    PAUL R VEZINA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This finding suggests that the variable reinforcement schedule elicited neuroplastic changes similar to those produced by repeated psychostimulant exposure known to ..
  7. The role of phasic dopamine release in cue-evoked motivated behaviors
    MATTHEW J WANAT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..release in the NAcc to cues predicting reinforcer availability in rats during an operant task with a PR reinforcement schedule for either natural reinforcers (Aim 1) or drugs of abuse (Aim 2)...
  8. ORALLY DELIVERED COCAINE AS A REINFORCER
    RICHARD MEISCH; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..the amount of behavior subjects must emit prior to drug delivery (specifically, the size of a fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule), (3) feeding conditions (restricted feeding vs...
  9. BIOFEEDBACK APPARATUS FOR HOME TREATMENT OF BRUXISM
    DAVID NEMIR; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..unit will be programmable to ignore a percentage of bruxing events, thus implementing the selectable reinforcement schedule thought necessary by learning theorists...
  10. The neurobiology of human reinforcement learning throughout the lifespan
    ROBB RUTLEDGE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..elderly subjects matches the predictions of animal reinforcement learning models in a task with a dynamic reinforcement schedule and to identify any age-related changes in reinforcement learning that might stem from normal age-related ..
  11. MOLECULAR VARIABLES AFFECTING CHOICE BEHAVIOR
    JAMES MAZUR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  12. LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF COCAINE ABSTINENCE
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. BEHAVIORAL PHARMACOLOGY OF DRUG SELF-ADMINISTRATION
    William Woolverton; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Alcohol Cues:Opioid Anatagonism/ Behavioral Economics
    TIMOTHY SHAHAN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Future studies could examine the role of specific opioid receptor subtypes or other receptor systems in the effects of alcohol cues and their relationship to genetic susceptibility to alcoholism. ..
  15. Divided Attention and Reinforcement Variables
    TIMOTHY SHAHAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  16. DOPAMINERGIC MECHANISMS IN STIMULANT SELF-ADMINISTRATION
    William Woolverton; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. Self-administration of drug combinations: Polydrug abuse
    William L Woolverton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Moreover, our model should provide key information for the development of improved strategies for the treatment of polydrag abuse. ..
  18. DETERMINANTS OF DRUG CHOICE
    William Woolverton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Further, an understanding of the variables that control the choice to self-administer a drug is crucial to the refinement of drug abuse treatment. ..
  19. Age, ethanol, and strain effects on the behavioral pharmacology of cannabinoids
    BRETT GINSBURG; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This project will help us understand how aging, exposure to ethanol, and perhaps genetic disposition change the behavioral response to these drugs. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  20. Models for examining selective effects of pharmacotherapy on reinforced behaviors
    BRETT GINSBURG; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This project will clarify important factors involved in studies of alcohol effects and potential medications for alcoholics. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. Dynamic Models of Reconditioning
    Peter Killeen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..By providing statistically powerful tests of competing models of underlying behavioral machinery, we may get closer to understanding how to mitigate such fatal obsessions. ..
  22. Primate Model of the Transition to Cocaine Addiction
    JAMES ROWLETT; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results will provide needed information for developing a nonhuman primate model that can serve as a quantitative platform for future research on neuroadaptations underlying the transition to persistent cocaine self-administration. ..
  23. Nonhuman Primate Model of Benzodiazepine Relapse
    JAMES ROWLETT; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  24. Ethanol Discrimination in Transgenic Mice
    KEITH SHELTON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..background to the ethanol's discriminative ctimnlnc effects. ..
  25. Behavior Change: Reinforcemnt Schedule Effects
    John Roll; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Based on the widespread success of contingency management across many different applications, we believe that the results of the proposed study will have 9enerality beyond the field of substance abuse treatment. ..
  26. TREATING COCAINE ABUSE: A BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
    Stephen Higgins; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Responses and Equivalence Classes
    Peter Urcuioli; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Reinforced Variability and Operant Behavior
    Allen Neuringer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These experiments analyze an important, but still not well-understood, aspect of behavior, namely, the control over behavioral variations exerted by reinforcing consequences. ..
  29. Voucher-based incentives to treat pregnant smokers
    Stephen T Higgins; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Overall, the proposed studies have the potential to contribute important new information on effective treatments for one of our nation's most daunting drug abuse problems. ..
  30. Contingency Management: Duration Effects
    John Roll; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This is timely, given the burgeoning rates of methamphetamine abuse being reported. ..
  31. Translational Research on NCR Interventions for Behavior Disorders
    ISER DELEON; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This project will determine the extent to these side effects occur as a first step towards determining how they can be avoided. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  32. Effects of Chronic THC in Adolescence
    Peter J Winsauer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together, data from these experiments will demonstrate how drug abuse and hormonal status during adolescence may permanently alter brain function and the liability of subsequent abuse of A9-THC. ..
  33. Women and Smoking: Understanding Socioeconomic Influences
    Stephen Higgins; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  34. CB1 Receptors: Cocaine Reinforcement and Relapse
    Sara Ward; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The second goal is to employ this set of procedures to assess the role of the CB1 receptor system in cocaine's reinforcing effects and relapse to cocaine seeking. ..
  35. CHANGES IN REINFORCER VALUE AND REINFORCER RELATIVITY
    FRANCES MCSWEENEY; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Because operant principles are often used to understand and to treat health-related problems (e.g., drug taking, obesity), this research may have many implications for both theory and practice in the area of health. ..
  36. Human Behavorial Pharmacology of GHB
    John Roll; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  37. DETERMINANTS OF CHOICE
    George Collier; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Knowledge of the fundamental processes by which environmental and physiological factors interact to affect behavioral choice is prerequisite for a complete analysis of human feeding and regulation and their associated disorders. ..
  38. Establishment and Durability of Reinforcing Stimuli
    ISER DELEON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..g., self-injury) in the target population, can be used effectively in this manner following exposure to the value enhancement procedures. ..
  39. Human Methamphetamine Use: A Model
    John Roll; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Studies using laboratory models of human drug use can inform subsequent clinical trials and help to focus them on those variables which are likely to be important. ..
  40. ADOLESCENT SMOKING CESSATION
    John Roll; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Secondarily, the proposed study will provide valuable information on the nicotine withdrawal syndrome in adolescents, a topic about which relatively little is known. ..
  41. Future Directions in Contingency Management Research
    Stephen Higgins; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..g., cognitive behavior therapy). Critical discussion of these issues is important to the future of CM and to the research agenda of NIDA. ..
  42. Modeling choice in interventions for behavior disorders
    JAMES MACDONALL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed research will help in understanding how to design interventions that help individuals make better choices. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  43. Modeling Initial Smoking Abstinence and Relapse Risk
    Stephen T Higgins; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  44. Examining Contingency Control Deficits in Autism and MR
    Louis Hagopian; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed investigation can be used to set up future comparative research to contrast EF and operant approaches to the performance deficits displayed by individuals with autism. ..
  45. Developing a Model of Transitive Behavior
    Karen Lionello DeNolf; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Ultimately, this rat model will lead to advances in the assessment of non-language based symbolic behavior, and to applications in the fields of behavioral toxicology and animal models of developmental disabilities. ..
  46. Neurochemistry of Cocaine Reinforcement
    NICHOLAS GOEDERS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These results will also provide evidence of the role that is played by steroid hormones in shaping the functional activity of the brain. ..
  47. TREATMENT FOR DUALLY DEPENDENT METHADONE PATIENTS
    Nancy Petry; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  48. Effort-related Functions of Nucleus Accumbens Adenosine A2A Receptors
    John D Salamone; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  49. DEVELOPMENT OF OPIATE DEPENDENCE--NEURAL SUBSTRATES
    GERHARD SCHULTEIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..opioid dependence should provide information critical for prevention and treatment of opioid addiction, with particular emphasis on the role of acute dependence in the transition from casual drug use to loss of control and compulsive use ..
  50. Human Laboratory Model of Cocaine Treatment: Behavioral Economic Analysis
    Mark K Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  51. EXPERIMENTAL & THEORETICAL STUDIES: LEARNING MECHANISMS
    JOHN STADDON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The proposed work is intended to increase our basic understanding of how these systems work , hence aid in the search for means to eliminate or alleviate memory and learning disorders. ..
  52. Neuropharmacology of Learned Food Preferences
    Anthony Sclafani; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It will advance our understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in the development of food preferences and may provide insights into the clinical treatment of overeating and obesity. ..
  53. Escalating Cocaine Self-Administration: NMDA Mechanisms
    Richard Allen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. Dopamine D2 and Adenosine A2A roles:Tremulous Movements
    John Salamone; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  55. TEMPORAL DISCRIMINATION LEARNING
    Russell Church; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..An understanding of the mechanisms underlying timed performance may contribute to an understanding of these effects. ..
  56. Transition to Cocaine Abuse in Monkey:Role of Dopamine
    Michael Nader; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  57. MECHANISMS OF TIME DISCRIMINATION
    JONATHON CRYSTAL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. Withdrawl Kindling in Early Neuroadaptation to Ethanol
    GERHARD SCHULTEIS; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  59. Behavioral Treatment for College Student Cigarette Use
    CHRISTOPHER CORREIA; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  60. BIOBEHAVIORAL STUDIES OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE
    NANCY MELLO; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. Behavioral Economics in Closed Economies
    GREGORY MADDEN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Correct predictions will support the behavioral economic account of relative reinforcer efficacy. Experiment 2 will assess the same predictions using drug (alcohol self-administration) and non-drug reinforcers. ..
  62. MOTOR EFFECTS OF ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS
    John Salamone; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Taken together, the results of these experiments will help to identify the pharmacological characteristics and brain circuits that underlie the motor effects of clozapine. ..
  63. BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF NIGRAL D1 ANTAGONISM
    John Salamone; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  64. Self-administration of abused inhalants in mice
    Scott Bowen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  65. A Preclinical Model of Adolescent Toluene Abuse in Rats
    Scott Bowen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The model also has the potential to assist in devising effective treatments and prevention strategies for adolescent inhalant abuse. ..