reinforcement schedule

Summary

Summary: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Second-order schedules of drug reinforcement in rats and monkeys: measurement of reinforcing efficacy and drug-seeking behaviour
    B J Everitt
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 153:17-30. 2000
  2. ncbi Nucleus accumbens opioid, GABaergic, and dopaminergic modulation of palatable food motivation: contrasting effects revealed by a progressive ratio study in the rat
    Min Zhang
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, 53715, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:202-11. 2003
  3. ncbi Alcohol seeking by rats: action or habit?
    Anthony Dickinson
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Q J Exp Psychol B 55:331-48. 2002
  4. ncbi The beta2 but not alpha7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is required for nicotine-conditioned place preference in mice
    Carrie L Walters
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184:339-44. 2006
  5. pmc Response rate viewed as engagement bouts: effects of relative reinforcement and schedule type
    R L Shull
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6164, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 75:247-74. 2001
  6. pmc Bouts of responding from variable-interval reinforcement of lever pressing by rats
    Richard L Shull
    Department of Psychology, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6170, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 80:159-71. 2003
  7. ncbi Slower extinction of responses maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Espen Borgå Johansen
    Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, Norway Centre for Advanced Study, P O Box 1103 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Behav Brain Res 162:22-31. 2005
  8. pmc Choice between reinforcer delays versus choice between reinforcer magnitudes: differential Fos expression in the orbital prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core
    S da Costa Araújo
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
    Behav Brain Res 213:269-77. 2010
  9. pmc Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala
    J M Moscarello
    Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 9660, USA
    Behav Brain Res 197:9-15. 2009
  10. doi The role of dopamine in the prelimbic cortex and the dorsomedial striatum in instrumental conditioning
    Bjoern Lex
    Abteilung Tierphysiologie, Biologisches Institut, Universitat Stuttgart, D 70550 Stuttgart, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 20:873-83. 2010

Research Grants

  1. ANORECTIC DRUGS--ABUSE & BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF ACTION
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 1993
  2. Translational Approach to Models in Relapse
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. BEHAVIORAL DETERMINANTS OF COCAINE TOLERANCE
    MARC BRANCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. Behavioral economy to treat physical inactivity
    Alejandro Terrazas; Fiscal Year: 2006
  5. Translational Approach to Models in Relapse
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2009
  6. The neurobiology of human reinforcement learning throughout the lifespan
    ROBB RUTLEDGE; Fiscal Year: 2007
  7. Behavioral Factors in Drug Tolerance
    MARC BRANCH; Fiscal Year: 2006
  8. BEHAVIORAL PHARMACOLOGY OF OPIOID TOLERANCE
    Alice Young; Fiscal Year: 1991
  9. BEHAVIORAL DETERMINANTS OF COCAINE TOLERANCE
    MARC BRANCH; Fiscal Year: 2001
  10. MOLECULAR VARIABLES AFFECTING CHOICE BEHAVIOR
    JAMES MAZUR; Fiscal Year: 2007

Detail Information

Publications250 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Second-order schedules of drug reinforcement in rats and monkeys: measurement of reinforcing efficacy and drug-seeking behaviour
    B J Everitt
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 153:17-30. 2000
    ....
  2. ncbi Nucleus accumbens opioid, GABaergic, and dopaminergic modulation of palatable food motivation: contrasting effects revealed by a progressive ratio study in the rat
    Min Zhang
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, 53715, USA
    Behav Neurosci 117:202-11. 2003
    ....
  3. ncbi Alcohol seeking by rats: action or habit?
    Anthony Dickinson
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Q J Exp Psychol B 55:331-48. 2002
    ....
  4. ncbi The beta2 but not alpha7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is required for nicotine-conditioned place preference in mice
    Carrie L Walters
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184:339-44. 2006
    ..Although it is generally recognized that tobacco use is correlated with a variety of health-related complications, many smokers are unsuccessful in their efforts to stop smoking using current cessation therapies...
  5. pmc Response rate viewed as engagement bouts: effects of relative reinforcement and schedule type
    R L Shull
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6164, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 75:247-74. 2001
    ..The tandem VR, in contrast, increased the number of responses per visit. Thus, variables that have similar effects on total response rate can be differentiated based on their effects on the componemts of response rate...
  6. pmc Bouts of responding from variable-interval reinforcement of lever pressing by rats
    Richard L Shull
    Department of Psychology, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6170, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 80:159-71. 2003
    Four rats obtained food pellets by lever pressing. A variable-interval reinforcement schedule assigned reinforcers on average every 2 min during one block of 20 sessions and on average every 8 min during another block...
  7. ncbi Slower extinction of responses maintained by intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Espen Borgå Johansen
    Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, Norway Centre for Advanced Study, P O Box 1103 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Behav Brain Res 162:22-31. 2005
    ..Slower extinction of previously reinforced behavior is suggested as an alternative explanation for the frequently observed increased behavioral output that has previously been interpreted as "disinhibition" of behavior in ADHD...
  8. pmc Choice between reinforcer delays versus choice between reinforcer magnitudes: differential Fos expression in the orbital prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core
    S da Costa Araújo
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
    Behav Brain Res 213:269-77. 2010
    ..The results are consistent with previous findings that implicated the AcbC and OPFC in delay discounting, and the OPFC in sensitivity to reinforcer size...
  9. pmc Effects of food deprivation on goal-directed behavior, spontaneous locomotion, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala
    J M Moscarello
    Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 9660, USA
    Behav Brain Res 197:9-15. 2009
    ....
  10. doi The role of dopamine in the prelimbic cortex and the dorsomedial striatum in instrumental conditioning
    Bjoern Lex
    Abteilung Tierphysiologie, Biologisches Institut, Universitat Stuttgart, D 70550 Stuttgart, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 20:873-83. 2010
    ..Therefore, pDMS DA signaling seems not to be involved in maintaining lever pressing but instead contributes to instrumental conditioning by supporting the detection of causal relationships between an action and its consequences...
  11. ncbi Stimulation of serotonin2C receptors influences cocaine-seeking behavior in response to drug-associated stimuli in rats
    Silvia Burbassi
    Experimental Psychopharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 196:15-27. 2008
    ....
  12. doi Nucleus accumbens and delay discounting in rats: evidence from a new quantitative protocol for analysing inter-temporal choice
    L Valencia-Torres
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 219:271-83. 2012
    ..There is evidence that the core of the nucleus accumbens (AcbC) is involved in inter-temporal choice behaviour...
  13. ncbi Compulsive drug seeking by rats under punishment: effects of drug taking history
    Yann Pelloux
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 194:127-37. 2007
    ..Abstinence from drug occurs in human addicts for several reasons, including the avoidance of adverse consequences...
  14. doi Sensitivity to delay of reinforcement in two animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Karen R Sutherland
    Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Behav Brain Res 205:372-6. 2009
    ..These findings support the use of the SHR and GH rat to model altered response to reinforcement, and demonstrate the additional value of the GH strain to model the effects of individual instances of reinforcement in children with ADHD...
  15. pmc The neural correlates of subjective value during intertemporal choice
    Joseph W Kable
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, Room 809, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:1625-33. 2007
    ..This similarity provides unambiguous evidence that the subjective value of potential rewards is explicitly represented in the human brain...
  16. ncbi Nicotine maintains robust self-administration in rats on a limited-access schedule
    W A Corrigall
    Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 99:473-8. 1989
    ..These results demonstrate that intravenous nicotine can maintain substantial self-administration behavior in rodents...
  17. doi Effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on inter-temporal choice: further observations with an adjusting-delay procedure
    S da Costa Araújo
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Behav Brain Res 202:272-7. 2009
    ..The results are consistent with previous findings that indicate a role for the AcbC in delay discounting...
  18. pmc Alpha-conotoxin MII-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell regulate progressive ratio responding maintained by nicotine
    Darlene H Brunzell
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:665-73. 2010
    ..These data suggest that alpha6beta2(*)nAChRs in the NAc shell regulate motivational aspects of nicotine reinforcement but not nicotine-associated locomotor activation...
  19. ncbi The misbehavior of value and the discipline of the will
    Peter Dayan
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, UCL, 17 Queen Square, London, UK
    Neural Netw 19:1153-60. 2006
    ..The misbehavior created by Pavlovian values can be quite debilitating; we discuss how it may be disciplined...
  20. ncbi Enhancing effects of nicotine and impairing effects of scopolamine on distinct aspects of performance in computerized attention and working memory tasks in marmoset monkeys
    Simona Spinelli
    Behavioural Neurobiology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Schorenstrasse 16, CH 8603 Schwerzenbach, Switzerland
    Neuropharmacology 51:238-50. 2006
    ..These data are consistent with a dissociation of the roles of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the regulation of both sustained attention and working memory in primates...
  21. pmc Interactive effects of the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP and the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 on nicotine self-administration and reward deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats
    Matthias E Liechti
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 554:164-74. 2007
    ....
  22. ncbi Cocaine seeking by rats is a goal-directed action
    M C Olmstead
    Department of Psychology, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    Behav Neurosci 115:394-402. 2001
    ..These findings demonstrate that seeking responses for cocaine and food rewards are mediated by a representation of the contingency between seeking responses and the opportunity to take the reward...
  23. ncbi Comparison of the reinforcing effects of cocaine and cocaine/heroin combinations under progressive ratio and choice schedules in rats
    Sara Jane Ward
    Neuroscience Program, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:286-95. 2005
    ..These apparently discrepant results demonstrate that these models are measuring different aspects of drug reinforcement, and suggest that choice procedures in rats provide a useful tool to study speedball self-administration...
  24. pmc The sensitivity of response rate to the rate of variable-interval reinforcement for pigeons and rats: a review
    Richard L Shull
    Department of Psychology, Box 26170, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27402 6170, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 84:99-110. 2005
    ....
  25. doi N-Acetylcysteine reduces early- and late-stage cocaine seeking without affecting cocaine taking in rats
    Jennifer E Murray
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Addict Biol 17:437-40. 2012
    ..The results indicate that NAC is able to significantly diminish the propensity to seek cocaine early and late in the development of addiction and, taken together with previous work, indicates significant potential in relapse prevention...
  26. ncbi Occasion setting of timing behavior
    Charlotte Bonardi
    School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 33:339-48. 2007
    ..This manipulation did not have a substantial effect on discrimination performance. These results are discussed with reference to theories of occasion setting, timing, and configural learning...
  27. ncbi Behavioral effects of intra-cranial self-stimulation in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Espen Borgå Johansen
    Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, P O Box 1103, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Behav Brain Res 162:32-46. 2005
    ..Overall, more responses with short inter-response times (IRT) were found in the SHR compared to the controls during intermittent reinforcement. The results are consistent with a steepened delay-of-reinforcement gradient in SHR...
  28. pmc Interresponse time structures in variable-ratio and variable-interval schedules
    Matthew T Bowers
    Department of Psychology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL 36265, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 90:345-62. 2008
    ....
  29. doi Learning about associations: evidence for a hierarchical account of occasion setting
    Charlotte Bonardi
    School of Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, University Park Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 35:440-5. 2009
    ..e., x --> -, y --> +). The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to theories of occasion setting and of configural learning...
  30. doi Dynamic behavioural changes in the Spontaneously Hyperactive Rat: 1. Control by place, timing, and reinforcement rate
    Jonathan Williams
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, United Kingdom
    Behav Brain Res 198:273-82. 2009
    ..We therefore test the prediction that the SHR learns too fast. Using a variable interval reinforcement schedule, we looked for increased responding within each interval, at around the durations of the last three ..
  31. pmc Control of within-binge cocaine-seeking by dopamine and glutamate in the core of nucleus accumbens
    Nobuyoshi Suto
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, NIDA NIH DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:431-9. 2009
    ..Dopamine and glutamate are thought to interact in the ventral striatum and to play important roles there in the cocaine-seeking of cocaine-experienced animals...
  32. pmc Reinforcing effects of stimulants in humans: sensitivity of progressive-ratio schedules
    William W Stoops
    Department of Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 140 College of Medicine Office Building, Lexington, KY 40536 0086, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 16:503-12. 2008
    ..Future research is necessary, however, to understand better how pharmacological factors like route of administration, onset of effects, and pretreatment influence the reinforcing effects of stimulants under progressive-ratio schedules...
  33. pmc Bouts of responding on variable-interval schedules: effects of deprivation level
    Richard L Shull
    Department of Psychology, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6170, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 81:155-67. 2004
    ..Thus, when the focus is on bouts, the performances maintained by variable-interval schedules and fixed-ratio schedules are similarly affected by deprivation...
  34. pmc Shifts in the psychophysical function in rats
    Paulo Guilhardi
    Department of Psychology, Brown University, Box 1853, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Behav Processes 75:167-75. 2007
    ..In addition, results not originally reported were also consistent between rats and pigeons, and provided insights into the perception, memory, and decision processes in Scalar Expectancy Theory and Learning-to-Time Theory...
  35. pmc Distinct contributions of dopamine in the dorsolateral striatum and nucleus accumbens shell to the reinforcing properties of cocaine
    Maartje M J Veeneman
    Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:487-98. 2012
    ..We suggest that the DLS and the NAcc shell mediate somewhat distinct facets of the reinforcing properties of cocaine, related to its rewarding and motivational aspects, respectively...
  36. pmc Evidence for motivational effects elicited by activation of GABA-A or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell
    David Wirtshafter
    Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Psychology M C 285, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1007 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60607 7137, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 96:342-6. 2010
    ..Breaking points were also increased by injections of amphetamine into the AcbSh...
  37. pmc Fos expression in the orbital prefrontal cortex after exposure to the fixed-interval peak procedure
    L Valencia-Torres
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Behav Brain Res 229:372-7. 2012
    ..However, there was no significant difference between the levels of Fos expression in the dorsal or ventral striatum of the rats trained under the two schedules...
  38. doi The role of the nucleus accumbens core in impulsive choice, timing, and reward processing
    Tiffany Galtress
    Department of Psychology, University of York, UK
    Behav Neurosci 124:26-43. 2010
    ..The results indicate that the nucleus accumbens core is critical for determining the incentive value of rewards, but does not participate in the timing of reward delays...
  39. ncbi Schedule-dependent effects of haloperidol and amphetamine: multiple-schedule task shows within-subject effects
    W F Caul
    Department of Psychology, Wilson Hall, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 68:53-63. 2001
    ..The results with AM emphasize that statements about the effects of the drug on positively reinforced behavior cannot be made without reference to specific schedules of reinforcement...
  40. pmc Characterizing operant hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat
    Jade C Hill
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 1104, USA
    Behav Brain Funct 8:5. 2012
    ..This claim was evaluated in the present study using a novel strategy, based on the organization of behavior in bouts of reinforced responses separated by pauses...
  41. ncbi The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A reduces appetitive and consummatory responses for food
    Zoe D Thornton-Jones
    Department of Psychology, John Maynard Smith Building, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex, BN1 9QG, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:452-60. 2005
    ..The CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A reduces food intake in rats. This effect is likely to depend on modulation of reward related processes...
  42. pmc Response rate viewed as engagement bouts: resistance to extinction
    Richard L Shull
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 27402 6164, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 77:211-31. 2002
    ..g., Nevin & Grace, 2000) that resistance to extinction in the presence of a discriminative stimulus is determined more by the stimulus-reinforcer (Pavlovian) than by the stimulus-response-reinforcer (operant) contingency...
  43. ncbi The role of prelimbic cortex in instrumental conditioning
    Laura H Corbit
    Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Behav Brain Res 146:145-57. 2003
    ....
  44. pmc The isolation of motivational, motoric, and schedule effects on operant performance: a modeling approach
    Ryan J Brackney
    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1104, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 96:17-38. 2011
    ..These findings support the use of response-bout analyses to identify the influence of pharmacological manipulations on processes underlying operant performance...
  45. ncbi Response disinhibition may be explained as an extinction deficit in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Espen Borgå Johansen
    Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, P O Box 1103, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Behav Brain Res 149:183-96. 2004
    ..The extinction deficit in the SHR may be linked to reinforcer unpredictability and the presence of conditioned reinforcers, and may explain response disinhibition seen in children with ADHD...
  46. doi Genetic and pharmacological evidence that 5-HT2C receptor activation, but not inhibition, affects motivation to feed under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement
    Paul J Fletcher
    Section of Biopsychology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 97:170-8. 2010
    ....
  47. ncbi The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP decreased nicotine self-administration in rats and mice
    Neil E Paterson
    Department of Neuropharmacology, CVN 7, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:257-64. 2003
    ..Metabotropic glutamate receptors 5 (mGluR5) are found in the nucleus accumbens and may play a role in modulating the post-synaptic response to both glutamate and dopamine...
  48. ncbi Variability of drug self-administration in rats
    Leigh V Panlilio
    Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:9-19. 2003
    ..Although temporal patterns of drug self-administration in animals are known to be highly regular, this regularity has rarely been quantified or systematically compared across reinforcers...
  49. ncbi Lead exposure and dorsomedial striatum mediation of fixed interval schedule-controlled behavior
    Deborah A Cory-Slechta
    Samueli Institute for Informational Biology, Program on Neuroprotection, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    Neurotoxicology 23:313-27. 2002
    ....
  50. pmc Nucleus accumbens core lesions retard instrumental learning and performance with delayed reinforcement in the rat
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    BMC Neurosci 6:9. 2005
    ....
  51. ncbi Reinforcement value of sucrose measured by progressive ratio operant licking in the rat
    Anthony Sclafani
    Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College and the Graduate School, The City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11210 2889, USA
    Physiol Behav 79:663-70. 2003
    ..These results are similar to those reported with PR lever-pressing tasks. Thus, PR operant licking, which requires minimal training and equipment, is a useful alternate measure of fluid reward in rodents...
  52. pmc Operant sensation seeking engages similar neural substrates to operant drug seeking in C57 mice
    Christopher M Olsen
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 0615, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1685-94. 2009
    ..OSS may have predictive validity for screening compounds for use in the treatment of drug addiction. In addition, we also discuss the potential relevance of this animal model to the field of behavioral addictions...
  53. ncbi Double dissociation of the effects of selective nucleus accumbens core and shell lesions on impulsive-choice behaviour and salience learning in rats
    Helen H J Pothuizen
    Laboratory of Behavioural Neurobiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Schorenstrasse 16, CH 8603 Schwerzenbach, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 22:2605-16. 2005
    ....
  54. doi New operant model of nicotine-seeking behaviour in mice
    Elena Martin-Garcia
    Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12:343-56. 2009
    ..The validation of this new model of nicotine-seeking behaviour and reinstatement in mice provides an important tool to help clarify the genetic and neurochemical bases of nicotine addiction...
  55. doi A reliable method to study cue-, priming-, and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine self-administration in mice
    Guadalupe Soria
    Laboratorio de Neurofarmacologia, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, C Dr Aiguader 88, Barcelona, Spain
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:593-603. 2008
    ..The design of an appropriate reinstatement model in mice is required in order to use genetically modified animals with the aim of clarifying the mechanisms involved in cocaine relapse...
  56. ncbi The subthalamic nucleus exerts opposite control on cocaine and 'natural' rewards
    Christelle Baunez
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie de la Cognition, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6155 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université de Provence, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20, France
    Nat Neurosci 8:484-9. 2005
    ..Modulating the activity of the subthalamic nucleus might prove to be a new target for the treatment of cocaine addiction...
  57. pmc Dissociation of the effects of MTEP [3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]piperidine] on conditioned reinstatement and reinforcement: comparison between cocaine and a conventional reinforcer
    R Martin-Fardon
    Molecular and Integrative Neurosciences Department, The Scripps Research Institute, SP30 2120, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329:1084-90. 2009
    ..These observations identify mGluR5 as potential treatment targets for cocaine relapse prevention, although the profile of action of mGluR5 antagonists remains to be more closely examined for potential anhedonic effects...
  58. ncbi Sex differences in operant discrimination behaviour in an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    D F Berger
    Department of Psychology, State University of New York College at Cortland, 13045, USA
    Behav Brain Res 94:73-82. 1998
    ..The present study strengthens the position of SHR as an animal model of ADHD for future studies that may elucidate details in the underlying neurobiological deficits and for testing various treatment strategies...
  59. pmc Within-subject comparison of real and hypothetical money rewards in delay discounting
    Matthe W Johnson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington 05401 1419, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 77:129-46. 2002
    ..A hyperbolic decay model described the data better than an exponential model...
  60. ncbi Schedule-controlled behavior in rats exposed perinatally to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254
    M M Taylor
    Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 24:511-8. 2002
    ..These data are inconsistent with previous findings and suggest that perinatal A1254 exposure in the rat does not disrupt temporally organized behavior...
  61. doi Rats self-administer intravenous nicotine delivered in a novel smoking-relevant procedure: effects of dopamine antagonists
    Robert E Sorge
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 330:633-40. 2009
    ..In conclusion, our new slow/low nicotine self-administration procedure, designed to better mimic smoking-associated nicotine intake, is pharmacologically distinct from the conventional fast delivery/high-dose procedure...
  62. pmc Delay-amount tradeoffs in choices by pigeons and rats: hyperbolic versus exponential discounting
    James E Mazur
    Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT 06515, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 91:197-211. 2009
    ....
  63. ncbi Effects of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the orbital prefrontal cortex on inter-temporal choice: a quantitative analysis
    S Kheramin
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 165:9-17. 2002
    ..Inter-temporal choice behaviour (choice between reinforcers differing in size and delay) has been proposed as a model of "impulsive choice" in animals...
  64. ncbi Effects of postnatal exposure of monkeys to a PCB mixture on spatial discrimination reversal and DRL performance
    D C Rice
    Toxicology Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 20:391-400. 1998
    ....
  65. ncbi Effects of 8-OH-DPAT and WAY-100635 on performance on a time-constrained progressive-ratio schedule
    M Y Ho
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, NG7 2UH, Nottingham, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:137-44. 2003
    ....
  66. ncbi Comparison of the effects of clozapine and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on progressive ratio schedule performance: evidence against the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the behavioural effects of clozapine
    Z Zhang
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 181:381-91. 2005
    ..It has been suggested that some of clozapine's behavioural effects are mediated by agonistic action at 5-HT(1A) receptors...
  67. pmc Response inhibition during Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL) schedules may be sensitive to low-level polychlorinated biphenyl, methylmercury, and lead exposure in children
    Paul W Stewart
    Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Oswego, Oswego, New York 13126, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 114:1923-9. 2006
    ..The Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates task (DRL) has been shown to be especially sensitive to low-level PCB exposure in monkeys...
  68. pmc Effect of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on performance on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement: implications for inter-temporal choice
    G Bezzina
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 197:339-50. 2008
    ..Recent evidence suggests that it is not crucial for determining the incentive value of immediately available reinforcers, but is important for maintaining the values of delayed reinforcers...
  69. ncbi Quantitative analysis of the effects of some "atypical" and "conventional" antipsychotics on progressive ratio schedule performance
    Z Zhang
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:489-97. 2005
    ..In a previous experiment we found that the "atypical" antipsychotic clozapine increased alpha, indicating an increase in the efficacy of a food reinforcer...
  70. pmc Progressive-ratio schedules: effects of later schedule requirements on earlier performances
    A Baron
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 53201, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 73:291-304. 2000
    ..The results suggested that progressive-ratio pausing reflects the influence of remote as well as local contingencies...
  71. ncbi Non-linear dynamics of operant behavior: a new approach via the extended return map
    Jay Shake Li
    Institute of Physiological Psychology, Center for Biological and Medical Research, University of Dusseldorf, Germany
    Rev Neurosci 13:31-57. 2002
    ..This example demonstrated the ERM to be a useful tool for the analysis of IRT accompanying intermittent reinforcement schedules and for the study of the non-linear dynamics of operant behavior...
  72. ncbi Cocaine self-administration under fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement: comparison of C57BL/6J, 129X1/SvJ, and 129S6/SvEvTac inbred mice
    Morgane Thomsen
    Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, McLean Hospital Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA, 02478, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184:145-54. 2006
    ..Specifically, cocaine may have reduced reinforcing effects in 129 substrains compared to the C57BL/6 strain, commonly used for ES cells and breeding, respectively...
  73. ncbi Hyperbolic value addition and general models of animal choice
    J E Mazur
    Department of Psychology, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut 06515, USA
    Psychol Rev 108:96-112. 2001
    ..Some results favor the hyperbolic value-added model and delay-reduction theory over the contextual-choice model, but more data are needed from choice situations for which the models make distinctly different predictions...
  74. pmc Isolating behavioral mechanisms of intertemporal choice: nicotine effects on delay discounting and amount sensitivity
    Matthew L Locey
    Department of Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 91:213-23. 2009
    ..In addition, it may be necessary to include an amount sensitivity parameter in any mathematical model of choice when the alternatives differ in reinforcer amount...
  75. pmc Dynamic response-by-response models of matching behavior in rhesus monkeys
    Brian Lau
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 84:555-79. 2005
    ....
  76. ncbi Hyperactivity and impulsiveness in rats fed diets supplemented with either Aroclor 1248 or PCB-contaminated St. Lawrence river fish
    D F Berger
    Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Cortland, PO Box 2000, Cortland, NY 13045, USA
    Behav Brain Res 126:1-11. 2001
    ..The results were interpreted in terms of the possible alterations in the animals' reinforcement mechanisms and the possible neurotoxic effects of PCB exposure...
  77. ncbi Interactions of the basolateral amygdala with the dorsal hippocampus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex regulate drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in rats
    Rita A Fuchs
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, CB 3270, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3270, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 26:487-98. 2007
    ....
  78. pmc Effects of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on inter-temporal choice: a quantitative analysis
    G Bezzina
    Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Room B109 Medical School, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 195:71-84. 2007
    ..It is not known whether this reflects an effect of the lesion on the rate of delay discounting, on sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude, or both...
  79. ncbi Nucleus accumbens lesions decrease sensitivity to rapid changes in the delay to reinforcement
    Ashley Acheson
    University of Chicago, Department of Psychiatry, Chicago, IL 60637, United States
    Behav Brain Res 173:217-28. 2006
    ..NAC lesions may disrupt the ability of the animals to predict the timing of delayed rewards when the delay to reward is changed frequently...
  80. pmc Effect of reinforcer magnitude on performance maintained by progressive-ratio schedules
    J F Rickard
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    J Exp Anal Behav 91:75-87. 2009
    ..Implications of the results for the quantification of reinforcer value and for the use of progressive-ratio schedules in behavioral neuroscience are discussed...
  81. pmc Effects of step size and break-point criterion on progressive-ratio performance
    D Stafford
    University of Florida, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 70:123-38. 1998
    ..This function also provided an excellent description of data drawn from previous reports...
  82. ncbi Gestational exposure to methylmercury retards choice in transition in aging rats
    M Christopher Newland
    Experimental Psychology, Thach Hall, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 26:179-94. 2004
    ..3-year-old offspring was maintained under various concurrent schedules of reinforcement. Thus, one reinforcement schedule maintained left-lever responding and a separate one maintained right-lever responding...
  83. pmc Nucleus accumbens shell and core involvement in drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats
    Rita A Fuchs
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, CB no 3270, Davie Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3270, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 200:545-56. 2008
    ..However, it is not known whether the NAC or its subregions are critical for reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior produced by re-exposure to a previously cocaine-paired environmental context...
  84. ncbi Effect of postnatal exposure to a PCB mixture in monkeys on multiple fixed interval-fixed ratio performance
    D C Rice
    Toxicology Research Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 19:429-34. 1997
    ....
  85. ncbi Differential effects of nucleus accumbens core, shell, or dorsal striatal inactivations on the persistence, reacquisition, or reinstatement of responding for a drug-paired conditioned reinforcer
    Patricia Di Ciano
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:1413-25. 2008
    ..These results are discussed with reference to the neural systems involved in different aspects of responding maintained by drug-paired conditioned reinforcers...
  86. pmc Hippocampal regulation of contextual cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior
    Alison L Atkins
    Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:481-91. 2008
    ..The hippocampus is important for acquisition of the association between cocaine and context and in maintaining discrimination between cocaine-relevant and -irrelevant contextual cues...
  87. ncbi Subthalamic nucleus lesions increase impulsive action and decrease impulsive choice - mediation by enhanced incentive motivation?
    Jason M Uslaner
    Biopsychology and Neuroscience Programs, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, East Hall, 525 E University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48019 1109, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 24:2345-54. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that the STN may serve as a novel target for the treatment of psychological disorders characterized by deficits in behavioral control, such as drug addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
  88. ncbi Self-stimulating rats combine subjective reward magnitude and subjective reward rate multiplicatively
    M I Leon
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 24:265-77. 1998
    ....
  89. ncbi Dopamine neuronal responses in monkeys performing visually cued reward schedules
    Sabrina Ravel
    Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bldg 49, Rm 1B80, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 24:277-90. 2006
    ..Thus, dopamine neurons seem to respond to behaviourally important, i.e. salient, events even when the events have been well-predicted...
  90. ncbi The effects of psychotomimetics and psychomotor stimulants on two schedules promoting response switching in the rat
    John Evenden
    Department of Neuroscience, CNS Discovery, AstraZeneca R and D Wilmington, 1800 Concord Pike, Wilmington, DE 19850, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:381-90. 2002
    ..Normalising these is one of the objects of antipsychotic therapy, and methods for predicting such a therapeutic effect would be of value...
  91. ncbi Sex and menstrual cycle effects on progressive ratio measures of cocaine self-administration in cynomolgus monkeys
    Nancy K Mello
    Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, Harvard Medical School McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1956-66. 2007
    ....
  92. ncbi Operant responding for conditioned and unconditioned reinforcers in rats is differentially enhanced by the primary reinforcing and reinforcement-enhancing effects of nicotine
    Nadia Chaudhri
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:27-36. 2006
    ....
  93. pmc Relationship between rate of drug uptake in brain and behavioral pharmacology of monoamine transporter inhibitors in rhesus monkeys
    Heather L Kimmel
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:453-62. 2008
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that the rate of drug entry in brain can play an important role in the behavioral pharmacology of psychomotor stimulants...
  94. ncbi Long-term cocaine self-administration under fixed-ratio and second-order schedules in monkeys
    Paul W Czoty
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, 546 NRC, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1083, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:287-95. 2007
    ..Studies in rodents have demonstrated that increased access to cocaine can result in increases in drug intake per unit time...
  95. ncbi Effects of aripiprazole on operant responding for a natural reward after psychostimulant withdrawal in rats
    Kerstin Schwabe
    Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University, MHH, Carl Neuberg Str 1, 30625, Hanover, Germany
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:759-65. 2007
    ..Withdrawal from repeated amphetamine administration has been shown to decrease the motivation to work for a natural reward in rats, a phenomenon thought to be associated with hypofunction of the mesolimbic dopamine system...
  96. doi Drug seeking under a second-order schedule of reinforcement depends on dopamine D3 receptors in the basolateral amygdala
    Patricia Di Ciano
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Behav Neurosci 122:129-39. 2008
    ..These results show that the control over drug seeking by conditioned reinforcers depends on D3 receptor-dependent dopamine transmission in the amygdala...
  97. ncbi The GABAB agonist baclofen modifies cocaine self-administration in rats
    M Shoaib
    Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 9:195-206. 1998
    ..tested repeatedly for 5 days decreased the number of cocaine injections self-administered. The present findings demonstrate that modulation of GABA systems may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of psychomotor stimulant abuse...
  98. pmc Effects of the selective delta opioid agonist SNC80 on cocaine- and food-maintained responding in rhesus monkeys
    Gail Pereira Do Carmo
    Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, McLean Hospital Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 547:92-100. 2006
    ..These findings indicate that SNC80 produced dose-dependent and non-selective reductions in cocaine self-administration. These results suggest that SNC80 is unlikely to be useful as a treatment for cocaine dependence...
  99. doi Unreinforced responding during limited access to heroin self-administration
    Erin Cummins
    Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph ON, Canada N1G 2W1
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:420-7. 2008
    ..This suggests that acquisition of heroin self-administration is regulated by a balance between drug effects that promote and limit heroin intake...
  100. pmc Faster onset and dopamine transporter selectivity predict stimulant and reinforcing effects of cocaine analogs in squirrel monkeys
    Heather L Kimmel
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86:45-54. 2007
    ..Hence, there was a general trend for compounds that had a faster onset and/or DAT selectivity to produce significant behavioral-stimulant and reinforcing effects...
  101. ncbi Effects of estradiol on cocaine self-administration and cocaine discrimination by female rhesus monkeys
    Nancy K Mello
    Department of Psychiatry, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, Harvard Medical School McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:783-95. 2008
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that over the dose range studied, estradiol administration does not consistently alter the abuse-related effects of cocaine in female rhesus monkeys...

Research Grants132 found, 100 shown here

  1. ANORECTIC DRUGS--ABUSE & BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF ACTION
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..g., effects on meal size and patterning. Such information will be useful both in evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and in understanding the basic processes involved in eating behavior...
  2. Translational Approach to Models in Relapse
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  3. BEHAVIORAL DETERMINANTS OF COCAINE TOLERANCE
    MARC BRANCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Understanding of the processes that occur under long-term, intermittent exposure should facilitate the development of effective treatment and, especially, prevention programs. ..
  4. Behavioral economy to treat physical inactivity
    Alejandro Terrazas; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The embedded processors enable the implementation of an individually-tailored reinforcement schedule allowing the user to begin an exercise program at their appropriate fitness level and progress ..
  5. Translational Approach to Models in Relapse
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  6. The neurobiology of human reinforcement learning throughout the lifespan
    ROBB RUTLEDGE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..elderly subjects matches the predictions of animal reinforcement learning models in a task with a dynamic reinforcement schedule and to identify any age-related changes in reinforcement learning that might stem from normal age-related ..
  7. Behavioral Factors in Drug Tolerance
    MARC BRANCH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Understanding of the processes that occur under long-term, intermittent exposure should facilitate the development of effective treatment and, especially, prevention programs. ..
  8. BEHAVIORAL PHARMACOLOGY OF OPIOID TOLERANCE
    Alice Young; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..A third group of experiments will evaluate the contributions of the behavioral demands imposed by the reinforcement schedule to the development and maintenance of tolerance to the rate-altering and discriminative stimulus ..
  9. BEHAVIORAL DETERMINANTS OF COCAINE TOLERANCE
    MARC BRANCH; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Understanding of the processes that occur under long-term, intermittent exposure should facilitate the development of effective treatment and, especially, prevention programs. ..
  10. MOLECULAR VARIABLES AFFECTING CHOICE BEHAVIOR
    JAMES MAZUR; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  11. MOLECULAR VARIABLES AFFECTING CHOICE BEHAVIOR
    JAMES MAZUR; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  12. MOLECULAR VARIABLES AFFECTING CHOICE BEHAVIOR
    JAMES MAZUR; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..For these reasons, it seems appropriate to submit this proposal, which will investigate the effects of delayed and uncertain reinforcers, to NIMH...
  13. MOLECULAR VARIABLES AFFECTING CHOICE BEHAVIOR
    JAMES MAZUR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  14. MOLECULAR VARIABLES AFFECTING CHOICE BEHAVIOR
    JAMES MAZUR; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  15. ANORECTIC DRUGS: ABUSE & BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF ACTION
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..A better understanding of the neuropharmacological systems that are involved in motivation will be an asset in the development of drugs that affect eating behavior and other appetitive behaviors, including drug abuse. ..
  16. Anorectic Drugs: Abuse and Behavioral Mechanisms of Action
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will provide insight into both food abuse and drug abuse, and possible mechanisms mediating these two major health problems. ..
  17. Anorectic Drugs: Abuse and Behavioral Mechanisms of Action
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies will provide insight into both food abuse and drug abuse, and possible mechanisms mediating these two major health problems. ..
  18. LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF COCAINE ABSTINENCE
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. IV COCAINE ABUSE TREATMENT: A LABORATORY MODEL
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. Translational Approach to Models in Relapse
    Richard W Foltin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  21. IV COCAINE ABUSE TREATMENT--A LABORATORY MODEL
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The data collected will suggest more efficacious approaches to treating cocaine abusers. ..
  22. ANORECTIC DRUGS--ABUSE AND BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF ACTI
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The possibility that these three drug effects can be differentiated pharmacologically holds promise for understanding drug self-administration, food intake and the complex interaction between behavior maintained by these commodities. ..
  23. LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF COCAINE ABSTINENCE
    RICHARD FOLTIN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The proposed studies will provide data relevant to the behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms impacting the likelihood of relapse to cocaine use. ..
  24. Neurobiology and Treatment of Pain
    SIDNEY NEGUS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  25. Medications Development for Stimulant Abuse
    SIDNEY NEGUS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies may contribute to both (a) more effective implementation of existing monoamine releasers as agonist medications, and (b) the development of safer medications with reduced abuse liability. ..
  26. Novel Delta Opioids: Analgesic Effects & Abuse Liability
    SIDNEY NEGUS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  27. NOVEL DELTA OPIOIDS--ANALGESIC EFFECTS & ABUSE LIABILITY
    SIDNEY NEGUS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....