learning

Summary

Summary: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A neural substrate of prediction and reward
    W Schultz
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 275:1593-9. 1997
  2. ncbi The mirror-neuron system
    Giacomo Rizzolatti
    Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Sezione di Fisiologia, Via Volturno, 3, Universita di Parma 43100, Parma, Italy
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:169-92. 2004
  3. ncbi The molecular biology of memory storage: a dialogue between genes and synapses
    E R Kandel
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 294:1030-8. 2001
  4. ncbi Uncertainty, neuromodulation, and attention
    Angela J Yu
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 46:681-92. 2005
  5. pmc New neurons and new memories: how does adult hippocampal neurogenesis affect learning and memory?
    Wei Deng
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:339-50. 2010
  6. ncbi Learning the value of information in an uncertain world
    Timothy E J Behrens
    FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Nat Neurosci 10:1214-21. 2007
  7. ncbi By carrot or by stick: cognitive reinforcement learning in parkinsonism
    Michael J Frank
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Science 306:1940-3. 2004
  8. ncbi Dopamine, learning and motivation
    Roy A Wise
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:483-94. 2004
  9. ncbi Temporal difference models and reward-related learning in the human brain
    JOHN P O'DOHERTY
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, WC1N 3BG, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 38:329-37. 2003
  10. ncbi Emergence of simple-cell receptive field properties by learning a sparse code for natural images
    B A Olshausen
    Department of Psychology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Nature 381:607-9. 1996

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications254 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A neural substrate of prediction and reward
    W Schultz
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 275:1593-9. 1997
    ..Behavioral experiments suggest that learning is driven by changes in the expectations about future salient events such as rewards and punishments...
  2. ncbi The mirror-neuron system
    Giacomo Rizzolatti
    Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Sezione di Fisiologia, Via Volturno, 3, Universita di Parma 43100, Parma, Italy
    Annu Rev Neurosci 27:169-92. 2004
    ..In the case of humans, there is another faculty that depends on the observation of others' actions: imitation learning. Unlike most species, we are able to learn by imitation, and this faculty is at the basis of human culture...
  3. ncbi The molecular biology of memory storage: a dialogue between genes and synapses
    E R Kandel
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Science 294:1030-8. 2001
    One of the most remarkable aspects of an animal's behavior is the ability to modify that behavior by learning, an ability that reaches its highest form in human beings...
  4. ncbi Uncertainty, neuromodulation, and attention
    Angela J Yu
    Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 46:681-92. 2005
    ..These uncertainty signals interact to enable optimal inference and learning in noisy and changeable environments...
  5. pmc New neurons and new memories: how does adult hippocampal neurogenesis affect learning and memory?
    Wei Deng
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:339-50. 2010
    ..into the circuitry of the adult hippocampus suggests an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, but its specific function in these processes has remained elusive...
  6. ncbi Learning the value of information in an uncertain world
    Timothy E J Behrens
    FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Nat Neurosci 10:1214-21. 2007
    ..Furthermore, variations in this ACC signal across the population predict variations in subject learning rates...
  7. ncbi By carrot or by stick: cognitive reinforcement learning in parkinsonism
    Michael J Frank
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Science 306:1940-3. 2004
    ..versus negative outcomes of our decisions? The neuromodulator dopamine plays a key role in these reinforcement learning processes...
  8. ncbi Dopamine, learning and motivation
    Roy A Wise
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:483-94. 2004
  9. ncbi Temporal difference models and reward-related learning in the human brain
    JOHN P O'DOHERTY
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, WC1N 3BG, London, United Kingdom
    Neuron 38:329-37. 2003
    Temporal difference learning has been proposed as a model for Pavlovian conditioning, in which an animal learns to predict delivery of reward following presentation of a conditioned stimulus (CS)...
  10. ncbi Emergence of simple-cell receptive field properties by learning a sparse code for natural images
    B A Olshausen
    Department of Psychology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Nature 381:607-9. 1996
    ..Along these lines, a number of studies have attempted to train unsupervised learning algorithms on natural images in the hope of developing receptive fields with similar properties, but none has ..
  11. ncbi Sleep function and synaptic homeostasis
    Giulio Tononi
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, 6001 Research Park Blvd, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Sleep Med Rev 10:49-62. 2006
    ..baseline level that is energetically sustainable, makes efficient use of gray matter space, and is beneficial for learning and memory...
  12. ncbi Distributed synergistic plasticity and cerebellar learning
    Zhenyu Gao
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Neurosci 13:619-35. 2012
    Studies on synaptic plasticity in the context of learning have been dominated by the view that a single, particular type of plasticity forms the underlying mechanism for a particular type of learning...
  13. ncbi A framework for studying the neurobiology of value-based decision making
    Antonio Rangel
    Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences HSS and Computational and Neural Systems Program, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:545-56. 2008
    ....
  14. pmc Plasticity in gray and white: neuroimaging changes in brain structure during learning
    Robert J Zatorre
    Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Nat Neurosci 15:528-36. 2012
    Human brain imaging has identified structural changes in gray and white matter that occur with learning. However, ascribing imaging measures to underlying cellular and molecular events is challenging...
  15. ncbi The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve?
    Marc D Hauser
    Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 298:1569-79. 2002
    ....
  16. ncbi Memory of sequential experience in the hippocampus during slow wave sleep
    Albert K Lee
    Picower Center for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Neuron 36:1183-94. 2002
    ..This rapid encoding of sequential experience is consistent with evidence that the hippocampus is crucial for spatial learning in rodents and the formation of long-term memories of events in time in humans.
  17. pmc Exercise enhances learning and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice
    Henriette van Praag
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 25:8680-5. 2005
    ..In young animals, exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis and improves learning. We investigated whether voluntary wheel running would benefit mice that were sedentary until 19 months of age...
  18. ncbi Reverse replay of behavioural sequences in hippocampal place cells during the awake state
    David J Foster
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 46 5223, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Nature 440:680-3. 2006
    The hippocampus has long been known to be involved in spatial navigational learning in rodents, and in memory for events in rodents, primates and humans...
  19. ncbi Temporal prediction errors in a passive learning task activate human striatum
    Samuel M McClure
    Human Neuroimaging Lab, Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neuron 38:339-46. 2003
    ....
  20. ncbi Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain
    Ann M Graybiel
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Science and the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 31:359-87. 2008
    ..A broad spectrum of behavioral routines and rituals can become habitual and stereotyped through learning. Others have a strong innate basis...
  21. ncbi Learning at any rate: action-effect learning for stimulus-based actions
    Roland Pfister
    Department of Psychology, University of Wurzburg, Rontgenring 11, 97070, Wurzburg, Germany
    Psychol Res 75:61-5. 2011
    ..In combination with prior findings, this consistency effect suggests that usage, but not acquisition of action-effect associations depends on an intention-based action control mode...
  22. ncbi Local sleep and learning
    Reto Huber
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA
    Nature 430:78-81. 2004
    ..Here we show that sleep homeostasis indeed has a local component, which can be triggered by a learning task involving specific brain regions...
  23. ncbi Birdsong and human speech: common themes and mechanisms
    A J Doupe
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco 94143, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 22:567-631. 1999
    ..Innate predispositions for perceiving and learning the correct sounds exist in both groups, although more evidence of innate descriptions of species-specific ..
  24. ncbi Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons
    Christopher D Fiorillo
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 299:1898-902. 2003
    ..The coding of uncertainty suggests a possible role for dopamine signals in attention-based learning and risk-taking behavior.
  25. ncbi A fast learning algorithm for deep belief nets
    Geoffrey E Hinton
    Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Canada
    Neural Comput 18:1527-54. 2006
    ..The fast, greedy algorithm is used to initialize a slower learning procedure that fine-tunes the weights using a contrastive version of the wake-sleep algorithm...
  26. ncbi Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation of trace memories
    T J Shors
    Department of Psychology and Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Nature 410:372-6. 2001
    ..In the rat hippocampus, several thousand are produced each day, many of which die within weeks. Associative learning can enhance their survival; however, until now it was unknown whether new neurons are involved in memory ..
  27. pmc Neuroplasticity subserving motor skill learning
    Eran Dayan
    Human Cortical Physiology and Stroke Neurorehabilitation Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1428, USA
    Neuron 72:443-54. 2011
    Recent years have seen significant progress in our understanding of the neural substrates of motor skill learning. Advances in neuroimaging provide new insight into functional reorganization associated with the acquisition, consolidation, ..
  28. ncbi What is the role of dopamine in reward: hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience?
    K C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 28:309-69. 1998
    ..systems play in reward? Do they mediate the hedonic impact of rewarding stimuli? Do they mediate hedonic reward learning and associative prediction? Our review of the literature, together with results of a new study of residual reward ..
  29. ncbi MicroRNA loss enhances learning and memory in mice
    Witold Konopka
    Molecular Biology of the Cell I, German Cancer Research Center, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Neurosci 30:14835-42. 2010
    ..The presented work shows miRNAs as key players in the learning and memory process of mammals.
  30. ncbi Computational principles of movement neuroscience
    D M Wolpert
    Sobell Department of Neurophysiology, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK
    Nat Neurosci 3:1212-7. 2000
    ..these principles and show how they apply to processes such as motor planning, control, estimation, prediction and learning. Our goal is to demonstrate how specific models emerging from the computational approach provide a theoretical ..
  31. ncbi Learning and memory functions of the Basal Ganglia
    Mark G Packard
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 25:563-93. 2002
    ..Extensive evidence now indicates a role for the basal ganglia, in particular the dorsal striatum, in learning and memory...
  32. pmc The role of acetylcholine in learning and memory
    Michael E Hasselmo
    Center for Memory and Brain, Boston University, 2 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 16:710-5. 2006
    ..These effects might enhance different types of encoding in different cortical structures. In particular, the effects in entorhinal and perirhinal cortex and hippocampus might be important for encoding new episodic memories...
  33. pmc A selective role for dopamine in stimulus-reward learning
    Shelly B Flagel
    Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Michigan, USA
    Nature 469:53-7. 2011
    ..During Pavlovian learning, previously neutral stimuli that predict rewards can acquire motivational properties, becoming attractive and ..
  34. pmc Associative learning of social value
    Timothy E J Behrens
    FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
    Nature 456:245-9. 2008
    ..Social learning is widely held to be distinct from other forms of learning in its mechanism and neural implementation; it is ..
  35. pmc States versus rewards: dissociable neural prediction error signals underlying model-based and model-free reinforcement learning
    Jan Gläscher
    Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA
    Neuron 66:585-95. 2010
    Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations ("states") and outcomes to assess actions...
  36. ncbi Recovery of learning and memory is associated with chromatin remodelling
    Andre Fischer
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
    Nature 447:178-82. 2007
    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system are often associated with impaired learning and memory, eventually leading to dementia...
  37. pmc Dissociating the roles of the cerebellum and motor cortex during adaptive learning: the motor cortex retains what the cerebellum learns
    Joseph M Galea
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Cereb Cortex 21:1761-70. 2011
    Adaptation to a novel visuomotor transformation has revealed important principles regarding learning and memory...
  38. ncbi Bayesian integration in sensorimotor learning
    Konrad P Kording
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Nature 427:244-7. 2004
    ..The central nervous system therefore employs probabilistic models during sensorimotor learning.
  39. ncbi Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning
    John O'Doherty
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 304:452-4. 2004
    ..According to recent reinforcement learning models, two distinct components are involved: a "critic," which learns to predict future reward, and an "actor," ..
  40. ncbi Structural plasticity upon learning: regulation and functions
    Pico Caroni
    Friedrich Miescher Institut, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Neurosci 13:478-90. 2012
    Recent studies have provided long-sought evidence that behavioural learning involves specific synapse gain and elimination processes, which lead to memory traces that influence behaviour...
  41. pmc The primate amygdala represents the positive and negative value of visual stimuli during learning
    Joseph J Paton
    Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 87, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 439:865-70. 2006
    ..positive or negative value through their association with rewards and punishments, a process called reinforcement learning. Although we now know a great deal about how the brain analyses visual information, we know little about how ..
  42. pmc Social and monetary reward learning engage overlapping neural substrates
    Alice Lin
    California Institute of Technology, Computations and Neural Systems, MC 136 93 Pasadena, CA 91125 7700, USA
    Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 7:274-81. 2012
    b>Learning to make choices that yield rewarding outcomes requires the computation of three distinct signals: stimulus values that are used to guide choices at the time of decision making, experienced utility signals that are used to ..
  43. ncbi Effect anticipation and action control
    B Elsner
    Department of Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research, Munich, Germany
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 27:229-40. 2001
    ..These processes may be basic for the control of voluntary action by the anticipation of action goals...
  44. pmc Disentangling pleasure from incentive salience and learning signals in brain reward circuitry
    Kyle S Smith
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E255-64. 2011
    ..reward are distinctly modulated and tracked in this circuit separately from signals for Pavlovian predictions (learning). Animals first learned to associate a fixed sequence of Pavlovian cues with sucrose reward...
  45. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection
    Matthew J During
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 86716, New Zealand
    Nat Med 9:1173-9. 2003
    ..HSEGTFTSD; homologous to a conserved domain in the glucagon/GLP-1 family) enhance associative and spatial learning through GLP-1R. [Ser(2)]exendin(1-9), but not GLP-1, is also active when administered peripherally...
  46. ncbi Twitter evolution: converging mechanisms in birdsong and human speech
    Johan J Bolhuis
    Behavioural Biology, Department of Biology and Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:747-59. 2010
    Vocal imitation in human infants and in some orders of birds relies on auditory-guided motor learning during a sensitive period of development...
  47. ncbi Anterior prefrontal function and the limits of human decision-making
    Etienne Koechlin
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Departement d Etudes Cognitives, Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 9, quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Science 318:594-8. 2007
    ....
  48. ncbi Distinct contribution of the cortico-striatal and cortico-cerebellar systems to motor skill learning
    Julien Doyon
    Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, PO Box 6128, Downtown Station, Montreal, Que, Canada H3C3J7
    Neuropsychologia 41:252-62. 2003
    ..in healthy human subjects that examined the functional neuroanatomy and cerebral plasticity associated with the learning, consolidation and retention phases of motor skilled behaviors using modern brain imaging techniques...
  49. ncbi How learning to read changes the cortical networks for vision and language
    Stanislas Dehaene
    INSERM, Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, Gif sur Yvette 91191, France
    Science 330:1359-64. 2010
    ..Most changes occurred even when literacy was acquired in adulthood, emphasizing that both childhood and adult education can profoundly refine cortical organization...
  50. ncbi Neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive control: the role of prefrontal cortex in action selection, response inhibition, performance monitoring, and reward-based learning
    K Richard Ridderinkhof
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Brain Cogn 56:129-40. 2004
    ..goal-directed action selection, response activation and inhibition, performance monitoring, and reward-based learning. Medial frontal cortex is found to be involved in performance monitoring: evaluating outcome vis-a-vis expectancy,..
  51. ncbi Transfer of learning after updating training mediated by the striatum
    Erika Dahlin
    Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Umea University, 90187 Umea, Sweden
    Science 320:1510-2. 2008
    ..These findings indicate that transfer can occur if the criterion and transfer tasks engage specific overlapping processing components and brain regions...
  52. ncbi The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex
    Etienne Koechlin
    Institut National de la Sante et de Recherche Medicale, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 9, quai St Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Science 302:1181-5. 2003
    ..The results support an unified modular model of cognitive control that describes the overall functional organization of the human lateral PFC and has basic methodological and theoretical implications...
  53. pmc Start/stop signals emerge in nigrostriatal circuits during sequence learning
    Xin Jin
    Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5625 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 9412, USA
    Nature 466:457-62. 2010
    b>Learning new action sequences subserves a plethora of different abilities such as escaping a predator, playing the piano, or producing fluent speech...
  54. ncbi Fears, phobias, and preparedness: toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning
    A Ohman
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychol Rev 108:483-522. 2001
    An evolved module for fear elicitation and fear learning with 4 characteristics is proposed. (a) The fear module is preferentially activated in aversive contexts by stimuli that are fear relevant in an evolutionary perspective...
  55. ncbi Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning
    D Huber
    Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, USA
    Nature 484:473-8. 2012
    The mechanisms linking sensation and action during learning are poorly understood...
  56. pmc Dissecting components of reward: 'liking', 'wanting', and learning
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109 1043, USA
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 9:65-73. 2009
    ..dissociable psychological components of reward: 'liking' (hedonic impact), 'wanting' (incentive salience), and learning (predictive associations and cognitions)...
  57. ncbi Reward expectation, orientation of attention and locus coeruleus-medial frontal cortex interplay during learning
    Sebastien Bouret
    Neuromodulation et Processus Mnésiques, CNRS UMR 7102, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 9 Quai St Bernard, 75005 Paris, France
    Eur J Neurosci 20:791-802. 2004
    ..It is crucial to the understanding of learning-related plasticity, that the cognitive context driving LC neurons be determined and the relation to activity in ..
  58. ncbi Parsing reward
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, Biopsychology Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Trends Neurosci 26:507-13. 2003
    ..advances will require equal sophistication in parsing reward into its specific psychological components: (1) learning (including explicit and implicit knowledge produced by associative conditioning and cognitive processes); (2) ..
  59. ncbi Facilitation of implicit motor learning by weak transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex in the human
    Michael A Nitsche
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
    J Cogn Neurosci 15:619-26. 2003
    ..Cortical excitability changes accompany motor learning. Here we show that weak direct currents are capable of improving implicit motor learning in the human...
  60. ncbi Social learning strategies
    Kevin N Laland
    Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland
    Learn Behav 32:4-14. 2004
    In most studies of social learning in animals, no attempt has been made to examine the nature of the strategy adopted by animals when they copy others...
  61. ncbi Dentate gyrus NMDA receptors mediate rapid pattern separation in the hippocampal network
    Thomas J McHugh
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, RIKEN MIT Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Biology and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 317:94-9. 2007
    ..These results provide evidence that NMDA receptors in the granule cells of the dentate gyrus play a crucial role in the process of pattern separation...
  62. ncbi Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: insights from neuroimaging
    JOHN P O'DOHERTY
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:769-76. 2004
    ..Such representations can be used to guide action selection for reward, a process that depends, at least in part, on orbital and medial prefrontal cortex as well as dorsal striatum...
  63. ncbi Hippocampal replay of extended experience
    Thomas J Davidson
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 46 5233 Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Neuron 63:497-507. 2009
    ..These results suggest that extended replay is composed of chains of shorter subsequences, which may reflect a strategy for the storage and flexible expression of memories of prolonged experience...
  64. pmc Molecular mechanisms of fear learning and memory
    Joshua P Johansen
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Cell 147:509-24. 2011
    Pavlovian fear conditioning is a particularly useful behavioral paradigm for exploring the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory because a well-defined response to a specific environmental stimulus is produced through associative ..
  65. pmc Dynamic reconfiguration of human brain networks during learning
    Danielle S Bassett
    Complex Systems Group, Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7641-6. 2011
    Human learning is a complex phenomenon requiring flexibility to adapt existing brain function and precision in selecting new neurophysiological activities to drive desired behavior...
  66. pmc Perceptual learning incepted by decoded fMRI neurofeedback without stimulus presentation
    Kazuhisa Shibata
    Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International Computational Neuroscience Laboratories, Keihanna Science City, Kyoto 619 0288, Japan
    Science 334:1413-5. 2011
    ..is controversial whether the adult primate early visual cortex is sufficiently plastic to cause visual perceptual learning (VPL)...
  67. ncbi Social learning promotes institutions for governing the commons
    Karl Sigmund
    Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Nature 466:861-3. 2010
    ..It is not clear how punishers can invade a society of defectors by social learning or natural selection, or how second-order free-riders (who contribute to the joint effort but not to the ..
  68. ncbi Practice with sleep makes perfect: sleep-dependent motor skill learning
    Matthew P Walker
    Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, 74 Fenwood Road, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Neuron 35:205-11. 2002
    ..This finding of sleep-dependent motor skill improvement may have important implications for the efficient learning of all skilled actions in humans.
  69. pmc A theory of cortical responses
    Karl Friston
    The Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 360:815-36. 2005
    ..on perception, in terms of modern-day statistical theories, one arrives at a model of perceptual inference and learning that can explain a remarkable range of neurobiological facts...
  70. pmc White matter in learning, cognition and psychiatric disorders
    R Douglas Fields
    Nervous System Development and Plasticity Section, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Trends Neurosci 31:361-70. 2008
    ..This is stimulating research into myelin involvement in normal cognitive function, learning and IQ...
  71. ncbi Contextual cueing: implicit learning and memory of visual context guides spatial attention
    M M Chun
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8205, USA
    Cogn Psychol 36:28-71. 1998
    ..The results show how implicit learning and memory of visual context can guide spatial attention towards task-relevant aspects of a scene.
  72. pmc Direct current stimulation promotes BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity: potential implications for motor learning
    Brita Fritsch
    Epilepsy Research Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuron 66:198-204. 2010
    ..Anodal tDCS applied to the human motor cortex (M1) improves motor skill learning. Here, we demonstrate in mouse M1 slices that DCS induces a long-lasting synaptic potentiation (DCS-LTP), which ..
  73. ncbi Learning under stress: how does it work?
    Marian Joels
    SILS CNS, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Trends Cogn Sci 10:152-8. 2006
    The effects of stress on learning and memory are not always clear: both facilitating and impairing influences are described in the literature...
  74. pmc Reversal of learning deficits in a Tsc2+/- mouse model of tuberous sclerosis
    Dan Ehninger
    Department of Neurobiology, Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 695 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Nat Med 14:843-8. 2008
    ..we report that mice with a heterozygous, inactivating mutation in the Tsc2 gene (Tsc2(+/-) mice) show deficits in learning and memory...
  75. ncbi Modeling hippocampal and neocortical contributions to recognition memory: a complementary-learning-systems approach
    Kenneth A Norman
    University of Colorado at Boulder, Department of Psychology, Boulder, CO, USA
    Psychol Rev 110:611-46. 2003
    ..They also use the model to address the stochastic relationship between recall and familiarity and the effects of partial versus complete hippocampal lesions on recognition...
  76. ncbi Perceptual learning in Vision Research
    Dov Sagi
    The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Vision Res 51:1552-66. 2011
    ..Although this "sensory plasticity" interpretation is often questioned, it is commonly believed that learning has access to detailed low-level visual representations residing within the visual cortex...
  77. pmc Changes in regional activity are accompanied with changes in inter-regional connectivity during 4 weeks motor learning
    Liangsuo Ma
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Brain Res 1318:64-76. 2010
    ..We suggest that the performance gain was achieved by dynamically tuning the inter-regional connectivity in the motor network...
  78. ncbi The neural basis of perceptual learning
    C D Gilbert
    The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Neuron 31:681-97. 2001
    Perceptual learning is a lifelong process. We begin by encoding information about the basic structure of the natural world and continue to assimilate information about specific patterns with which we become familiar...
  79. pmc Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a maintain DNA methylation and regulate synaptic function in adult forebrain neurons
    Jian Feng
    Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Nat Neurosci 13:423-30. 2010
    ..knockout (DKO) mice showed abnormal long-term plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region together with deficits in learning and memory...
  80. pmc Enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning by increased neuronal expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator in transgenic mice
    R Madani
    Departments of Morphology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland
    EMBO J 18:3007-12. 1999
    ..increased and prolonged hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), and improved performance in spatial orientation learning tasks...
  81. ncbi Modulation of motor performance and motor learning by transcranial direct current stimulation
    Janine Reis
    Department of Neurology, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 24:590-6. 2011
    ..direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown preliminary success in improving motor performance and motor learning in healthy individuals, and restitution of motor deficits in stroke patients...
  82. ncbi Requirement of adult-born neurons for hippocampus-dependent learning
    Antonia Marin-Burgin
    Laboratory of Neuronal Plasticity, Leloir Institute CONICET, Av Patricias Argentinas 435, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Behav Brain Res 227:391-9. 2012
    ..While several contradictory findings emerge when analyzing the literature, evidence in favor of a relevant role of adult-born neurons in hippocampal function is compelling...
  83. pmc Learning sculpts the spontaneous activity of the resting human brain
    Christopher M Lewis
    Department of Clinical Sciences and Bioimaging, G D Annunzio University, Via dei Vestini 33, 66100, Chieti, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:17558-63. 2009
    ..Here, we demonstrate that visual perceptual learning, an example of adult neural plasticity, modifies the resting covariance structure of spontaneous activity between ..
  84. pmc Teaching more by lecturing less
    Jennifer K Knight
    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Cell Biol Educ 4:298-310. 2005
    We carried out an experiment to determine whether student learning gains in a large, traditionally taught, upper-division lecture course in developmental biology could be increased by partially changing to a more interactive classroom ..
  85. ncbi Immune modulation of learning, memory, neural plasticity and neurogenesis
    Raz Yirmiya
    Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
    Brain Behav Immun 25:181-213. 2011
    Over the past two decades it became evident that the immune system plays a central role in modulating learning, memory and neural plasticity...
  86. pmc DNA evidence for strong genome-wide pleiotropy of cognitive and learning abilities
    Maciej Trzaskowski
    MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King s College London, DeCrespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London, SE5 8AF, UK
    Behav Genet 43:267-73. 2013
    ..processes appear to be involved in cognitive abilities such as verbal and non-verbal ability as compared to learning abilities taught in schools such as reading and mathematics...
  87. pmc Transcranial direct-current stimulation modulates synaptic mechanisms involved in associative learning in behaving rabbits
    Javier Márquez-Ruiz
    Division of Neurosciences, Pablo de Olavide University, 41013 Seville, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:6710-5. 2012
    ..as conditioned stimulus, suggesting that tDCS modulates the sensory perception process necessary for associative learning. We also studied the putative mechanisms underlying immediate effects and after-effects of tDCS observed in the ..
  88. pmc Why copy others? Insights from the social learning strategies tournament
    L Rendell
    Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Queen s Terrace, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9TS, UK
    Science 328:208-13. 2010
    Social learning (learning through observation or interaction with other individuals) is widespread in nature and is central to the remarkable success of humanity, yet it remains unclear why copying is profitable and how to copy most ..
  89. pmc Use it or lose it: how neurogenesis keeps the brain fit for learning
    T J Shors
    Department of Psychology, Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Behav Brain Res 227:450-8. 2012
    ..that this structure incorporates new neurons into its circuitry and uses them for some function related to learning and/or related thought processes...
  90. ncbi Motor learning: its relevance to stroke recovery and neurorehabilitation
    John W Krakauer
    Stroke and Critical Care Division, Department of Neurology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York NY, USA
    Curr Opin Neurol 19:84-90. 2006
    ..This review will focus on arm movements and address the following questions: (i) What is motor learning? (ii) Do patients with hemiparesis have a learning deficit? (iii) Is recovery after injury a form of motor ..
  91. ncbi Beyond curriculum reform: confronting medicine's hidden curriculum
    F W Hafferty
    Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Minnesota Duluth School of Medicine, MN 55812 2487, USA
    Acad Med 73:403-7. 1998
    ..Instead, he proposes that the medical school is best thought of as a "learning environment" and that reform initiatives must be undertaken with an eye to what students learn instead of what ..
  92. pmc Factors associated with success in medical school: systematic review of the literature
    Eamonn Ferguson
    School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    BMJ 324:952-7. 2002
  93. ncbi Shaping the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the human motor cortex
    M A Nitsche
    Department for Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 97:3109-17. 2007
    ..For future applications of tDCS, such paradigms may help to achieve more selective tDCS effects...
  94. pmc Interacting adaptive processes with different timescales underlie short-term motor learning
    Maurice A Smith
    Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS Biol 4:e179. 2006
    ..This two-state learning system makes the surprising prediction of spontaneous recovery (or adaptation rebound) if error feedback is ..
  95. pmc The neurobiology of decision: consensus and controversy
    Joseph W Kable
    Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Neuron 63:733-45. 2009
    ..Neurobiological studies of decision making are beginning to enhance our understanding of economic and social behavior as well as our understanding of significant health disorders where people's behavior plays a key role...
  96. ncbi Opponent interactions between serotonin and dopamine
    Nathaniel D Daw
    Computer Science Department and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh PA 15213 3891, USA
    Neural Netw 15:603-16. 2002
    ..In the light of the temporal difference model of the involvement of the dopamine system in reward learning, we consider three aspects of motivational opponency involving dopamine and serotonin...
  97. pmc The orbitofrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area are necessary for learning from unexpected outcomes
    Yuji K Takahashi
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 20 Penn Street, HSF 2 S251, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Neuron 62:269-80. 2009
    ..Yet these tasks confound using information about expected outcomes with learning when those expectations are violated...
  98. ncbi Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory
    P Waelti
    Institute of Physiology and Programme in Neuroscience, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Nature 412:43-8. 2001
    According to contemporary learning theories, the discrepancy, or error, between the actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs when a stimulus is paired with a reward...
  99. ncbi Brain states: top-down influences in sensory processing
    Charles D Gilbert
    The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Neuron 54:677-96. 2007
    ..In perceptual learning, both the encoding and recall of learned information involves a selection of the appropriate inputs that convey ..
  100. ncbi Object perception as Bayesian inference
    Daniel Kersten
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 55:271-304. 2004
    ..Recent work in Bayesian theories of visual perception has shown how complexity may be managed and ambiguity resolved through the task-dependent, probabilistic integration of prior object knowledge with image features...
  101. pmc Adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells undergoing maturation modulate learning and memory in the brain
    Wei Deng
    Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 29:13532-42. 2009
    Adult-born dentate granule cells (DGCs) contribute to learning and memory, yet it remains unknown when adult-born DGCs become involved in the cognitive processes...

Research Grants97

  1. Evaluating Alternative Retinopathy Screening Approaches
    CHARLES BASCH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These interventions are practical, have potential for widespread dissemination, and can translate basic and clinical research to achieve public health benefits. ..
  2. TAILORED COMMUNICATIONS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING
    CHARLES BASCH; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This proposal addresses the need for research assessing tailored communications to increase CRC screening in minority groups. ..
  3. Contextual cueing and implicit learning
    Yuhong Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This proposal investigates a powerful form of implicit visual learning - contextual cueing (Chun &Jiang, 1998)...
  4. Perceptual and Decisional Processes in Categorization
    W Maddox; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..my students and I made significant progress toward understanding the processes involved in decision criterion learning when base-rates and payoffs are manipulated, and toward understanding the complex interplay between several ..
  5. Characterizaton of Non-linear Auditory Receptive Fields
    Daniel Margoliash; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In the first experiment, the statistical methodologies will be developed for learning efficient basis sets for motif structure and for estimating feature-based receptive fields with hierarchical non-..
  6. Temporal Patterns in Sleep Mechanisms of Learning
    Daniel Margoliash; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The fourth experiment will record directly from RA in juvenile birds learning to sing...
  7. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF SENSORIMOTOR LEARNING
    Daniel Margoliash; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..maintenance critically depend on auditory feedback, and the study of these gives insight into the mechanisms for learning in the context of complex sensorimotor behaviors...
  8. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Category Learning
    F Ashby; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Recent evidence suggests that human category learning is mediated by multiple, qualitatively distinct learning systems, and much is now known about the neurobiology ..
  9. Cognitive Processing System Components Share Resources
    KATHERINE RAWSON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Subsequent research will adapt this experimental approach to evaluate other core assumptions of the theory. Findings from this programmatic research will have important theoretical and applied implications. ..
  10. Time's Eye: Aging and Attention to Emotional Stimuli
    Derek Isaacowitz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results would also have implications for the etiology and treatment of depression. ..
  11. Compensatory Brain Activation after Stroke
    Lara Boyd; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We predict that motor learning will dynamically alter patterns of brain activation, and reduce contralesional cortical activation...
  12. The Mental Lexicon of Children with Phonological Delays
    HOLLY STORKEL; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..who are delayed in acquiring the sound system are able to capitalize on these same regularities to support word learning. The goal of this research project is to understand how children with phonological delays learn new words...
  13. Cellular Mechanisms of Vocal-Respiratory Integration
    Richard Mooney; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In those few vertebrate species where vocal learning occurs, such as humans and songbirds, the telencephalon plays a critical role in modulating respiratory- vocal ..
  14. Single neuron correlates of learned song
    Richard Mooney; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The long-term goal of this research is to analyze neural mechanisms that underlie vocal learning. The goals of this proposal are to understand both motor and auditory codes for learned vocalizations...
  15. THE MENTAL LEXICON IN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
    HOLLY STORKEL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Children acquiring a language are faced with at least two lexical tasks: learning new words and organizing these to uniquely distinguish each word from every other...
  16. Mechanisms of Associative Learning in Aging: Mouse Models
    Diana S Woodruff Pak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Using the model system of eyeblink classical conditioning and other forms of learning and memory (hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning, cerebellum-dependent rotorod), we propose to investigate structural and functional ..
  17. ALCOHOL EFFECT ON HUMAN LACTATION AND INFANT BEHAVIOR
    JULIE MENNELLA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..AIM 3: To explore the role of early experiences with ethanol in mothers' milk and the emotional context of such experiences, on the recognition of, and preference for, the sensory properties of ethanol ..
  18. Acquisition of Mandarin Tones: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Patrick Wong; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..by applicant): This is a cross-sectional study examining behavioral and neurophysiologic changes associated with learning Mandarin Chinese as a second language (L2) by native English-speaking adult learners (ages 18 years and up)...
  19. Detection and Recogniton of Objects in Visual Cortex
    Tomaso Poggio; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Ultimately, the whole process should lead to a better and more coherent understanding of the neural mechanisms of visual recognition. ..
  20. Perinatal Infection and Memory
    STACI BILBO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..immune challenge (LPS) in adulthood impairs memory, an IL-1 synthesis inhibitor will be administered prior to the learning experience and subsequent LPS, which normally impairs memory in neonatally-infected rats...
  21. Experimental manipulation of sleep mentation and memory
    Robert Stickgold; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. Interdisciplinary Training in Quantitative Cell Biology
    RONALD VALE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These sessions will promote learning by practice with a particular emphasis on stimulating experimental creativity and interdisciplinary approaches...
  23. Cloning of the slow AHP channel
    John Adelman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. SENSITIZATION AND CONDITIONING WITH ETHANOL
    KENT BERRIDGE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..will determine if sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol influences stimulus-reward learning (measured by appetitive conditioned approach responses to stimuli associated with reward) and operant responding ..
  25. Dissection of the Anti-tumor Immune Response
    Erik Ranheim; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will provide a clearer picture of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell anti-tumor immunity and better direct efforts at tumor immunotherapy in human patients. ..
  26. 8th ASM Conference on Candida and Candidiasis
    Paul Fidel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  27. ORAL IMMUNE DYSFUNCTION AND CANDIDIASIS IN HIV INFECTION
    Paul Fidel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  28. EARLY PRIMARY PREVENTION OF CONDUCT PROBLEMS
    LAURIE BROTMAN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The prevention program, based on social interaction learning theory, aims to improve parenting practices, parent-child interactions, and child social competence in young ..
  29. Parietal mechanisms of vision and attention
    Jacqueline Gottlieb; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results are expected to significantly advance our understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention and to bring us closer toward establishing an animal model of neglect. ..
  30. REORGANIZATION OF VISUAL FUNCTIONS AFTER EARLY DEAFNESS
    Daphne Bavelier; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, it will provide insights for the development of environments better suited to deaf individuals'needs. ..
  31. Persisting Effects of Prenatal Anxiety on Child Outcomes
    THOMAS G O CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  32. Local Sleep Regulation and Brain Plasticity
    Giulio Tononi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..we will test the prediction that procedures leading to local increases in synaptic strength, such as learning tasks involving particular brain regions, should lead to a local increase in sleep SWA...
  33. CORTICAL MECHANISMS OF SEQUENCE LEARNING
    Daeyeol Lee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Nevertheless, the possibility that reinforcement learning algorithms can account for the neural processes of sequence selection has not been previously explored...
  34. Mechanisms of Neuronal Regeneration after Stroke in a Novel Neurovascular Niche
    STANLEY THOMAS CARMICHAEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..An understanding of the molecules that promote this neural stem cell response after stroke will help develop novel therapies to promote replacement of brain cells in this disease. ..
  35. DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF METHAMPHETAMINE-LIKE STIMULANTS
    Charles Vorhees; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We found that d-methamphetamine (MA) induces spatial learning and memory (L&M) deficits in Morris water maze (MWM) after exposure on P11-20 but not P1-10, and increases ..
  36. TEACH-M: Evaluation of a training program for individuals with TBI
    Laurie Ehlhardt; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Components include errorless learning, high rates of correct practice, spaced retrieval, regular assessment, and metacognitive strategy training...
  37. A Controlled Terminology for Diagnoses and Findings in General Dentistry
    Titus Schleyer; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. CRCNS: DYNAMICS AND NEURAL MECHANISMS OF DECISION MAKING
    Daeyeol Lee; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Recently, signals related to some elements in reinforcement learning algorithms have been identified in various brain areas, such as brainstem dopamine neurons signaling reward ..
  39. Visual Perception and Coding of Texture
    MICHAEL LANDY; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The third aim is to investigate the cortical implementation of texture or 2nd-order channels using fMRI to measure responses to and adaptation to texture modulations. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  40. Processing Neighbors in Speech Perception and Production
    MICHAEL VITEVITCH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..That is, the work in this proposal is a first step in the needed direction of integrating models of sub-lexical, lexical, and semantic processing and of models of recognition and production. ..
  41. Neural Mechanisms of MTBI: A Prospective fMRI Approach
    J A Scott Kelso; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This individualized approach should provide important insights into the structural and dynamic mechanisms underlying recovery of function in the human brain. ..
  42. MUCOSAL CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY IN VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS
    Paul Fidel; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The long term goal is to understand vaginal host defense mechanisms against C. albicans so that immunotherapeutic strategies can be developed to prevent or treat disease. ..
  43. PERCEPTUAL CLASSIFICATION, LEARNING, AND MEMORY
    ROBERT NOSOFSKY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  44. Stakeholder's Models of Quality in Assisted Living
    LESLIE MORGAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Findings will provide a strong validity base for development of quality assessment tools in AL inclusive of the critically important voice of residents and inform both policy development and practice in this sector. ..
  45. Early Life Infection, Neuroinflammation, and Memory
    Staci D Bilbo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..common consequences of infection or inflammation during the perinatal period is cognitive dysfunction, including learning, memory, and attention disorders...
  46. SK CHANNELS IN HYPEREXCITABLE SKELETAL MUSCLE
    John Adelman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies will establish a framework for understanding the molecular, cellular and physiological abnormalities of hyperexcitable skeletal muscle as well as the coordinate regulation of SK gene expression in muscle tissue. ..
  47. MODULATION OF GLUTAMATE NEUROTRANSMISSION
    CHARLES ZORUMSKI; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..nervous system (CNS), participating in information processing and the synaptic plasticity that may underlie learning and memory...
  48. Neural Function in Cocaine Dependence and Relapse
    VINCENT CLARK; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..It is anticipated that information obtained in the present series of experiments will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of cocaine dependence and relapse, and in improving treatments for this disorder. ..
  49. Neuroimmunology of IL-15
    JOHN PETITTO; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  50. INTERMODAL TEMPORAL INFORMATION PROCESSING IN INFANTS
    DAVID LEWKOWICZ; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Research on Cognition and Behavior in Down Syndrome
    Lynn Nadel; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The ultimate goal is for this conference to facilitate progress in research and practice on cognition and behavior in Down syndrome. ..
  52. NEURAL RECORDINGS AND REACTION TIME MODELS
    Roger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. Infant learning of acoustic cues to word boundaries
    ERIK THIESSEN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..in this application is designed to uncover the developmental course of attention to acoustic cues, and the learning mechanisms that allow infants to discover what the acoustic events in the speech they hear signify about word ..
  54. NEUROTROPHIN REGULATION IN THE SPINAL CORD
    Fernando Gomez Pinilla; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..diverse as neuronal growth and survival, synaptic function, underlying mechanisms of CNS healing, behavior, and learning/memory...
  55. PHARMACOLOGIC REHABILITATION OF ATTENTION DEFICITS
    John Whyte; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The factor structure will also be compared to that obtained from a control sample. ..
  56. Measuring Striatal Neurotransmission in Behaving Rats after Experimental TBI
    Amy Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The overarching goal is to gain insight into potential mechanisms of action and efficacy of these interventions on cognition and recovery for the clinical population with TBI. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. Gender Differences in Dopamine Function after TBI
    Amy Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  58. CHILDREN'S REASONING ABOUT NATURAL AND INTENTIONAL CAUSE
    CHARLES KALISH; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..strategies really are part of common sense then they are part of the background knowledge that children bring to learning environments...
  59. MOTOR RECOVERY AND MOTOR LEARNING IN STROKE PATIENTS
    Neville Hogan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..test whether recovered motor performance of stroke patients exhibits characteristics associated with normal motor learning. If true, this would provide a basis to adapt mathematical learning theories into a quantitative theory of motor ..
  60. Conference:Dental Informatics and Dental Research
    Titus Schleyer; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  61. COMPLEX SYSTEMS SUMMER SCHOOL
    Lynn Nadel; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Our long-term goals for the school are to provide a framework within which neurobiologists, and others, can learn from each other, and can benefit from methods and techniques pioneered in diverse fields of study of complexity. ..
  62. BION Treatment of Neuromuscular Dysfunction
    Gerald Loeb; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  63. Symposium "Adaptation and Control in Vision"
    Daeyeol Lee; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..it is being appreciated that such visual functions are closely tied to other modules in the brain underlying learning, memory, and decision-making...
  64. Dental Practitioners and Eating Disorder Prevention
    Rita DeBate; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This project is unique in that it takes a theoretical approach involving the dental practitioner as a key participant in the secondary and tertiary prevention of eating disorders. ..
  65. Molecular Analysis of Visual Processing
    Charles Gilbert; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..They will also make it possible to alter gene expression in higher animals for the study of neural mechanisms of behavior. ..
  66. Macromoleclar Complexes Involved in Cellular Transport
    RONALD VALE; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies will provide a mechanistic understanding of how cargoes bind to specific motors and how cells asymmetrically position components within their cytoplasm. ..
  67. AGING AND THE COMPLEXITY OF VISUAL-MOTOR BEHAVIOR
    Karl Newell; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  68. Effects of Ethanol on Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity
    CHARLES ZORUMSKI; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..how changes in hippocampal morphology and plasticity translate into changes in hippocampal-dependent forms of learning and memory in adolescent (P35) and adult (P180) rats exposed to ethanol early in postnatal development...
  69. Ca2+-gating of SK Channels: Atomic Structure and Function
    John Adelman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  70. PERCEPTUAL COHERENCE IN LISTENERS WITH HEARING LOSS
    Andrea Pittman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These results may improve our understanding of why hearing-impaired listeners have difficulty perceiving speech in degraded listening environments. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  71. MECHANISMS OF SENSORY PROCESSING IN CHEMOTAXIS
    JEFFRY STOCK; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will provide a foundation for understanding general mechanisms that underlie Type I receptor function in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic regulatory systems. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  72. Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Aging
    CHARLES ZORUMSKI; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Although the mechanisms involved in learning are not certain, it is believed that memory formation involves persistent use-dependent changes in synaptic ..
  73. FUNC MAPPING OF NORMAL AND PARKINSONIAN BASAL GANGLIA
    KRISHNANKUTTY SATHIAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Correlation of the physiological data with clinic scores may establish if functional imaging or intraoperative recording are reliable predictors of patient outcome. ..
  74. Attention and Adult Emotion Regulation
    Derek M Isaacowitz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  75. APICAL JUNCTIONAL COMPLEXES OF THE RPE
    LAWRENCE RIZZOLO; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Recent advances in the development of reagents coupled with this novel culture model will advance our understanding of this essential structure of the outer blood-retinal barrier. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  76. The Role of Cdk5 in Addiction
    James A Bibb; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..long-term neuroadaptations within the circuitry of the brain that is normally dedicated to reward and incentive learning. Our goal is to provide a clearer understanding of the biochemical basis of the effects that cocaine has on ..
  77. Word Learning in Children: Normal Development and Language Impairment
    Holly L Storkel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..how children learn the words of the language and use this evidence to develop a comprehensive model of word learning across normal and impaired language development...
  78. EFFECTS OF TEMPORAL STRUCTURE ON MEMORY FOR EVENTS
    Patricia Bauer; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Investigations of the long-term fate of early memories, and of the impact of early determinants on later auto-biographical reports, are the subjects of the final three experiments. ..
  79. Effects of Goal Activation on Competing Goals
    ARTHUR MARKMAN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This work will also examine the relationship between consciously experienced cravings and conflicts between approach and avoidance goals. ..
  80. Destructive Effects of Social Rejection
    ROY BAUMEISTER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The fifth project will examine social exclusion outside the laboratory, in order to elucidate how exclusion affects people in everyday life. ..
  81. EGO DEPLETION PATTERNS AND SELF-CONTROL FAILURE
    ROY BAUMEISTER; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The fourth section will explore several implications and applications of the depletion of self: vulnerability to loss of self-esteem from ego threat; prejudice; procrastination; and overeating. ..
  82. Genetic Manipulation of Phasic Dopaminergic Activity
    Jeff Beeler; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Research supports a role for DA in both motivational processes and reinforcement learning. The nature of the relationship between these two aspects of DA, however, is controversial...
  83. Early Chronic Stress and Prefrontal Development
    David Lyons; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  84. NEUROCOMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF LEARNING
    THOMAS CAREW; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This simple reflex offers two key advantages for a computational analysis of learning: (1) the reflex exhibits a variety of forms of both non-associative and associative learning; and (2) the neural ..
  85. Usability testing Okay with Asthma V.2.0: An interactive narrataive asthmna progr
    TAMI H contact WYATT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The feasibility testing is guided by Nielsen's usability model and Said's engaging multimedia design model. ..
  86. ERAB, A BETA, NEUROTOXICITY AND ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
    Shi Du Yan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  87. VOR adaptation/utility of saccades as rehab strategies
    Michael Schubert; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This is important for the long-term goals of this project, which are to determine the adaptive preferences that individuals with vestibular loss use to improve gaze stability. ..
  88. NEURAL MECHANISMS OF VOCAL LEARNING
    SARAH BOTTJER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..provide an animal model for human speech perception and production, and for developmentally restricted forms of learning and memory, in which it is possible to causally link specific behaviors and their underlying neural circuitry...
  89. Combined OEG transplantation and step training promote regeneration in adult SCI
    V Edgerton; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our long term goal is to regain voluntary control of hindlimb stepping after a complete midthoracic spinal cord injury in an adult animal. ..
  90. Fastigial nucleus role in long-term saccade adaptation
    Robijanto Soetedjo; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..2) To measure the long-term adaptation after permanently lesioning the CFN bilaterally (3) To determine the anatomical pathway of Iong-term adaptation. ..
  91. EMOTIONAL MODULATION OF MEMORY BY THE HUMAN AMYGDALA
    Ralph Adolphs; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  92. Modulation of AMPA-Type Receptor Trafficking in Aplysia
    David Glanzman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..During most of his scientific career the PI has studied the neural basis of simple forms of learning and memory in invertebrate organisms...
  93. International Congress of Neuroethology
    SARAH BOTTJER; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Thus, benefits to American scientists in general, and to young investigators in particular, will be the opportunity for exposure to cutting-edge research and techniques from around the World. ..
  94. A Conditioning Analysis of Memory
    Carolyn Rovee Collier; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This problem underlies both the elaboration of the knowledge base and the remediation of learning and memory deficits in individuals who are cognitively impaired...
  95. Serotonergic Facilitation & Robotics in Spinal Learning
    V Edgerton; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..proposal, we will examine the level of specificity of the proprioceptive input to the adult mouse spinal cord in learning to step and to stand using adaptive control strategies of robotic devices...