Genomes and Genes
Summary: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Publications290 found, 100 shown here
- Collaborative genome-wide association analysis supports a role for ANK3 and CACNA1C in bipolar disorderManuel A R Ferreira
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Nat Genet 40:1056-8. 2008To identify susceptibility loci for bipolar disorder, we tested 1.8 million variants in 4,387 cases and 6,209 controls and identified a region of strong association (rs10994336, P = 9.1 x 10(-9)) in ANK3 (ankyrin G)...
- Common genetic determinants of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Swedish families: a population-based studyPaul Lichtenstein
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Lancet 373:234-9. 2009Whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the clinical outcomes of discrete or shared causative processes is much debated in psychiatry...
- Gene ontology analysis of GWA study data sets provides insights into the biology of bipolar disorderPeter Holmans
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, School of Medicine, Heath Park, CF23 6BQ Cardiff, UK
Am J Hum Genet 85:13-24. 2009..The method was also applied to a meta-analysis of bipolar disorder, and it implicated the modulation of transcription and cellular activity, including that which occurs via ..
- Genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder in European American and African American individualsE N Smith
Scripps Genomic Medicine, Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA
Mol Psychiatry 14:755-63. 2009To identify bipolar disorder (BD) genetic susceptibility factors, we conducted two genome-wide association (GWA) studies: one involving a sample of individuals of European ancestry (EA; n=1001 cases; n=1033 controls), and one involving a ..
- Temporal lobe and "default" hemodynamic brain modes discriminate between schizophrenia and bipolar disorderVince D Calhoun
Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford, Connecticut, USA
Hum Brain Mapp 29:1265-75. 2008Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are currently diagnosed on the basis of psychiatric symptoms and longitudinal course...
- High throughput lipidomic profiling of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder brain tissue reveals alterations of free fatty acids, phosphatidylcholines, and ceramidesEmanuel Schwarz
Institute of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QT, United Kingdom
J Proteome Res 7:4266-77. 2008..lipid levels in the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) of 45 subjects including 15 schizophrenia and 15 bipolar disorder patients as well as 15 controls samples...
- The HCL-32: towards a self-assessment tool for hypomanic symptoms in outpatientsJules Angst
Zurich University Psychiatric Hospital, Lenggstrasse 31, P O Box 1931, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
J Affect Disord 88:217-33. 2005..As such, an instrument for self-assessment of hypomanic symptoms might increase the detection of suspected and of manifest, but under-treated, cases of bipolar disorders...
- Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2009Lakshmi N Yatham
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A1, Canada
Bipolar Disord 11:225-55. 2009The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) published guidelines for the management of bipolar disorder in 2005, with a 2007 update...
- Collaborative care for bipolar disorder: part I. Intervention and implementation in a randomized effectiveness trialMark S Bauer
Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center VANC, Rhode Island 02908 4799, USA
Psychiatr Serv 57:927-36. 2006Outcome for bipolar disorder remains suboptimal despite the availability of efficacious treatments...
- Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: the Mood Disorder QuestionnaireR M Hirschfeld
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical Branch, the University of Texas at Galveston 77555 01888, USA
Am J Psychiatry 157:1873-5. 2000Bipolar spectrum disorders, which include bipolar I, bipolar II, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified, frequently go unrecognized, undiagnosed, and untreated...
- Genome-wide association and meta-analysis of bipolar disorder in individuals of European ancestryLaura J Scott
Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7501-6. 2009b>Bipolar disorder (BP) is a disabling and often life-threatening disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide...
- Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: revised second edition--recommendations from the British Association for PsychopharmacologyG M Goodwin
University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
J Psychopharmacol 23:346-88. 2009The British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines specify the scope and target of treatment for bipolar disorder. The second version, like the first, is based explicitly on the available evidence and presented, like previous ..
- Gene-wide analyses of genome-wide association data sets: evidence for multiple common risk alleles for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and for overlap in genetic riskV Moskvina
Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
Mol Psychiatry 14:252-60. 2009..We have undertaken gene-wide analysis of two GWAS data sets: schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We performed two forms of analysis, one based on the smallest P-value per gene, the other on a truncated ..
- No evidence for excess runs of homozygosity in bipolar disorderAnna E Vine
Centre for Psychiatry, University College London, UK
Psychiatr Genet 19:165-70. 2009..Of these, four contained or neighboured genes associated with schizophrenia (NOS1AP/UHMK1, ATF2, NSF and PIK3C3)...
- The mononuclear phagocyte system and its cytokine inflammatory networks in schizophrenia and bipolar disorderRoosmarijn C Drexhage
Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Expert Rev Neurother 10:59-76. 2010This review describes patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In such patients, a high inflammatory set point of circulating monocytes at the transcriptome level is observed, involving various inflammatory transcripts forming ..
- National trends in the outpatient diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder in youthCarmen Moreno
Unidad de Adolescentes, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Servicio do Psiquiatría, Madrid, Spain
Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:1032-9. 2007Although bipolar disorder may have its onset during childhood, little is known about national trends in the diagnosis and management of bipolar disorder in young people.
- Toward a re-definition of subthreshold bipolarity: epidemiology and proposed criteria for bipolar-II, minor bipolar disorders and hypomaniaJules Angst
Zurich University Psychiatric Hospital, Lenggstrasse 31, P O Box 68, CH 8029, Zurich, Switzerland
J Affect Disord 73:133-46. 2003..to develop and validate criteria for the definition of softer expressions of bipolar-II (BP-II) disorder and hypomania, (3). to demonstrate the prevalence, clinical validity and comorbidity of the entire soft bipolar spectrum...
- Four-year longitudinal course of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders: the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) studyBoris Birmaher
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Am J Psychiatry 166:795-804. 2009..The authors sought to assess the longitudinal course of youths with bipolar spectrum disorders over a 4-year period...
- Premature mortality from general medical illnesses among persons with bipolar disorder: a reviewBabak Roshanaei-Moghaddam
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, USA
Psychiatr Serv 60:147-56. 2009Despite recent evidence that patients with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of premature mortality resulting from general medical disorders, there has been no systematic review of published studies...
- Asenapine for long-term treatment of bipolar disorder: a double-blind 40-week extension studyRoger S McIntyre
Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
J Affect Disord 126:358-65. 2010..We report the results of long-term treatment with asenapine in patients with bipolar I disorder...
- The use of antidepressants in bipolar disorderVirginio Salvi
Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, Italy
J Clin Psychiatry 69:1307-18. 2008Whether or not to use antidepressants in patients with bipolar disorder is a matter of debate. Antidepressant treatment of bipolar depression has been associated with manic switch and cycle acceleration...
- Bipolar depression: overview and commentaryRoss J Baldessarini
Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA
Harv Rev Psychiatry 18:143-57. 2010..Interest in recognizing bipolar depression and seeking more effective, specific, and safer treatments for it are growing...
- Enhanced relapse prevention for bipolar disorder--ERP trial. A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility of training care coordinators to offer enhanced relapse prevention for bipolar disorderFiona Lobban
School of Psychological Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
BMC Psychiatry 7:6. 2007b>Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a common and severe form of mental illness characterised by repeated relapses of mania or depression. Pharmacotherapy is the main treatment currently offered, but this has only limited effectiveness...
- Maintenance treatment for patients with bipolar I disorder: results from a north american study of quetiapine in combination with lithium or divalproex (trial 127)Trisha Suppes
3801 Miranda Ave 151 T, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
Am J Psychiatry 166:476-88. 2009..The authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of quetiapine plus lithium or divalproex in the prevention of recurrent mood events in patients with stabilized bipolar I disorder...
- A randomized trial on the efficacy of group psychoeducation in the prophylaxis of recurrences in bipolar patients whose disease is in remissionFrancesco Colom
Bipolar Disorders Program, , Spain
Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:402-7. 2003..CONCLUSION: Group psychoeducation is an efficacious intervention to prevent recurrence in pharmacologically treated patients with bipolar I and II disorder...
- Lithium plus valproate combination therapy versus monotherapy for relapse prevention in bipolar I disorder (BALANCE): a randomised open-label trialJohn R Geddes
Oxford Clinical Trials Unit for Mental Illness, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
Lancet 375:385-95. 2010Lithium carbonate and valproate semisodium are both recommended as monotherapy for prevention of relapse in bipolar disorder, but are not individually fully effective in many patients...
- Cognitive endophenotypes of bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic patients and their first-degree relativesEmre Bora
Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne, Vic, Australia
J Affect Disord 113:1-20. 2009Our aim was to delineate neuropsychological deficits related to genetic susceptibility, illness process and iatrogenic factors in bipolar disorder (BD).
- Whole-genome association study of bipolar disorderP Sklar
Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Mol Psychiatry 13:558-69. 2008..with bipolar (BP) 1 disorder, 2008 controls drawn from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder and the University College London sample collections with successful genotyping for 372,193 single nucleotide ..
- Reduced expression of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-W GAG protein in the cingulate gyrus and hippocampus in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depressionS Weis
Laboratory of Brain Research and Neuropathology, Departments of Psychiatry and Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, and Stanley Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
J Neural Transm 114:645-55. 2007..anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampal formation of normal controls and of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression...
- Trends in the treatment of bipolar disorder by outpatient psychiatristsCarlos Blanco
Department of Psychiatry and New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
Am J Psychiatry 159:1005-10. 2002This study examined recent changes in the prescribing patterns for medications to treat bipolar disorder in office-based psychiatric practice.
- Lithium, a common drug for bipolar disorder treatment, regulates amyloid-beta precursor protein processingYuan Su
Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
Biochemistry 43:6899-908. 2004Lithium is one of the most widely used mood-stabilizing agents for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Although the underlying mechanism(s) of this mood stabilizer remains controversial, recent evidence linking lithium to neurotrophic/..
- Higher striatal dopamine transporters in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder: a SPECT study with [Tc] TRODAT-1Ting Ting Chang
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and Hospital, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
Bipolar Disord 12:102-6. 2010Dopamine has been implicated in the etiology of bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to explore striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in euthymic bipolar patients.
- Altered expression and coregulation of dopamine signalling genes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorderL Zhan
Clinical Developmental Sciences, St George s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 37:206-19. 2011signalling through dopamine receptors is of critical importance in the brain and is implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood.
- Group psychoeducation for stabilised bipolar disorders: 5-year outcome of a randomised clinical trialF Colom
Bipolar Disorders Program, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Br J Psychiatry 194:260-5. 2009..The long-term efficacy of psychological interventions for bipolar disorders has not been tested...
- Rare copy number variants: a point of rarity in genetic risk for bipolar disorder and schizophreniaDetelina Grozeva
Medical Research Council Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XN, Wales, UK
Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:318-27. 2010..The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date.
- Prepubertal mania: diagnostic differences between US and UK cliniciansBernadka Dubicka
University of Manchester and The Junction Adolescent Unit, Piccadilly, Lancaster LA1 4PW, UK
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 17:153-61. 2008..To test the hypothesis that US clinicians diagnose prepubertal mania more commonly than UK clinicians...
- Support for neuregulin 1 as a susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder and schizophreniaLyudmila Georgieva
Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, United Kingdom
Biol Psychiatry 64:419-27. 2008..support that Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) plays a role in susceptibility to schizophrenia but limited evidence for its involvement in bipolar disorder. We wished to investigate further the involvement of NRG1 in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
- Further evidence of relation between prenatal famine and major affective disorderA S Brown
Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Am J Psychiatry 157:190-5. 2000....
- The genetics of bipolar disorderJ H Barnett
Center for Human Genetic Research, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Neuroscience 164:331-43. 2009b>Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by impairing episodes of mania and depression...
- Clinical diagnoses in young offspring from eastern Québec multigenerational families densely affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorderM Maziade
Centre de Recherche Universite Laval Robert Giffard, QC, Canada
Acta Psychiatr Scand 117:118-26. 2008..sample of multigenerational families of eastern Québec that are densely affected by schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar disorder (BP) has permitted to look at the rates of DSM diagnoses in the young offspring of a SZ parent (HRSZ) and of ..
- The role of psychotherapy in bipolar disorderSue D Lauder
Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences Barwon Health, University of Melbourne, Geelong, Vic, Australia
Med J Aust 193:S31-5. 2010Adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder target many of the issues that are not addressed by medication alone, including non-adherence, efficacy-effectiveness gap and functionality...
- Bipolar disorder and mechanisms of action of mood stabilizersStanley I Rapoport
Brain Physiology and Metabolism Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Brain Res Rev 61:185-209. 2009b>Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major medical and social burden, whose cause, pathophysiology and treatment are not agreed on...
- Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorderLars M Rimol
Department of Psychiatry, section Vinderen, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Biol Psychiatry 68:41-50. 2010Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe psychiatric diseases with overlapping symptomatology...
- Reporting outcomes in clinical trials for bipolar disorder: a commentary and suggestions for changeAnabel Martinez-Aran
Bipolar Disorders Program, IDIBAPS, CIBER SAM, Clinical Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Bipolar Disord 10:566-79. 2008..translate efficacy data to evidence-based psychiatric care are needed when evaluating clinical trials for bipolar disorder. Using efficacy studies as illustrations, the authors review and recommend changes in the reporting of ..
- The leukocytes expressing DARPP-32 are reduced in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorderK C L Torres
Laboratorio de Neurociencia, Departamento de Saude Mental, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av Alfredo Balena, 190 Belo Horizonte MG, Brazil
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33:214-9. 2009b>Bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are severe disorders representing an enormous social, familiar and individual burden, being SCZ the most disabling psychiatric disorder characterized by psychosis and cognitive impairment...
- Association study of Wnt signaling pathway genes in bipolar disorderPeter P Zandi
Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Hampton House, Room 857, 624 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:785-93. 2008The Wnt signaling pathways promote cell growth and are best known for their role in embryogenesis and cancer. Several lines of evidence suggest that these pathways might also be involved in bipolar disorder.
- Ziprasidone monotherapy in bipolar II depression: an open trialMichael R Liebowitz
The Medical Research Network, LLC, New York, NY 10024, USA
J Affect Disord 118:205-8. 2009....
- White matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia detected using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imagingJessika E Sussmann
Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
Bipolar Disord 11:11-8. 2009Strong qualitative and quantitative evidence exists of white matter abnormalities in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest altered connectivity in both disorders...
- Efficacy of ziprasidone in dysphoric mania: pooled analysis of two double-blind studiesS Stahl
Department of Psychiatry, UCSD, San Diego, CA 92008, USA
J Affect Disord 122:39-45. 2010..Dysphoric mania is a common and often difficult to treat subset of bipolar mania that is associated with significant depressive symptoms...
- Improving medical and psychiatric outcomes among individuals with bipolar disorder: a randomized controlled trialAmy M Kilbourne
Serious Mental Illness Treatment Research and Evaluation Center, Health Services Research and Development, Department of Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
Psychiatr Serv 59:760-8. 2008Comorbid medical conditions, notably cardiovascular disease, occur disproportionately among persons with bipolar disorder; yet the quality and outcomes of medical care for these individuals are suboptimal...
- Conceptualizing impulsivity and risk taking in bipolar disorder: importance of history of alcohol abuseM Kathleen Holmes
Research Imaging Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
Bipolar Disord 11:33-40. 2009Elevated levels of impulsivity and increased risk taking are thought to be core features of both bipolar disorder (BD) and addictive disorders...
- Lower number of cerebellar Purkinje neurons in psychosis is associated with reduced reelin expressionEkrem Maloku
Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatric Institute, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4407-11. 2010..This finding suggests that lack of reelin impairs GABAergic Purkinje neuron expression and/or positioning during cerebellar development...
- Searching genetic risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: learn from the past and back to the futureMaaike Alaerts
Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie Flanders Institute for Biotechnology, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp B 2610, Belgium
Hum Mutat 30:1139-52. 2009..We discuss what can be learned from the past and how this knowledge can be used in future study designs...
- Aberrant DNA methylation associated with bipolar disorder identified from discordant monozygotic twinsG Kuratomi
Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, Japan
Mol Psychiatry 13:429-41. 2008To search DNA methylation difference between monozygotic twins discordant for bipolar disorder, we applied a comprehensive genome scan method, methylation-sensitive representational difference analysis (MS-RDA) to lymphoblastoid cells ..
- White matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder: a voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studyStefania Bruno
Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK
Bipolar Disord 10:460-8. 2008In bipolar disorder (BD), dysregulation of mood may result from white matter abnormalities that disrupt fronto-subcortical circuits...
- Replication of linkage with bipolar disorder on chromosome 16p in the Eastern Quebec populationChantal Mérette
Department of Psychiatry, Laval University, Quebec, Canada
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147:737-44. 2008....
- A genome-wide linkage study of bipolar disorder and co-morbid migraine: replication of migraine linkage on chromosome 4q24, and suggestion of an overlapping susceptibility region for both disorders on chromosome 20p11K J Oedegaard
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0603, USA
J Affect Disord 122:14-26. 2010Migraine and Bipolar Disorder (BPAD) are clinically heterogeneous disorders of the brain with a significant, but complex, genetic component...
- Pediatric bipolar disorder versus severe mood dysregulation: risk for manic episodes on follow-upArgyris Stringaris
National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:397-405. 2010..question in pediatric bipolar research is whether marked nonepisodic irritability is a manifestation of bipolar disorder in youth...
- The brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder: evidence from a family-based association studyMaria Neves-Pereira
Neurogenetics Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8, Canada
Am J Hum Genet 71:651-5. 2002b>Bipolar disorder (BP) is a severe psychiatric disease, with a strong genetic component, that affects 1% of the population worldwide and is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression...
- Prefrontal function and activation in bipolar disorder and schizophreniaAndrew M McIntosh
Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Kennedy Tower, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, UK
Am J Psychiatry 165:378-84. 2008Distinctive patterns of speech and language abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. It is, however, unclear whether the associated patterns of neural activation are diagnosis specific...
- Aberrant amino acid transport in fibroblasts from patients with bipolar disorderM L Persson
Stockholm County Council, Center for Dependency Disorder, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
Neurosci Lett 457:49-52. 2009..Disturbed dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems are implicated as causes of bipolar disorder. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore whether patients with bipolar disorder have an aberrant ..
- The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Update 2010 on the treatment of acute bipolar depressionHeinz Grunze
Newcastle University, RVI, Division of Psychiatry, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
World J Biol Psychiatry 11:81-109. 2010..Their purpose is to supply a systematic overview of all scientific evidence pertaining to the treatment of acute bipolar depression in adults...
- Pure and mixed manic subtypes: a review of diagnostic classification and validationFrederick Cassidy
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Bipolar Disord 10:131-43. 2008..To review issues surrounding the diagnosis and validity of bipolar manic states...
- Obsessive-compulsive and panic symptoms in patients with first-admission psychosisThomas Craig
VA Office of Quality and Performance, Washington, DC, USA
Am J Psychiatry 159:592-8. 2002..and panic symptoms and three psychotic disorders--schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychosis, and major depression with psychosis--were examined in a first-admission, epidemiologically ..
- Bipolar II disorder: current and future treatment optionsRif El-Mallakh
Dept of Psychiatry, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
Ann Clin Psychiatry 18:259-66. 2006..This review attempts to summarize available data on agents useful in treating patients with the disease...
- Pharmacokinetics and safety of combination therapy with lithium and risperidoneJ H Demling
Pharmacopsychiatry 39:230-1. 2006
- Night locomotor activity and quality of sleep in quetiapine-treated patients with depressionDoron Todder
Beer Sheva Mental Health Center, Ben-Gurion University, Israel
J Clin Psychopharmacol 26:638-42. 2006..Further studies need to investigate in detail the timeline of clinical remission and alterations of objective and subjective sleep parameters...
- Bipolar disorders: symptoms and treatment in children and adolescentsJennifer Apps
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
Pediatr Nurs 34:84-8. 2008..While additional research is needed, appropriate treatment of pediatric bipolar disorders can lead to significant improvements in functioning and development...
- Effects of treatment latency on response to maintenance treatment in manic-depressive disordersRoss J Baldessarini
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Bipolar Disord 9:386-93. 2007..To further test the hypothesis that past illness episodes and delay of long-term treatment do not limit maintenance treatment response among patients with manic-depressive illnesses (MDI)...
- Pharmacotherapy of bipolar depression: an updateMichael E Thase
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 2593, USA
Curr Psychiatry Rep 8:478-88. 2006..Antidepressants--particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion--are indicated when mood stabilizers are ineffective and for "breakthrough" depressions...
- A 24-week, randomized, controlled trial of adjunctive sibutramine versus topiramate in the treatment of weight gain in overweight or obese patients with bipolar disordersSusan L McElroy
Psychopharmacology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0559, USA
Bipolar Disord 9:426-34. 2007Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have an increased risk of obesity as well as psychotropic-associated weight gain...
- Antidepressant monotherapy in pre-bipolar depression; predictive value and inherent riskClaire O'Donovan
Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Mood Disorders Program, Department of Psychiatry, Abbie J Ln Memorial Bldg, 3rd Floor, Veterans Memorial Lane, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
J Affect Disord 107:293-8. 2008To identify specific treatment-emergent symptoms in response to antidepressant therapy in depression preceding bipolar disorder.
- Efficacy of typical and atypical antipsychotics for primary and comorbid anxiety symptoms or disorders: a reviewKeming Gao
Department of Psychiatry, the Bipolar Disorders Research Center, University Hospitals of Cleveland Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
J Clin Psychiatry 67:1327-40. 2006The efficacy of antipsychotics in the treatment of primary or comorbid anxiety disorders or anxiety symptoms in major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder was reviewed.
- Obesity and metabolic syndrome in a psychiatric rehabilitation serviceSrinivasan Tirupati
Hunter New England Area Health Services, James Fletcher Hospital, Newcastle, NSW, Australia
Aust N Z J Psychiatry 41:606-10. 2007..This study aimed to study the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in people with chronic psychotic disorders in a psychiatric rehabilitation setting...
- The PRIME North America randomized double-blind clinical trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients at risk of being prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. II. Baseline characteristics of the "prodromal" sampleT J Miller
Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA
Schizophr Res 61:19-30. 2003..Subsequent reports will detail the effects of drug versus placebo on prodromal symptoms, neuropsychological profile, and the rate of conversion to psychosis...
- Olanzapine monotherapy and olanzapine combination therapy in the treatment of mania: 12-week results from the European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) observational studyEduard Vieta
Bipolar Disorders Program, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain
J Affect Disord 106:63-72. 2008....
- Exploring the borders of the schizoaffective spectrum: a categorical and dimensional approachVictor Peralta
Psychiatric Unit, Virgen del Camino Hospital, Pamplona, Spain
J Affect Disord 108:71-86. 2008..We aimed at examining the nature of such a relationship in a mixed sample of psychotic disorders by using a dimensional and categorical approach to psychopathology...
- Acute phase results from STORM, a multicountry observational study of bipolar disorder treatment and outcomesTamas Treuer
Area Medical Center Vienna, Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly Regional GesmbH, Koelblgasse 8 10, 1030 Wien, Austria
Psychiatr Danub 19:282-95. 2007..Particular emphasis was placed on investigating outcomes associated with treatment regimens including and excluding the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine...
- Naltrexone and disulfiram in patients with alcohol dependence and current depressionIsmene Petrakis
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven Campus, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
J Clin Psychopharmacol 27:160-5. 2007..In particular, the effect of these medications on alcohol use outcomes and on specific psychiatric symptoms is still unknown in patients with the most common co-occurring disorder, major depression...
- Compelling or irrelevant? Using number needed to treat can help decideL Citrome
Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, The Nathan S Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
Acta Psychiatr Scand 117:412-9. 2008....
- Using pharmacy data on partial adherence to inform clinical care of patients with serious mental illnessEmily M Woltmann
Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center, NH, USA
Psychiatr Serv 58:864-7. 2007..Pharmacy data might be used by health systems to identify partially adherent patients for interventions. This study assessed whether using pharmacy data is an accurate screening method for identifying at-risk patients...
- [Acute psychiatric diseases]Joanna Meder
Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawa
Psychiatr Pol 41:871-938. 2007
- Characteristics of psychotic patients with foreign accent syndromeRoy R Reeves
VA Medical Center, 1500 East Woodrow Wilson Drive, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 19:70-6. 2007..Psychotic symptoms were worse during the times patients had foreign accents, suggesting a relationship between the presence of the accent and the severity of the psychosis...
- Management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: prospective naturalistic study of the effectiveness of a supervised exercise programmeMarie Josée Poulin
Centre Hospitalier Affilie Universitaire De Quebec, Hôpital de l Enfant Jésus and Centre Hospitalier Robert Giffard, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Aust N Z J Psychiatry 41:980-9. 2007....
- Relationship between insight and neurocognition in patients with bipolar I disorder in remissionCheng Fang Yen
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
Compr Psychiatry 49:335-9. 2008..The results of this study indicated that the relationships vary between different dimensions of insight and domains of neurocognitive function in remitted bipolar patients...
- Bipolar (spectrum) disorder and mood stabilization: standing at the crossroads?Jurgen De Fruyt
Department of Psychiatry, General Hospital Sint Jan AV, Brugge, Belgium
Psychother Psychosom 76:77-88. 2007Diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder has long been a neglected discipline. Recent years have shown an upsurge in bipolar research...
- The manic-depressive spectrum and mood stabilization: Kraepelin's ghostS Nassir Ghaemi
Psychother Psychosom 76:65-9. 2007
- Open-label aripiprazole in the treatment of acute bipolar depression: a prospective pilot trialSusan L McElroy
Psychopharmacology Research Program, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
J Affect Disord 101:275-81. 2007..Increasing evidence indicates that some second-generation antipsychotics are efficacious in bipolar depression, but there are few data on this illness for the novel agent aripiprazole...
- Assessing predictive factors for extended hospitalization at acute psychiatric admissionD R Hopko
University of Texas Houston Medical School, 1300 Moursand Avenue, Houston, TX 77030-3497, USA
Psychiatr Serv 52:1367-73. 2001..CONCLUSIONS: BPRS-A subscale scores should be considered to be at least as good as more traditional measures in predicting length of hospitalization...
- Plasma cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ratios in schizophrenia and bipolar disorderPeter Gallagher
School of Neurology, Neurobiology and Psychiatry, Newcastle University, UK
Schizophr Res 90:258-65. 2007..However, there is a paucity of data on these steroids and their ratio in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We therefore sought to assess cortisol and DHEA levels and the cortisol-DHEA ratio in patients with ..
- Rapid cycling bipolar disorder--diagnostic conceptsMichael Bauer
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Bipolar Disord 10:153-62. 2008This paper reviews the literature to examine the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for rapid cycling in bipolar disorder.
- Efficacy of topiramate, valproate, and their combination on aggression/agitation behavior in patients with psychosisGabriella Gobbi
Institut Philippe Pinel de Montréal and Centre de Recherche Fernand Seguin, Department of Psychiatry, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
J Clin Psychopharmacol 26:467-73. 2006..study was carried out in a sample of 45 inpatients affected by schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder, and hospitalized in a maximum-security Canadian psychiatry hospital...
- A prospective, open-label study of Aripiprazole mono- and adjunctive treatment in acute bipolar depressionRobert T Dunn
Psychopharmacology Research Program, Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, USA
J Affect Disord 110:70-4. 2008..To examine the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole treatment for acute bipolar depression...
- Treatment-resistant bipolar depression: a STEP-BD equipoise randomized effectiveness trial of antidepressant augmentation with lamotrigine, inositol, or risperidoneAndrew A Nierenberg
Massachusetts General Hospital Bipolar Clinic and Research Program, Suite 580, 50 Staniford Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Am J Psychiatry 163:210-6. 2006..This study represents the first randomized trial of competing options for treatment-resistant bipolar depression and assesses the effectiveness and safety of antidepressant augmentation with lamotrigine, inositol, and risperidone...
- The McLean-Harvard First-Episode Mania Study: prediction of recovery and first recurrenceMauricio Tohen
Lilly Research Laboratories, Brougher Building, 525 South Meridian, Indianapolis, IN 46225, USA
Am J Psychiatry 160:2099-107. 2003Since improved prediction of illness course early in bipolar disorder is required to guide treatment planning, the authors evaluated recovery, first recurrence, and new illness onset following first hospitalization for mania.
- Pharmacologic treatment considerations in co-occurring bipolar and anxiety disordersPaul E Keck
Psychopharmacology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH 45267 0559, USA
J Clin Psychiatry 67:8-15. 2006Anxiety disorders are among the most commonly co-occurring psychiatric syndromes with bipolar disorder. The presence of co-occurring anxiety disorders has important prognostic and treatment implications.
- Schizoaffective disorder: diagnostic issues and future recommendationsGin S Malhi
Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Bipolar Disord 10:215-30. 2008..This paper addresses the controversy regarding the diagnostic validity of schizoaffective disorder (SAD), a diagnosis that is used in both DSM-IV and ICD-10 and one that encroaches on both schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD).
- Heritability of brain morphology related to schizophrenia: a large-scale automated magnetic resonance imaging segmentation studyAaron L Goldman
Neuroimaging Core Facility, Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Biol Psychiatry 63:475-83. 2008..Currently available data on the heritability of these structural changes are inconsistent...
- Bipolar depression in a low-income primary care clinicMark Olfson
New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Dr, Unit 24, New York, NY 10032, USA
Am J Psychiatry 162:2146-51. 2005..the proportion of patients attending an urban general medical practice with current major depression and a history of bipolar disorder and compared the history, presentation, and treatment of patients with unipolar and bipolar depression.
- Subjective life satisfaction and objective functional outcome in bipolar and unipolar mood disorders: a longitudinal analysisJoseph F Goldberg
Affective Disorders Program, Silver Hill Hospital, New Canaan, CT 06840, USA
J Affect Disord 89:79-89. 2005..The goal of the present study was to examine the longitudinal associations between subjective life satisfaction and objective functional outcome among individuals with bipolar and unipolar mood disorders...
- Typical neuroleptics vs. atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of acute mania in a natural settingMartin Letmaier
Department of General Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 9:529-37. 2006....
Research Grants103 found, 100 shown here
- Molecular Interventions for Bipolar DisorderALAN PAUL KOZIKOWSKI; Fiscal Year: 2010..than 2 million American adults, or about 1 percent of the population age 18 and older in any given year, have bipolar disorder. Current treatments include the so-called "mood stabilizers," lithium and valproic acid...
- Molecular Interventions for Bipolar DisorderAlan Kozikowski; Fiscal Year: 2009..than 2 million American adults, or about 1 percent of the population age 18 and older in any given year, have bipolar disorder. Current treatments include the so-called "mood stabilizers," lithium and valproic acid...
- Molecular Interventions for Bipolar DisorderAlan Kozikowski; Fiscal Year: 2007..than 2 million American adults, or about 1 percent of the population age 18 and older in any given year, have bipolar disorder. Current treatments include the so-called "mood stabilizers," lithium and valproic acid...
- Family-Focused Therapy as Early Treatment for Youth at Risk for Bipolar DisorderDavid Miklowitz; Fiscal Year: 2007b>Bipolar disorder (BD) in youth is associated with significant impairments in functioning, treatment-resistance, and high public health costs...
- GABAergic and Reelin Deficits in SchizophreniaSEYYED HOSSEIN FATEMI; Fiscal Year: 2010..subjects with bipolar disorder, major depression, and matched controls...
- Genetic Influences on Frontotemporal Connectivity in Bipolar DisorderHilary P Blumberg; Fiscal Year: 2011..in age-related patterns of frontotemporal (FT) connectivity in adolescents and adults with and without bipolar disorder (BD) and the genetic factors that influence them...
- INHIBITORY DEFICITS IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL MODELS OF BIPOLAR DISORDERWILLIAM contact PERRY; Fiscal Year: 2010b>Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness that is hallmarked by manic and depressive states. Inhibitory deficits are characteristic of BD and occur throughout the various phases of the illness...
- OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN BIPOLAR DISORDER PROPHYLAXISANDREW STOLL; Fiscal Year: 2002..trial is to assess the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (03FA) in preventing recurrence in patients with bipolar disorder, type 1...
- Naltrexone for Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol DependenceE Sherwood Brown; Fiscal Year: 2006..b>Bipolar disorder is a severe and persistent psychiatric illness affecting 1.2-1...
- Comparative Effectiveness Study for Bipolar DisorderAndrew A Nierenberg; Fiscal Year: 2010..In fact, QTP has become the most commonly prescribed medication for bipolar disorder. This is true in spite of the observation that treatment with SGAs is associated with significant metabolic ..
- A Molecular Mechanism for Lithium ActionPeter Klein; Fiscal Year: 2007Lithium is the first line of therapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder yet its mechanism of action in this setting is not known...
- A Molecular Mechanism for Lithium ActionPeter Klein; Fiscal Year: 2009Lithium is the first line of therapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder yet its mechanism of action in this setting is not known...
- Efficacy and Safety of Galantamine for Dysfunction in Bipolar DisorderDAN VLAD IOSIFESCU; Fiscal Year: 2010..and its associated psychosocial and vocational functional impairments, occurs in many patients with bipolar disorder even when mood symptoms are adequately treated...
- Efficacy and Safety of Galantamine for Dysfunction in Bipolar DisorderDan Iosifescu; Fiscal Year: 2009..and its associated psychosocial and vocational functional impairments, occurs in many patients with bipolar disorder even when mood symptoms are adequately treated...
- DNA METHYLOME ANALYSIS IN BIPOLAR DISORDERART PETRONIS; Fiscal Year: 2010Epigenetic misregulation is consistent with various non-Mendelian features of bipolar disorder (BPD), such as the discordance of identical twins, significant fluctuations in disease course, sex- and parental origin- effects, and the ..
- Glutamine and Glutamate in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar DisorderCONSTANCE MOORE; Fiscal Year: 2009b>Bipolar Disorder (BPD) may be as common among youths as it is among adults. The lifetime prevalence for Bipolar Disorder in adults ranges from 0.6% to 1.1%...
- Glutamine and Glutamate in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar DisorderConstance M Moore; Fiscal Year: 2010b>Bipolar Disorder (BPD) may be as common among youths as it is among adults. The lifetime prevalence for Bipolar Disorder in adults ranges from 0.6% to 1.1%...
- Quetiapine for Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol DependenceE Sherwood Brown; Fiscal Year: 2007b>Bipolar disorder is a severe, persistent, and common psychiatric illness that is associated with a staggering 46% lifetime prevalence of alcohol-related disorders...
- Quetiapine for Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol DependenceE Sherwood Brown; Fiscal Year: 2010b>Bipolar disorder is a severe, persistent, and common psychiatric illness that is associated with a staggering 46% lifetime prevalence of alcohol-related disorders...
- Quetiapine for Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol DependenceE Sherwood Brown; Fiscal Year: 2009b>Bipolar disorder is a severe, persistent, and common psychiatric illness that is associated with a staggering 46% lifetime prevalence of alcohol-related disorders...
- Glucogen Synthase Kinase 3beta and Bipolar DisorderXiaohua Li; Fiscal Year: 2007..regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, its modulation by mood stabilizers and its potential role in bipolar disorder. The five-year plans to enable the candidate to develop into an independent psychiatric investigator to ..
- Valproate Efficacy in Cocaine-Bipolar ComorbidityIhsan Salloum; Fiscal Year: 2009..the efficacy of a promising pharmacological approach for the treatment of comorbid cocaine dependence and bipolar disorder. We propose a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial, to test the efficacy of Divalproex ..
- Valproate Efficacy in Cocaine-Bipolar ComorbidityIhsan Salloum; Fiscal Year: 2006..the efficacy of a promising pharmacological approach for the treatment of comorbid cocaine dependence and bipolar disorder. We propose a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial, to test the efficacy of Divalproex ..
- Reducing Medical Risks in Individuals with Bipolar DisorderDavid Kupfer; Fiscal Year: 2009..aim of this project is to understand whether it is possible to reduce medical risk factors in adults with bipolar disorder and, in doing so, to improve psychiatric and functional outcomes...
- PROTON MRSI STUDIES OF BIPOLAR DISORDERPerry Renshaw; Fiscal Year: 2001..In pilot studies of individuals with bipolar disorder, we have used 1H MRSI to evaluate brain cytosolic choline levels and, more recently, myo-inositol levels...
- Neurophysiology of Working Memory in Bipolar DisorderCaleb Adler; Fiscal Year: 2007..Caleb M. Adler's developing expertise in neuroimaging and bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a common psychiatric illness accompanied by severe morbidity and mortality...
- Genetic Linkage Studies in Bipolar Disorder FamiliesElliot Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2009..Johns Hopkins, the University of Chicago, and the National Institute of Mental Health--that has developed a bipolar disorder family resource that has proven to be uniquely valuable in testing clinically based hypotheses about the ..
- International Cohort Collection for Bipolar DisorderJordan Smoller; Fiscal Year: 2009b>Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a major public health priority, responsible for a vast burden of disability, personal suffering, and economic cost...
- MRI/MRSI Studies of Bipolar Treatment ResponsePerry Renshaw; Fiscal Year: 2009..dysfunction (increased gray matter lactate and glutamate/glutamine/GABA (Glx)) in untreated patients with bipolar disorder; (2) measured changes toward normal values in brain Glx were associated with lithium treatment, but not ..
- Neurofunctional and Neurochemical Markers of Treatment Response in Bipolar ManiaCaleb M Adler; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Neurofunctional and Neurochemical Markers of Treatment Response in Bipolar ManiaCaleb Adler; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Neurofunctional and Neurochemical Markers of Treatment Response in Bipolar ManiaCaleb Adler; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- RESEARCH TRAINING IN JUVENILE BIPOLAR DISORDERPablo Davanzo; Fiscal Year: 2002..a program of career development and research in psychopharmacology and neuroimaging of juveniles with bipolar disorder. A focus of this program will be a clinical trial with a mood-stabilizer (divalproex sodium) in a group of ..
- MRSI of Frontosubcortical Circuits in Bipolar DisorderRAYMOND DEICKEN; Fiscal Year: 2004DESCRIPTION: (provided by applicant) Developing evidence strongly suggests that bipolar disorder involves localized abnormalities in specific brain structures that participate in fronto-limbic-subcortical circuits regulating mood...
- Psychiatric Illness: Multigene Expression ClassificationJAMES CLELLAND; Fiscal Year: 2005..proposal is designed to produce data for the development of a biological classification of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, based on high density microarray measurements of transcribed white blood cell (leukocyte) mRNA...
- Bipolar Disorder Among Patients With DepressionCamilo Ruggero; Fiscal Year: 2007..The latter is common: up to 40% of people with bipolar disorder will be originally misdiagnosed; under-diagnosis of less severe bipolar disorders may be even more common...
- Neurofunctional and Neurochemical Markers of Treatment Response in Bipolar ManiaCaleb Adler; Fiscal Year: 2009..Ultimately, these findings could lead to more focused therapeutics and better predictors of lithium response. ..