psychosexual development

Summary

Summary: The stages of development of the psychological aspects of sexuality from birth to adulthood; i.e., oral, anal, genital, and latent periods.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Homoerotic development during childhood and adolescence
    Ritch C Savin-Williams
    Department of Human Development, MVR Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 13:529-49, vii. 2004
  2. ncbi Androgen and psychosexual development: core gender identity, sexual orientation and recalled childhood gender role behavior in women and men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
    Melissa Hines
    Department of Psychology, City University, Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB, UK
    J Sex Res 41:75-81. 2004
  3. ncbi The cognitive, behavioral, and personality profiles of a male monozygotic triplet set discordant for sexual orientation
    Scott L Hershberger
    Department of Psychology, California State University, Long Beach 90840, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 33:497-514. 2004
  4. ncbi Psychosocial and psychosexual development in childhood and adolescence within the exstrophy-epispadias complex
    A Ebert
    Department of Pediatric Urology, Klinik St Hedwig, University of Regensburg, Germany
    J Urol 174:1094-8. 2005
  5. doi Sexual orientation and childhood gender nonconformity: evidence from home videos
    Gerulf Rieger
    Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, 2029 Sheridan Road, Swift Hall 102, Evanston IL 60208, USA
    Dev Psychol 44:46-58. 2008
  6. ncbi Exposure to internet pornography among children and adolescents: a national survey
    Michele L Ybarra
    Internet Solutions for Kids, Inc, Irvine, California 92618, USA
    Cyberpsychol Behav 8:473-86. 2005
  7. doi Social bonds and internet pornographic exposure among adolescents
    Gustavo S Mesch
    Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The Center for the Study of Society, University of Haifa, Har Hacarmel 31905, Israel
    J Adolesc 32:601-18. 2009
  8. ncbi Psychosexual development in individuals who have female pseudohermaphroditism
    Melissa Hines
    Department of Psychology, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 13:641-56, ix. 2004
  9. ncbi 46,XX patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: initial assignment as male, reassigned female
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 18:125-32. 2005
  10. ncbi Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: methods and findings
    Celina C C Cohen-Bendahan
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:353-84. 2005

Research Grants

  1. Quality of Life in Intersexuality: A Pediatric Clinical and Research Tool
    David E Sandberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. Quality of Life in Intersexuality: A Pediatric Clinical and Research Tool
    David Sandberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
  3. Quality of Life in Intersexuality: A Pediatric Clinical and Research Tool
    David Sandberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
  4. A RAM MODEL OF NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    CHARLES ROSELLI; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. A RAM MODEL OF NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    CHARLES ROSELLI; Fiscal Year: 2009
  6. A RAM MODEL OF NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    CHARLES EUGENE ROSELLI; Fiscal Year: 2010
  7. A RAM MODEL OF NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    CHARLES ROSELLI; Fiscal Year: 2009
  8. A RAM MODEL OF NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    CHARLES EUGENE ROSELLI; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. STUDY OF WOMEN WITH CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA
    CLAUDE MIGEON; Fiscal Year: 2004
  10. HORMONAL INFLUENCES ON HUMAN SEXUALLY-DIMORPHIC BEHAVIOR
    Sheri Berenbaum; Fiscal Year: 2005

Detail Information

Publications157 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Homoerotic development during childhood and adolescence
    Ritch C Savin-Williams
    Department of Human Development, MVR Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 13:529-49, vii. 2004
    ..Clinical recommendations offer ways to assess sexual orientation and help patients to achieve acceptance of their sexuality...
  2. ncbi Androgen and psychosexual development: core gender identity, sexual orientation and recalled childhood gender role behavior in women and men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
    Melissa Hines
    Department of Psychology, City University, Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB, UK
    J Sex Res 41:75-81. 2004
    ....
  3. ncbi The cognitive, behavioral, and personality profiles of a male monozygotic triplet set discordant for sexual orientation
    Scott L Hershberger
    Department of Psychology, California State University, Long Beach 90840, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 33:497-514. 2004
    ..These findings support the view that the prenatal hormonal environment may have enduring effects on selected behavioral traits...
  4. ncbi Psychosocial and psychosexual development in childhood and adolescence within the exstrophy-epispadias complex
    A Ebert
    Department of Pediatric Urology, Klinik St Hedwig, University of Regensburg, Germany
    J Urol 174:1094-8. 2005
    We report the psychosocial and psychosexual development of children and adolescents with the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) after complete functional repair using the Erlangen single stage technique.
  5. doi Sexual orientation and childhood gender nonconformity: evidence from home videos
    Gerulf Rieger
    Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, 2029 Sheridan Road, Swift Hall 102, Evanston IL 60208, USA
    Dev Psychol 44:46-58. 2008
    ..This difference emerged early, carried into adulthood, and was consistent with self-report. In addition, targets who were more gender nonconforming tended to recall more childhood rejection...
  6. ncbi Exposure to internet pornography among children and adolescents: a national survey
    Michele L Ybarra
    Internet Solutions for Kids, Inc, Irvine, California 92618, USA
    Cyberpsychol Behav 8:473-86. 2005
    ..Findings from these cross-sectional data provide justification for longitudinal studies aimed at parsing out temporal sequencing of psychosocial experiences...
  7. doi Social bonds and internet pornographic exposure among adolescents
    Gustavo S Mesch
    Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The Center for the Study of Society, University of Haifa, Har Hacarmel 31905, Israel
    J Adolesc 32:601-18. 2009
    ..Weak ties to mainstream social institutions were characteristic of the former group but not of the latter. X-rated material consumers proved to be a distinct sub-group at risk of deviant behaviour...
  8. ncbi Psychosexual development in individuals who have female pseudohermaphroditism
    Melissa Hines
    Department of Psychology, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 13:641-56, ix. 2004
    ..Implications for current debate about the treatment of infants who have ambiguous genitalia are discussed, as is the need for additional research and for consideration of psychologic counseling as part of the treatment program...
  9. ncbi 46,XX patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: initial assignment as male, reassigned female
    Peter A Lee
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 18:125-32. 2005
    ..Thus, while outcome is satisfactory, it is realized that for most, expression of sexual orientation and adult life adjustments have not yet occurred...
  10. ncbi Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: methods and findings
    Celina C C Cohen-Bendahan
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:353-84. 2005
    ..We conclude with suggestions for interpreting and conducting studies of the behavioral effects of prenatal hormones...
  11. ncbi Measurement of psychosexual differentiation
    Kenneth J Zucker
    Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, Child, Youth, and Family Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8, Canada
    Arch Sex Behav 34:375-88. 2005
    ..It is hoped that this overview will provide a template for the new generation of studies that are looking at both gender development and sexual orientation in people born with physical intersex conditions...
  12. ncbi Sex in Australia: sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual experience among a representative sample of adults
    Anthony M A Smith
    Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria
    Aust N Z J Public Health 27:138-45. 2003
    ..To describe the prevalence of same-sex and opposite-sex attraction and experience in Australia and the prevalence of different sexual identities...
  13. ncbi Gender dysphoria and gender change in chromosomal females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    Arianne B Dessens
    Pediatrics Department, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Sophia Children s Hospital, Room SP 3435, POB 2060, 3000 CB, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Arch Sex Behav 34:389-97. 2005
    ..From these observations, we conclude that the assignment to the female gender as a general policy for 46,XX patients with CAH appears justified, even in severely masculinized 46,XX newborns with CAH (Prader stage IV or V)...
  14. ncbi Gender identity outcome in female-raised 46,XY persons with penile agenesis, cloacal exstrophy of the bladder, or penile ablation
    Heino F L Meyer-Bahlburg
    New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 34:423-38. 2005
    ....
  15. ncbi Working with nonheterosexual youth to understand sexual identity development, at-risk behaviors, and implications for health care professionals
    Shannon D Smith
    Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 3003, USA
    Psychol Rep 96:651-4. 2005
    ..Finally, implications for health care professionals working with these adolescents are outlined...
  16. ncbi [The gender debate from the pedagogic perspective]
    Johanna Forster
    Erziehungswissenschaftliche Fakultät, Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg
    Anthropol Anz 62:269-80. 2004
    ..the question of sex specific differences in cognitive abilities in respect to school performance of adolescents, and 3. teaching knowledge on "sex" and "gender" in schools...
  17. ncbi Male-male homosexology: seven short discourses
    John Money
    Psychohormonal Research Unit, The Johns Hopkins Hospital and University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 17:1147-52. 2004
    ..The different personal histories of homosexual development also remain to be ascertained and cataloged...
  18. ncbi Girls' sexual development in the inner city: from compelled childhood sexual contact to sex-for-things exchanges
    Eloise Dunlap
    National Development and Research Institutes, Inc, 171 West 23rd Street, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10010, USA
    J Child Sex Abus 12:73-96. 2003
    ..Quotes from respondents illustrate the mechanics of this process and how it is sustained by the deprivations of structural disadvantage, prevailing subcultural norms, violence and illicit drug use...
  19. ncbi Gender identity development and issues
    Kenneth J Zucker
    Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 13:551-68, vii. 2004
    This article focuses on the psychosexual development of children and adolescents who have sex-typed behavioral patterns that correspond to the diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder, as defined in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and ..
  20. ncbi Pubertal onset and sexual orientation in an adolescent national probability sample
    Ritch C Savin-Williams
    Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 35:279-86. 2006
    ..These findings are attributed to methodological improvements in the present study that reduced retrospective bias, used multiple indicators of sexual orientation and puberty timing, and assessed less eroticized measures of puberty...
  21. ncbi Androgen insensitivity syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome: sex and gender considerations
    Milton Diamond
    Department of Anatomy and Reproductive Biology, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Manoa, 1960 East West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 13:623-40, viii. 2004
    ..Tips on counseling and medical management are offered...
  22. ncbi Sexual identity development in the context of compulsory heterosexuality
    Julie Konik
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Pers 72:815-44. 2004
    ..These individuals also stressed the importance of having support or modeling for their sexual identity...
  23. ncbi Links between sex-typed time use in middle childhood and gender development in early adolescence
    Susan M McHale
    Pennsylvania State University, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University Park, PA, US
    Dev Psychol 40:868-81. 2004
    ..Sex-typed activities in middle childhood predicted individual differences in gender development in early adolescence...
  24. ncbi Premodern, modern, and postmodern perspectives on sex and gender mixes
    Helen K Gediman
    NYU Postdoctoral Program in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 53:1059-78. 2005
    ....
  25. ncbi The diagnosis and care of transsexual children and adolescents: a pediatric endocrinologists' perspective
    Christopher P Houk
    Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033 0850, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 19:103-9. 2006
    ....
  26. ncbi Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior
    Dick F Swaab
    Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 47, 1105 BA Amsterdam ZO, The Netherlands
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 21:431-44. 2007
    ..Differences in brain structures and brain functions have been found that are related to sexual orientation and gender...
  27. ncbi Sexual orientation in women with classical or non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia as a function of degree of prenatal androgen excess
    Heino F L Meyer-Bahlburg
    New York State Psychiatric Institute and Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 37:85-99. 2008
    ..We conclude that the findings support a sexual-differentiation perspective involving prenatal androgens on the development of sexual orientation...
  28. doi Sexual orientation across the life span: introduction to the special section
    Charlotte J Patterson
    Department of Psychology, P O Box 400400, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Dev Psychol 44:1-4. 2008
    ..The articles in this special section provide only a sampling of current research, but they begin to suggest the vitality and excitement of a field that is coming into its own...
  29. doi "Mostly straight" young women: variations in sexual behavior and identity development
    Elisabeth Morgan Thompson
    Department of Psychology, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Dev Psychol 44:15-21. 2008
    ..As a whole, this study encourages researchers to begin to recognize and examine mostly straight as a distinct sexual identity subtype in young women...
  30. doi Development, reliability, and validity of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MOSIEC)
    Roger L Worthington
    Department of Educational, School and Counseling Psychology, 16 Hill Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
    Dev Psychol 44:22-33. 2008
    ..Implications for further development and use of the MoSIEC are discussed...
  31. doi A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder
    Kelley D Drummond
    Department of Human Development and Applied Psychology, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Dev Psychol 44:34-45. 2008
    ....
  32. doi Then and now: recruitment, definition, diversity, and positive attributes of same-sex populations
    Ritch C Savin-Williams
    Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Dev Psychol 44:135-8. 2008
    ....
  33. doi Psychosexual development of children and adolescents with hypospadias
    Verena B Schönbucher
    University Children s Hospital, Pediatric Urology, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Sex Med 5:1365-73. 2008
    ..Despite the common assumption that hypospadias may affect children's psychosexual development, only a few studies report on the patients' psychosexual adjustment during childhood and adolescence.
  34. ncbi [Sex identity disorders in children and adolescents]
    David Goecker
    Institut für Sexualwissenschalf und Sexualmedizin im Zentrum für Human und Gesundheissenschaften sowie in der Klinik für Kinder und Jugendpsychiatrie und psychotherapie der Charité in Berlin
    Kinderkrankenschwester 26:330-2. 2007
  35. ncbi Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents
    Kenneth J Zucker
    Gender Identity Service, Child, Youth, and Family Program, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1R8 Canada
    Annu Rev Clin Psychol 1:467-92. 2005
    ..This article reviews three domains of empirical research on gender identity disorder in children and adolescents: diagnosis and assessment, associated psychopathology, and developmental trajectories...
  36. ncbi [Treatment of depression: what do women need?]
    Marianne Springer-Kremser
    Universitätsklinik für Tiefenpsychologie und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Universitat, Wien, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, A 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Z Psychosom Med Psychother 52:161-71. 2006
    ..To answer the question of adequate treatment of depression in women from a scientific point of view, it is necessary to investigate the aetiology of depressive disorders as they relate to bio-genetic, mental and social factors...
  37. ncbi [Sex as body technique: male representations of affective and sexual relationships]
    Andrea Fachel Leal
    Núcleo de Antropologia do Corpo e Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil
    Cad Saude Publica 22:1375-84. 2006
    ....
  38. ncbi Coming-out across the life course: implications of age and historical context
    Frank J Floyd
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30302 5010, USA
    Arch Sex Behav 35:287-96. 2006
    ..These developmental and historical trends expand on the stage-sequential framework to show how the process of sexual orientation identity development is driven by maturational factors as well as social changes...
  39. ncbi The biology of human psychosexual differentiation
    Louis Gooren
    Department of Endocrinology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Horm Behav 50:589-601. 2006
    ..The biological explanations advanced for the birth order hypothesis lack any experimental support...
  40. ncbi Extreme right-handedness, older brothers, and sexual orientation in men
    Anthony F Bogaert
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Brock University, St Catharines, Ontario, Canada
    Neuropsychology 21:141-8. 2007
    ..The results have implications for an early neurodevelopmental origin to sexual orientation in men...
  41. ncbi [Sexuality in children 9-14 years old]
    Rafael Ballester Arnal
    Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Universitat Jaume I, Castellon, Spain
    Psicothema 18:25-30. 2006
    ..Girls start to masturbate and to have sexual relations later than boys and show a prevalence of sexual fantasies and use of pornography very lower. It is necessary sexual education programs to be implanted since early ages in schools...
  42. ncbi Riddles of masculinity: gender, bisexuality, and thirdness
    Gerald I Fogel
    Oregon Psychoanalytic Institute, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 54:1139-63. 2006
    ....
  43. ncbi Mothers and daughters
    Kay Reed
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 54:1245-56. 2006
  44. pmc Increased aggression and activity level in 3- to 11-year-old girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
    Vickie Pasterski
    University of Cambridge, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Free School Lane, Cambridge, CB2 3RQ, UK
    Horm Behav 52:368-74. 2007
    ..These data suggest that early androgens have a masculinizing effect on both aggressive behavior and activity level in girls...
  45. doi Beyond the "big talk": the roles of breadth and repetition in parent-adolescent communication about sexual topics
    Steven C Martino
    RAND, 4570 Fifth Ave, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Pediatrics 121:e612-8. 2008
    ..The goal of this study was to assess the independent influence of breadth and repetition of sexual discussion on adolescents' perceptions of their relationship and communication with their parents...
  46. ncbi [From taboo to self-actualization--acceptance problems and learning processes in working with mentally handicapped patients]
    Joachim Walter
    Fachhochschule Freiburg, Buggingerstr 38, 79114 Freiburg
    Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr 51:587-97. 2002
    ..Six criterions and standards respectively, are pointed out, that help to determine whether institutions support or hinder sexual self-determination. These standards are formulated as rights in the sense of the basic human rights...
  47. ncbi Individual and familial influences on the onset of sexual intercourse among urban African American adolescents
    Cami K McBride
    Institute for Juvenile Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 71:159-67. 2003
    ..Changes in pubertal development and observed family conflict were associated with early debut. Possible mediating mechanisms and implications for preventive interventions are discussed...
  48. ncbi Biological factors in human sexuality
    John Bancroft
    The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction, Morrison Hall 313, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    J Sex Res 39:15-21. 2002
    ..The paper concludes with consideration of how little is known about the interaction between biology and culture in shaping human sexuality, and the need for research in this area...
  49. ncbi Re: Sexual behaviors, sexual orientation and gender identity in adult intersexuals: a pilot study
    Kenneth J Zucker
    J Urol 168:1507-8; author reply 1508. 2002
  50. ncbi Taking a stand: using psychoanalysis to explore the positioning of subjects in discourse
    Stephen Frosh
    School of Psychology, Birbeck College, University of London, UK
    Br J Soc Psychol 42:39-53. 2003
    ..The argument is illustrated by data from a qualitative study of young masculinities, exploring the ways in which some individual boys take up positions in various degrees of opposition to the dominant ideology of 'hegemonic' masculinity...
  51. ncbi It's about timing and change: pubertal transition effects on symptoms of major depression among African American youths
    Xiaojia Ge
    Department of Human and Community Development, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
    Dev Psychol 39:430-9. 2003
    ..Results support the early timing hypothesis for girls and the stressful change hypothesis for boys. Time at assessment is critical when examining boys' pubertal transition...
  52. ncbi Sex-role stereotyping for selected sport and physical activities across age groups
    Karen S Meaney
    Department of Health, Exercise, and Sport Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock 79409, USA
    Percept Mot Skills 94:743-9. 2002
    ..Over age groups there were more discrepancies between boys' and girls' ratings of activities as sex-specific. These findings suggest that sex-role stereotyping of sports and physical activities becomes more predominant across age groups...
  53. ncbi A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation
    Brian S Mustanski
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA
    Annu Rev Sex Res 13:89-140. 2002
    ..We conclude with an examination of the limitations of biological research on sexual orientation, including measurement issues (paper and pencil, cognitive, and psychophysiological), and lack of research on women...
  54. ncbi Psychosexual development and eating disorders
    Victor Fornari
    Dept of Psychiatry, North Shore University Hospital, 400 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA
    Adolesc Med 14:61-75. 2003
    ..It should be considered as only one factor in the multidimensional, multifactorial framework needed to clarify this complex and still poorly understood set of disorders...
  55. ncbi Child sexual abuse: associations with the sexual functioning of adolescents and adults
    Tamra Burns Loeb
    University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, 90095 1759, USA
    Annu Rev Sex Res 13:307-45. 2002
    ..We use a developmental framework to guide our understanding of the effects of CSA, as well as gender and ethnic differences, on the sexual functioning of male and female survivors...
  56. ncbi Psychosexual functioning of childhood cancer survivors
    E M van Dijk
    Department of Medical Psychology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychooncology 17:506-11. 2008
    ..The objective of the study is to explore psychosexual functioning and its relationship with quality of life in survivors of cancer in childhood...
  57. doi A study of gender outcome of Egyptian patients with 46,XY disorder of sex development
    S I Ismail
    Clinical Genetics Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
    Sex Dev 4:285-91. 2010
    ..This is the first study in Egypt aimed at studying the psychosexual development and gender outcome of 40 Egyptian patients with 46,XY DSD focusing on the impact of social and religious ..
  58. ncbi Hormonal therapies for individuals with intersex conditions: protocol for use
    Garry L Warne
    Centre for Hormone Research, Royal Children s Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Treat Endocrinol 4:19-29. 2005
    ..sexual development: growth of a hypoplastic penis in a young boy, pubertal changes (male or female), psychosexual development, and adult sexual behavior...
  59. pmc Gender identity and sex-of-rearing in children with disorders of sexual differentiation
    William G Reiner
    Department of Urology Pediatric Urology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 18:549-53. 2005
    ..To compare declared sexual identity to sex-of-rearing in individuals with disorders of sexual differentiation...
  60. doi Clinical holistic medicine: avoiding the Freudian trap of sexual transference and countertransference in psychodynamic therapy
    Søren Ventegodt
    Quality of Life Research Center, Classensgade 11C, 1 sal, DK 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark
    ScientificWorldJournal 8:371-83. 2008
    ..and emotional traumas, and to heal the deep wounds on body, soul, and sexual character from arrested psychosexual development. CHM treats sexuality in therapy more as the patient's internal affair (i.e...
  61. ncbi Differential environmental factors in anorexia nervosa: a sibling pair study
    F Murphy
    Eating Disorders Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Br J Clin Psychol 39:193-203. 2000
    ..This study looks at the environmental factors which may be antecedents of anorexia nervosa looking at sister pairs where one had anorexia nervosa and the other did not...
  62. ncbi A case of premenstrual distress: bisexual determinants of a woman's fantasy of damage to her genital
    O Renik
    San Francisco Psychoanalytic Society
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 40:195-210. 1992
    ..Some contemporary contributions to the psychoanalytic theory of female psychosexual development are presented as complementary with, rather than contradictory to, more familiar, longstanding ..
  63. ncbi Gender identity and recalled gender related childhood play-behaviour in adult individuals with different forms of intersexuality
    Hertha Richter-Appelt
    Institute for Sex Research, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany
    Anthropol Anz 63:241-56. 2005
    ..Further research is needed to guarantee better psychosexual development with good quality of life in individuals with intersexuality.
  64. ncbi Self-reported sexual arousability in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    Kenneth J Zucker
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Sex Marital Ther 30:343-55. 2004
    As part of a larger study of psychosexual development and sexual functioning in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), we assessed self-reported sexual arousability with the Sexual Arousability Inventory-Short Form (SAI-SF; Hoon ..
  65. ncbi Gender role across development in adults with 46,XY disorders of sex development including perineoscrotal hypospadias and small phallus raised male or female
    Kara B Pappas
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Johns Hopkins University School ofMedicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 21:625-30. 2008
    ..adolescence, adulthood, and in the past 12 months of filling out a questionnaire pertaining to their psychosexual development. Participants raised male reported more masculinity than those raised female due to an increase in ..
  66. ncbi Revised definitions of women's sexual dysfunction
    Rosemary Basson
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Sex Med 1:40-8. 2004
    ..Existing definitions of women's sexual disorders are based mainly on genitally focused events in a linear sequence model (desire, arousal and orgasm)...
  67. ncbi Fertility in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency
    Nike M M L Stikkelbroeck
    Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, University Medical Center Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 58:275-84. 2003
    ..adrenal rest tumors, neuroendocrine factors, genital surgery, and psychological factors such as delayed psychosexual development, reduced sexual activity and low maternal feelings. It is obvious that these factors are interrelated...
  68. pmc Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders
    Theo Ah Doreleijers
    VU University Medical Center, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 3:19. 2009
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO)...
  69. ncbi The impact of culture on sex assignment and gender development in intersex patients
    Ursula Kuhnle
    Children s Hospital, University of Munich, Germany
    Perspect Biol Med 45:85-103. 2002
    ..of the genitalia have been elucidated, our knowledge regarding the impact of these defects upon the psychosexual development is rather rudimentary...
  70. ncbi [Psychological aspects of genital surgery in childhood]
    Mila Kolar
    University Child Clinic, Belgrade
    Srp Arh Celok Lek 131:176-81. 2003
    ..The surgical operation itself presents a traumatic situation for the child and it may discredit the later psychosexual development of these boys in a great deal...
  71. ncbi Sexuality and haemophilia: connections across the life-span
    K L Parish
    Hemophilia Foundation of Southern California, Pasadena, CA, USA
    Haemophilia 8:353-9. 2002
    ..Its impact in haemophilia is influenced by different stages of physical and psychosexual development, misconceptions about sexuality, and unique concerns for this group, including joint disability, human ..
  72. ncbi Contemporary outcomes in bladder exstrophy
    Patricio C Gargollo
    Department of Urology, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Curr Opin Urol 17:272-80. 2007
    ..This review aims to present recent developments in the care of these patients as well as to review contemporary medical outcomes...
  73. ncbi Inherent contradictions in the ego ideal
    Errol B Dendy
    Zucker Hillside Hospital of the North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Glen Oaks, New York, USA
    Psychoanal Q 79:991-1023. 2010
    ..He then shows how the ego ideal's content evolves through the various stages of psychosexual development in accordance with its mission...
  74. ncbi [The sequential traumatisation of a Sinti-child Holocaust-survivor]
    Michael Purucker
    Klinik fur Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Abteilung für Allgemeine Akutpsychiatrie, Bezirkskrankenhaus Bayreuth
    Psychiatr Prax 31:207-11. 2004
    ..Her life is characterised by psychosomatic symptoms, disorders of psychosexual development, including infertility, and a chronic Post Traumatic Stress Disorder...
  75. ncbi [Long-term effects of hypospadias repair]
    Rafał Ryśkiewicz
    Oddział Chirurgii Dzieciecej Wojewódzkiego Szpitala Zespolonego w Koszalinie ul Chałubiriskiego 7, 75 580 Koszalin
    Ann Acad Med Stetin 54:70-6; discussion 76. 2008
    ..The purpose of the study was the estimation of late aesthetic and functional results after the treatment of hypospadias. We also analysed the hypospadias impact upon the patients' social and psychological lives...
  76. doi Remarkable differences: the course of life of young adults with galactosaemia and PKU
    A M Bosch
    Department of Pediatrics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, G8205, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Inherit Metab Dis 32:706-12. 2009
    ..Classical galactosaemia patients had a delayed social and psychosexual development compared to their peers from the general population and to PKU patients...
  77. doi Psychosocial issues in genetic testing for familial adenomatous polyposis: a review of the literature
    K F L Douma
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychooncology 17:737-45. 2008
    ..Being a carrier for FAP is hypothesized to have a negative impact on psychosocial well-being. This paper reviews the current literature on the psychosocial aspects of FAP...
  78. ncbi Hand preference, sexual preference, and transsexualism
    R Green
    Department of Psychiatry, Imperial College School of Medicine at Charing Cross, Gender Identity Clinic, Charing Cross Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Arch Sex Behav 30:565-74. 2001
    ..The posited role of prenatal androgen influencing both cerebral hemispheric dominance and psychosexual development warrants further study with large samples of transsexuals...
  79. ncbi Oral pessimism and depressive symptoms
    C A Lewis
    Department of Psychology, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
    J Psychol 127:335-43. 1993
    ..symptoms to assess the psychoanalytic claim that fixation at the early phase of the oral stage of psychosexual development is related to depression...
  80. ncbi [Some new aspects of the Klinefelter syndrome]
    L J G Gooren
    VU Medisch Centrum, Afd Endocrinologie, De Boelelaan III7, 108I HV Amsterdam
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 150:2693-6. 2006
    ..with testosterone can contribute to a more positive body image and, consequently, to a healthier psychosexual development in men with KS...
  81. ncbi Psychosexual biography and the strategies used by women afflicted with stress urinary incontinence during intercourse: two case studies
    Mariola Bidzan
    Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
    Med Sci Monit 16:CS6-10. 2010
    ..Stress urinary incontinence often leads to major physical, psychological and social problems, and many patients struggle to cope with this illness. The issue of urinary leakage during sex is particularly troublesome...
  82. ncbi Psychoanalytic contributions to the study of gender issues
    N B Barbieri
    University of Ottawa, Ontario
    Can J Psychiatry 44:72-6. 1999
    ..To explore the issue of gender development and its applications and implications with respect to dynamic psychiatry...
  83. doi Practical approach to childhood masturbation--a review
    Charita Mallants
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium
    Eur J Pediatr 167:1111-7. 2008
    ..We conclude that normal psychosexual development, as well as environmental and individual factors, should be considered in the assessment and management ..
  84. ncbi Adolescent girls perceptions of the timing of their sexual initiation: "too young" or "just right"?
    Sian Cotton
    Division of Adolescent Medicine, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    J Adolesc Health 34:453-8. 2004
    ..To examine variables associated with adolescent girls' perceptions of the timing of their first consensual intercourse...
  85. ncbi A retrospective study of childhood gender-atypical behavior in Samoan fa'afafine
    Nancy H Bartlett
    Department of Psychology, Mount Saint Vincent University, 166 Bedford Hwy, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3M 2J6, Canada
    Arch Sex Behav 35:659-66. 2006
    ..between gender-atypical behavior in childhood and adult androphilia is not unique to Western societies and may be a cross-culturally universal pattern of psychosexual development shared by most males who are predominantly androphilic.
  86. doi Sexual issues in special populations: adolescents and young adults
    Sage Bolte
    INOVA Cancer Services, Fairfax, VA, USA
    Semin Oncol Nurs 24:115-9. 2008
    To understand the unique impact of cancer on the psychosexual development of adolescents and young adults and to identify concrete approaches for broaching the topic of sexuality and sexual function.
  87. ncbi Genital herpes in young adults: changing sexual behaviours, epidemiology and management
    Craig Roberts
    University Health Services, Madison, WI 53726, USA
    Herpes 12:10-4. 2005
    ..A diagnosis of herpes may also affect psychosexual development, particularly in adolescents...
  88. ncbi [The role of gender in intersexual experiments in the second half of the 20th century]
    Ulrike Klöppel
    Institut für Geschichte der Medizin Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
    NTM 14:231-40. 2006
    ..to the decisive role of treating intersexuals as "experiments of nature" for the clinical research in psychosexual development. This new technology brought the divergent problematizations of "ambiguous sex" in line thus bridging the ..
  89. ncbi Infant testicular prostheses
    J S Elder
    Division of Urology, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
    J Urol 141:1413-5. 1989
    ..Longer followup will be necessary to ascertain whether this approach alters the psychosexual development of these patients...
  90. ncbi Hysterectomy in a phenotypic male with advanced gonadal malignancy and intersex
    Jim L Parker
    School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW
    Med J Aust 190:644-6. 2009
    ..Issues of gender assignment, psychosexual development and the potential for malignant change in a dysgenetic gonad need to be considered...
  91. doi Course of life of survivors of childhood cancer is related to quality of life in young adulthood
    Heleen Maurice-Stam
    Paediatric Psychosocial Department, Emma Children s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, NL 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Psychosoc Oncol 25:43-58. 2007
    ..Health-care providers should help to minimize the harm for children who grow up with cancer by encouraging social and psychosexual development. Children should be encouraged to make friends and to participate in peer activities.
  92. doi Hormones, context, and "brain gender": a review of evidence from congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    Rebecca M Jordan-Young
    Department of Women s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies, Barnard College, Columbia University, 3009 Broadway, New York, NY 10027, USA
    Soc Sci Med 74:1738-44. 2012
    ..demonstrates that such studies have neglected four broad categories of variables that plausibly affect psychosexual development: (1) physiological effects of CAH, including complex disruption of steroid hormones from early ..
  93. doi Female exhibitionism: identification, competition and camaraderie
    Deanna Holtzman
    Int J Psychoanal 93:271-92. 2012
    ..The authors present clinical data from adolescent and adult cases of female exhibitionism which illustrate these Baubo-like aspects and discuss the technical issues that are involved in such cases...
  94. doi The Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression (GSA) twin samples in Finland
    Ada Johansson
    Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Abo Akademi University, Turku, Finland
    Twin Res Hum Genet 16:150-6. 2013
    ..A detailed overview of publications can be found at the project's Web site: http://www.cebg.fi/...
  95. pmc Sexual attraction, sexual identity, and psychosocial wellbeing in a national sample of young women during emerging adulthood
    Michelle Marie Johns
    Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2029, USA
    J Youth Adolesc 42:82-95. 2013
    ..We discuss these findings in terms of the diversity found in young women's sexuality, and how sexual minority status may be experienced by this group...
  96. ncbi [Intersex: which gender should be chosen?]
    J N Steensberg
    H S Rigshospitalet, Juliane Marie Centret, afdeling for vaekst og reproduktion og neurocentret, Psykiatrisk Klinik
    Ugeskr Laeger 163:1067-73. 2001
    ..aspects, the anatomy of the internal genitalia, as well as the prospects for future fertility, normal psychosexual development, and sexual function as an adult...
  97. doi Sexual attraction and trajectories of mental health and substance use during the transition from adolescence to adulthood
    Belinda L Needham
    Department of Sociology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, HHB 460C, 1530 3rd Ave S, Birmingham, AL 35294 1152, USA
    J Youth Adolesc 41:179-90. 2012
    ....
  98. doi Sexual orientation, partnership formation, and substance use in the transition to adulthood
    Erika Laine Austin
    Department of Sociology and Social Work, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Heritage Hall 460 S, 1401 University Blvd, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    J Youth Adolesc 41:167-78. 2012
    ..We conclude that the partnership options available to lesbians and gay men do not provide the same health-protective benefits that marriage does for heterosexuals...
  99. doi Long-term outcomes in males with disorders of sex development
    Yvonne G van der Zwan
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Erasmus MC Sophia, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Urol 190:1038-42. 2013
    ..We report long-term outcome data on psychosexual development and sexual function of these individuals in a cross-sectional study.
  100. ncbi Sibling sex ratio of boys with gender identity disorder
    K J Zucker
    Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, Child and Family Studies Centre, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 38:543-51. 1997
    ..These findings are amenable to several psychosocial and biological explanations, which require further investigation...
  101. ncbi Cyclones, bi-cycles, and psychoanalysis: the witch-of-us? complex and The Wizard of Oz
    Jeffrey Stern
    Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 51:1241-61. 2003
    ..whether a work of art, The Wizard of Oz, has something to teach psychoanalysis about adolescent female psychosexual development. The author argues that the popularity and importance of the film is an effect of its symbolic ..

Research Grants76

  1. Quality of Life in Intersexuality: A Pediatric Clinical and Research Tool
    David E Sandberg; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Clinical management of patients with DSDs, based primarily on studies of biological influences on psychosexual development, has become controversial...
  2. Quality of Life in Intersexuality: A Pediatric Clinical and Research Tool
    David Sandberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Clinical management of patients with DSDs, based primarily on studies of biological influences on psychosexual development, has become controversial...
  3. Quality of Life in Intersexuality: A Pediatric Clinical and Research Tool
    David Sandberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Clinical management of patients with DSDs, based primarily on studies of biological influences on psychosexual development, has become controversial...
  4. A RAM MODEL OF NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    CHARLES ROSELLI; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..differentiation and behavior will lead to a deeper scientific understanding of sexual differentiation and psychosexual development, a need that is underscored by the current debate regarding appropriate sex assignments for children born ..
  5. A RAM MODEL OF NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    CHARLES ROSELLI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..preference, and, thereby, to develop a better understanding of mammalian sexual differentiation and psychosexual development. The successful counseling of individuals who have issues and concerns related to their sexuality ..
  6. A RAM MODEL OF NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    CHARLES EUGENE ROSELLI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..preference, and, thereby, to develop a better understanding of mammalian sexual differentiation and psychosexual development. The successful counseling of individuals who have issues and concerns related to their sexuality ..
  7. A RAM MODEL OF NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    CHARLES ROSELLI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..preference, and, thereby, to develop a better understanding of mammalian sexual differentiation and psychosexual development. The successful counseling of individuals who have issues and concerns related to their sexuality ..
  8. A RAM MODEL OF NEUROENDOCRINE FUNCTION
    CHARLES EUGENE ROSELLI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..preference, and, thereby, to develop a better understanding of mammalian sexual differentiation and psychosexual development. The successful counseling of individuals who have issues and concerns related to their sexuality ..
  9. STUDY OF WOMEN WITH CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA
    CLAUDE MIGEON; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Adapted from the Investigator's Description): The principle goal of this study is to document long-term psychosexual development as it relates to excess androgen exposure during pre- and postnatal development in women with Congenital ..
  10. HORMONAL INFLUENCES ON HUMAN SEXUALLY-DIMORPHIC BEHAVIOR
    Sheri Berenbaum; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..childhood play behavior and adolescent/young adult cognitive abilities and sexual orientation; (c) psychosexual development and psychological adjustment in relation to early hormones and disease characteristics, especially ..
  11. PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA (CAH)
    HEINO MEYER BAHLBURG; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The findings will contribute to our understanding of psychosexual differentiation in general and to the resolution of ongoing major controversies in the clinical management of patients with intersexuality. ..
  12. GENDER IDENTITY--SEX REASSIGNMENT DUE TO GENITAL DEFECTS
    William Reiner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..program of didactic study, research mentoring, and research studies focusing on gender identity and psychosexual development in children with major genital birth defects...
  13. Developing Health Behaviors in Middle Adolescence
    DONNA REW; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  14. A Longitudinal Study of Health Risk Behavior in Youth
    DONNA REW; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Developing Health Behaviors in Middle Adolescence
    DONNA LYNN REW; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  16. Developing Health Behaviors in Middle Adolescence
    DONNA REW; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  17. SEXUAL HEALTH PRACTICES OF HOMELESS ADOLESCENTS
    DONNA REW; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The expected outcome is an effective, brief intervention for promoting sexual health that can be delivered to homeless adolescents in an unsheltered environment. ..
  18. SEXUAL HEALTH PRACTICES OF HOMELESS ADOLESCENTS
    DONNA REW; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The expected outcomes of the study are the refinement of a theoretical model of sexual health practices that will provide a framework for interventions to reduce the prevalence and incidence of STDs in vulnerable homeless adolescents. ..
  19. Sexual Revictimization: Emotional and Psychosocial Mechanisms
    David DiLillo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Understanding risk factors for victimization is critical to the development of effective sexual assault prevention and treatment programs designed to reduce the societal burden of these experiences. ..
  20. FAMILY EFFECTS ON SOCIAL OUTCOMES FOR CHILDREN WITH MR
    Frank Floyd; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  21. Family Functioning of Adults Maltreated as Children
    David DiLillo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. SMS Turkey: Harnessing the power of TXT messaging to promote smoking cessation
    Michele Ybarra; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The high reach of cell phones allows us to potentially reach smokers who would otherwise not utilize traditional smoking cessation services, representing the possibility of a large public health impact. ..
  23. Gene Dosage in Mammalian Sexual Development
    Eric Vilain; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This proposal will elucidate basic questions about how males and females become different, and will improve genetic classification and diagnostic methods of patients born with disorders of sex development. ..
  24. Role of the Male-Specific Factor Sry in Brain Function
    Eric Vilain; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  25. Emotion Regulation in Relationships during Separation
    Lisa Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This information will make a significant contribution to research on the multiple biobehavioral processes through which close relationships influence day-to-day emotion regulation and long-term psychological well-being. ..
  26. Mapping Etiological Pathways to SV Perpetration from Childhood to Young Adulthood
    Michele Ybarra; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Findings from the extended follow-up of the Growing up with Media study will provide insight into the etiology of sexual violence perpetration as youth transition from adolescence into adulthood. ..
  27. COLLABORATIVE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF PERSONALITY DISORDER
    Thomas McGlashan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  28. Prediction of Psychosis in Schizotypal Adolescents
    Elaine Walker; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In the long-term, the research holds promise for yielding findings that have implications for our conceptualization of the prodromal course of schizophrenia and other psychoses, and for approaches to preventive intervention. ..
  29. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS
    Thomas McGlashan; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The validating approach will examine the homogeneity of descriptive and longitudinal features for the PDs, as defined by the DSM system, and how this compares with alternative schemes. ..