motivation

Summary

Summary: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being
    R M Ryan
    Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Am Psychol 55:68-78. 2000
  2. ncbi Dopamine, learning and motivation
    Roy A Wise
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:483-94. 2004
  3. pmc Two types of dopamine neuron distinctly convey positive and negative motivational signals
    Masayuki Matsumoto
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4435, USA
    Nature 459:837-41. 2009
  4. ncbi The debate over dopamine's role in reward: the case for incentive salience
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street East Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:391-431. 2007
  5. pmc Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Sune Rubak
    Department and Research Unit of General Practice, University of Aarhus, Denmark
    Br J Gen Pract 55:305-12. 2005
  6. pmc How do emotion and motivation direct executive control?
    Luiz Pessoa
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47505, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 13:160-6. 2009
  7. ncbi Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons
    Christopher D Fiorillo
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 299:1898-902. 2003
  8. pmc Motivation and retention of health workers in developing countries: a systematic review
    Mischa Willis-Shattuck
    Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    BMC Health Serv Res 8:247. 2008
  9. ncbi Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:321-52. 2002
  10. ncbi The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice
    Peter W Kalivas
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Ave, BSB 403, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:1403-13. 2005

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications343 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being
    R M Ryan
    Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
    Am Psychol 55:68-78. 2000
    ..has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development...
  2. ncbi Dopamine, learning and motivation
    Roy A Wise
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:483-94. 2004
  3. pmc Two types of dopamine neuron distinctly convey positive and negative motivational signals
    Masayuki Matsumoto
    Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4435, USA
    Nature 459:837-41. 2009
    ..A similar anatomical difference was observed for their responses to actual airpuffs. These findings suggest that different groups of dopamine neurons convey motivational signals in distinct manners...
  4. ncbi The debate over dopamine's role in reward: the case for incentive salience
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street East Hall, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:391-431. 2007
    ..Results from studies that exploited those opportunities are described here...
  5. pmc Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Sune Rubak
    Department and Research Unit of General Practice, University of Aarhus, Denmark
    Br J Gen Pract 55:305-12. 2005
    ..Motivational Interviewing is a well-known, scientifically tested method of counselling clients developed by Miller and Rollnick and viewed as a useful intervention strategy in the treatment of lifestyle problems and disease...
  6. pmc How do emotion and motivation direct executive control?
    Luiz Pessoa
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47505, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 13:160-6. 2009
    Emotion and motivation have crucial roles in determining human behavior. Yet, how they interact with cognitive control functions is less understood...
  7. ncbi Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons
    Christopher D Fiorillo
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 299:1898-902. 2003
    ..The coding of uncertainty suggests a possible role for dopamine signals in attention-based learning and risk-taking behavior...
  8. pmc Motivation and retention of health workers in developing countries: a systematic review
    Mischa Willis-Shattuck
    Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    BMC Health Serv Res 8:247. 2008
    ..The authors undertook a systematic review to consolidate existing evidence on the impact of financial and non-financial incentives on motivation and retention.
  9. ncbi Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex
    Rudolf N Cardinal
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26:321-52. 2002
    ....
  10. ncbi The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice
    Peter W Kalivas
    Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Ave, BSB 403, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:1403-13. 2005
    ....
  11. doi Motivational "spill-over" during weight control: increased self-determination and exercise intrinsic motivation predict eating self-regulation
    Jutta Mata
    Department of Exercise and Health, Faculty of Human Kinetics, Technical University of Lisbon, Cruz Quebrada, Portugal
    Health Psychol 28:709-16. 2009
    ..Based on the Hierarchical Model of Motivation the authors examined whether exercise-specific motivation can transfer to eating regulation during a lifestyle ..
  12. pmc Orexin A/hypocretin-1 selectively promotes motivation for positive reinforcers
    Stephanie L Borgland
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    J Neurosci 29:11215-25. 2009
    ..Here, we show that orexin/hypocretin receptor-1 (ox/hcrt-1R) signaling is important for motivation for highly salient, positive reinforcement...
  13. ncbi Dissociation of reward anticipation and outcome with event-related fMRI
    B Knutson
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1610, USA
    Neuroreport 12:3683-7. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that reward anticipation and outcomes may differentially recruit distinct regions that lie along the trajectory of ascending dopamine projections...
  14. pmc The social motivation theory of autism
    Coralie Chevallier
    Center for Autism Research, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, 3535 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 16:231-9. 2012
    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest...
  15. ncbi Tonic dopamine: opportunity costs and the control of response vigor
    Yael Niv
    Interdisciplinary Center for Neural Computation, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:507-20. 2007
    ....
  16. pmc Dissecting components of reward: 'liking', 'wanting', and learning
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109 1043, USA
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 9:65-73. 2009
    ..of reward, and their neurobiological substrates, may help in devising improved treatments for disorders of mood and motivation, ranging from depression to eating disorders, drug addiction, and related compulsive pursuits of rewards.
  17. ncbi Parsing reward
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, Biopsychology Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Trends Neurosci 26:507-13. 2003
    ..conditioning and cognitive processes); (2) affect or emotion (implicit 'liking' and conscious pleasure) and (3) motivation (implicit incentive salience 'wanting' and cognitive incentive goals)...
  18. ncbi Motivational interviewing
    Jennifer Hettema
    Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 1161, USA
    Annu Rev Clin Psychol 1:91-111. 2005
    ..Progress toward a theory of MI is described, as is research on how clinicians develop proficiency in this method...
  19. doi Ego depletion--is it all in your head? implicit theories about willpower affect self-regulation
    Veronika Job
    Stanford University, USA
    Psychol Sci 21:1686-93. 2010
    ..Taken together, the findings suggest that reduced self-control after a depleting task or during demanding periods may reflect people's beliefs about the availability of willpower rather than true resource depletion...
  20. ncbi Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioral evidence
    I Aharon
    Motivation and Emotion Neuroscience Center, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    Neuron 32:537-51. 2001
    ..An extended set of subcortical and paralimbic reward regions also appear to follow aspects of the keypress rather than the rating procedures, suggesting that reward circuitry function does not include aesthetic assessment...
  21. pmc Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 199:457-80. 2008
    ..Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals...
  22. ncbi Effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine and associated forebrain circuits
    J D Salamone
    Division of Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269 1020, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:461-82. 2007
    ..restructuring, such that the classic emphasis on hedonia and primary reward is giving way to diverse lines of research that focus on aspects of instrumental learning, reward prediction, incentive motivation, and behavioral activation.
  23. ncbi Dissociable neural responses in human reward systems
    R Elliott
    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 20:6159-65. 2000
    ..These results demonstrate dissociable neural responses to rewards and penalties that are dependent on the psychological context in which they are experienced...
  24. doi Computer-tailored health interventions delivered over the Web: review and analysis of key components
    Mia Liza A Lustria
    College of Information, Florida State University, 270 Louis Shores Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306 2100, United States
    Patient Educ Couns 74:156-73. 2009
    ..This systematic review explores how computer-tailored, behavioral interventions implemented and delivered via the Web have been operationalized in a variety of settings...
  25. ncbi Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing
    M M Bradley
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, Health Sciences Center, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610-0165, USA
    Emotion 1:276-98. 2001
    ....
  26. ncbi Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey
    Edwin A Locke
    R H Smith School of Business, University of Maryland, USA
    Am Psychol 57:705-17. 2002
    ..The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory's limitations...
  27. ncbi Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, CB2 3DY United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Psychol 57:87-115. 2006
    ..The neural activity can be related to basic theoretical terms of reward and uncertainty, such as contiguity, contingency, prediction error, magnitude, probability, expected value, and variance...
  28. ncbi Understanding participation in sport and physical activity among children and adults: a review of qualitative studies
    Steven Allender
    Public Health, University of Oxford, Rosemary Rue Building, Old Road Campus, Oxford, UK
    Health Educ Res 21:826-35. 2006
    ..Challenges to identity such as having to show others an unfit body, lacking confidence and competence in core skills or appearing overly masculine were barriers to participation...
  29. doi Neural mechanisms associated with food motivation in obese and healthy weight adults
    Laura E Martin
    Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:254-60. 2010
    One out of three adults in the United States is clinically obese. Excess food intake is associated with food motivation, which has been found to be higher in obese compared to healthy weight (HW) individuals...
  30. ncbi Addiction
    Terry E Robinson
    Department of Psychology Biopsychology Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1109, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 54:25-53. 2003
    ..view, which suggests that sensitization of a neural system that attributes incentive salience causes compulsive motivation or "wanting" to take addictive drugs; and (d) the idea that dysfunction of frontal cortical systems, which ..
  31. ncbi Neurobiology of the structure of personality: dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion
    R A Depue
    Department of Human Development, Laboratory of Neurobiology of Personality and Emotion, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Behav Brain Sci 22:491-517; discussion 518-69. 1999
    ..Positive affect (a combination of positive feelings and motivation) is closely associated with extraversion. Extraversion is accordingly based on positive incentive motivation...
  32. pmc How the brain translates money into force: a neuroimaging study of subliminal motivation
    Mathias Pessiglione
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 12 Queen Square London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 316:904-6. 2007
    Unconscious motivation in humans is often inferred but rarely demonstrated empirically...
  33. pmc Using internet and mobile phone technology to deliver an automated physical activity program: randomized controlled trial
    Robert Hurling
    Unilever Corporate Research, Colworth, Bedford, United Kingdom
    J Med Internet Res 9:e7. 2007
    ....
  34. pmc Toward a theory of motivational interviewing
    William R Miller
    Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions, MSC11 6280, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Am Psychol 64:527-37. 2009
    ..A resulting causal chain model links therapist training, therapist and client responses during treatment sessions, and posttreatment outcomes...
  35. ncbi Methodologies for improving response rates in surveys of physicians: a systematic review
    Jonathan B VanGeest
    Kennesaw State University, Georgia, USA
    Eval Health Prof 30:303-21. 2007
    ..Researchers should continue to implement design strategies that have been documented to improve the survey response of physicians...
  36. doi Using self-determination theory to promote physical activity and weight control: a randomized controlled trial in women
    Marlene N Silva
    Faculty of Human Kinetics, Technical University of Lisbon, Estrada da Costa, Cruz Quebrada, 1495 688, Lisbon, Portugal
    J Behav Med 33:110-22. 2010
    ..who received either an intervention focused on promoting autonomous forms of exercise regulation and intrinsic motivation, or a general health education program (controls)...
  37. ncbi Parallel incentive processing: an integrated view of amygdala function
    Bernard W Balleine
    Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA
    Trends Neurosci 29:272-9. 2006
    ..Given that there is little if any direct behavioral evidence for the serial model, we suggest that more attention should be given to the claims of the parallel view...
  38. ncbi Encoding predictive reward value in human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex
    Jay A Gottfried
    Functional Imaging Laboratory, Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Science 301:1104-7. 2003
    ..Thus, differential activity in amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex encodes the current value of reward representations accessible to predictive cues...
  39. ncbi The role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in motivated behavior: a unifying interpretation with special reference to reward-seeking
    S Ikemoto
    Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 31:6-41. 1999
    ..The present conceptual framework may be valuable in understanding the dynamic interplay of NAS DA neurochemistry and behavior, both normal and pathophysiological...
  40. pmc The general and outcome-specific forms of Pavlovian-instrumental transfer are differentially mediated by the nucleus accumbens core and shell
    Laura H Corbit
    School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia
    J Neurosci 31:11786-94. 2011
    ....
  41. ncbi A region of mesial prefrontal cortex tracks monetarily rewarding outcomes: characterization with rapid event-related fMRI
    Brian Knutson
    Department of Psychology, Building 420, Jordan Hall, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 2130, USA
    Neuroimage 18:263-72. 2003
    ..00 win, MPFC activity decreased, relative to outcomes with no incentive value. These findings suggest that in the context of processing monetary rewards, a region of the MPFC preferentially tracks rewarding outcomes...
  42. doi The unconscious will: how the pursuit of goals operates outside of conscious awareness
    Ruud Custers
    Department of Psychology, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS Utrecht, Netherlands
    Science 329:47-50. 2010
    ..Here we analyze how goal pursuit can possibly operate unconsciously...
  43. ncbi Office-based motivational interviewing to prevent childhood obesity: a feasibility study
    Robert P Schwartz
    Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161:495-501. 2007
    ..To determine whether pediatricians and dietitians can implement an office-based obesity prevention program using motivational interviewing as the primary intervention...
  44. pmc Effects of voucher-based incentives on abstinence from cigarette smoking and fetal growth among pregnant women
    Sarah H Heil
    Departments of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Addiction 103:1009-18. 2008
    ..This study examined whether voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT) contingent upon smoking abstinence during pregnancy is an effective method for decreasing maternal smoking during pregnancy and improving fetal growth...
  45. ncbi Measuring adaptations of motivational interviewing: the development and validation of the behavior change counseling index (BECCI)
    Claire Lane
    Communication Skills Unit, Department of General Practice, University of Wales College of Medicine, Llanedeyrn Health Center, Cardiff CF23 9PN, UK
    Patient Educ Couns 56:166-73. 2005
    ..BECCI will also provide valuable information about the standard of BCC that practitioners were trained to deliver in studies of BCC as an intervention...
  46. ncbi Reward-motivated learning: mesolimbic activation precedes memory formation
    R Alison Adcock
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Neuron 50:507-17. 2006
    ..The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that reward motivation promotes memory formation via dopamine release in the hippocampus prior to learning.
  47. ncbi Systematic review of the use of financial incentives in treatments for obesity and overweight
    V Paul-Ebhohimhen
    University of Aberdeen, Health Services Research Unit, Aberdeen, UK
    Obes Rev 9:355-67. 2008
    ....
  48. doi Motivation and cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex
    Frederique Kouneiher
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Center for Neuroimaging Research, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France
    Nat Neurosci 12:939-45. 2009
    ..Little is known, however, about how the PFC combines motivation and the selection processes underlying cognitive control...
  49. ncbi Motivational interviewing in health settings: a review
    Eileen Britt
    Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Patient Educ Couns 53:147-55. 2004
    ..The current paper provides an overview of MI, with particular reference to its application to health problems...
  50. pmc The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies
    Nora D Volkow
    Department of Medicine, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA
    J Clin Invest 111:1444-51. 2003
  51. doi Employment preferences of public sector nurses in Malawi: results from a discrete choice experiment
    Lindsay J Mangham
    Health Economics and Financing Programme, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 13:1433-41. 2008
    ..To understand the employment preferences of Malawian public sector registered nurses, and to ascertain whether salary increases significantly affect how nurses regard their employment...
  52. doi NOvelty-related motivation of anticipation and exploration by dopamine (NOMAD): implications for healthy aging
    Emrah Duzel
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34:660-9. 2010
    ..We propose a framework called 'NOvelty-related Motivation of Anticipation and exploration by Dopamine' (NOMAD) which captures existing links between novelty, dopamine, ..
  53. ncbi Automatic and controlled processes and the development of addictive behaviors in adolescents: a review and a model
    Reinout W Wiers
    Experimental Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86:263-83. 2007
    ..Self-regulation critically depends on two factors: ability and motivation to regulate the appetitive response tendency...
  54. doi Ten things that motivational interviewing is not
    William R Miller
    Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Logan Hall, Albuquerque, New Mexico NM 87131 1161, USA
    Behav Cogn Psychother 37:129-40. 2009
    ..In the 26 years since it was first introduced in this journal, motivational interviewing (MI) has become confused with various other ideas and approaches, owing in part to its rapid international diffusion...
  55. pmc Financial incentive-based approaches for weight loss: a randomized trial
    Kevin G Volpp
    Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    JAMA 300:2631-7. 2008
    ..Identifying effective obesity treatment is both a clinical challenge and a public health priority due to the health consequences of obesity...
  56. ncbi Reward anticipation and outcomes in adult males with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Andreas Strohle
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Charite Mitte, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Schumannstr 20 21, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Neuroimage 39:966-72. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that male adults with ADHD show neural signs of abnormal reward processing. Future studies will have to investigate whether these dysfunctional patterns might be normalized by treatment...
  57. ncbi Overlapping distributions of orexin/hypocretin- and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers in rat brain regions mediating arousal, motivation, and stress
    Brian A Baldo
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, 6001 Research Park Blvd, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA
    J Comp Neurol 464:220-37. 2003
    ....
  58. ncbi Supporting autonomy to motivate patients with diabetes for glucose control
    G C Williams
    Department of Medicine, The Genesee Hospital, The University of Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Diabetes Care 21:1644-51. 1998
    We applied the self-determination theory of human motivation to examine whether patient perceptions of autonomy supportiveness (i.e...
  59. doi Reward and motivation systems: a brain mapping study of early-stage intense romantic love in Chinese participants
    Xiaomeng Xu
    Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 2500, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 32:249-57. 2011
    ..2007]: J Cogn Neurosci 19:1218–1230), revealing activation in the reward and motivation systems of the brain...
  60. ncbi Neuronal activity related to reward value and motivation in primate frontal cortex
    Matthew R Roesch
    Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Mellon Institute, Room 115, 4400 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Science 304:307-10. 2004
    ..The activity of these neurons might be related to the value of the expected reward or to the degree of motivation induced by expectation of the reward...
  61. ncbi The psychology and neurobiology of addiction: an incentive-sensitization view
    T E Robinson
    Department of Psychology Biopsychology Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
    Addiction 95:S91-117. 2000
    ..2) The brain systems that are changed include those normally involved in the process of incentive motivation and reward...
  62. pmc Neurogenetics and pharmacology of learning, motivation, and cognition
    Michael J Frank
    Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown Institute for Brain Science, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 1978, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 36:133-52. 2011
    Many of the individual differences in cognition, motivation, and learning-and the disruption of these processes in neurological conditions-are influenced by genetic factors...
  63. pmc Trait approach and avoidance motivation: lateralized neural activity associated with executive function
    Jeffrey M Spielberg
    Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA
    Neuroimage 54:661-70. 2011
    b>Motivation and executive function are both necessary for the completion of goal-directed behavior...
  64. doi Task-related default mode network modulation and inhibitory control in ADHD: effects of motivation and methylphenidate
    Elizabeth B Liddle
    University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52:761-71. 2011
    ..We also hypothesised that methylphenidate, an indirect dopamine agonist, would tend to normalise abnormal patterns of DMN deactivation...
  65. pmc Human pavlovian-instrumental transfer
    Deborah Talmi
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, UCL, WC1N 3BG London, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:360-8. 2008
    ..Furthermore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that this enhanced motivation was associated with a trial-by-trial correlation with the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the ..
  66. ncbi Assessing competence in the use of motivational interviewing
    Theresa B Moyers
    Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
    J Subst Abuse Treat 28:19-26. 2005
    ..Implications for the use of this instrument in research and supervision are discussed...
  67. ncbi Motivational interviewing in health care settings. Opportunities and limitations
    K M Emmons
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Adult Oncology, Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Health and Social Behavior Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Am J Prev Med 20:68-74. 2001
    ..This paper provides an overview of important issues to consider in adapting an effective counseling strategy to new settings, and is intended to begin a dialogue about the use of MI in community health care settings...
  68. ncbi The development of computer-generated tailored interventions
    A Dijkstra
    Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Leiden University, P O Box 9555, 2300 RB, Leiden, Netherlands
    Patient Educ Couns 36:193-203. 1999
    ..This methodology may result in largely different tailored interventions depending on the theoretical framework used, the adaptation of the messages and the inclusion of feedback...
  69. doi Ghrelin directly targets the ventral tegmental area to increase food motivation
    K P Skibicka
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Medicinaregatan 11, PO Box 434, SE 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Neuroscience 180:129-37. 2011
    ..we sought to determine if ghrelin acts directly within these mesolimbic reward areas to increase food reward/motivation in studies that combine feeding behavior, pharmacology, and neuroanatomy...
  70. ncbi Lesions of dorsolateral striatum preserve outcome expectancy but disrupt habit formation in instrumental learning
    Henry H Yin
    Department of Psychology, and Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 1285 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 19:181-9. 2004
    ..Furthermore, it suggests that, when the habit system is disrupted, control over instrumental performance reverts to the system controlling the performance of goal-directed instrumental actions...
  71. ncbi Anger and frontal brain activity: EEG asymmetry consistent with approach motivation despite negative affective valence
    E Harmon-Jones
    Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Arlington, USA
    J Pers Soc Psychol 74:1310-6. 1998
    ..however, motivational direction has been confounded with affective valence such that, for instance, approach motivation relates positively with positive affect...
  72. pmc Dynamic response-by-response models of matching behavior in rhesus monkeys
    Brian Lau
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 84:555-79. 2005
    ....
  73. ncbi Ventral striatal control of appetitive motivation: role in ingestive behavior and reward-related learning
    Ann E Kelley
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Program, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, 6001 Research Park Boulevard, Madison, WI 53719, USA
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27:765-76. 2004
    ..the role of the nucleus accumbens in food motivation, and (ii). its putative functions in cellular plasticity underlying appetitive learning...
  74. ncbi Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience
    Kent C Berridge
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 525 E University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1109, USA
    Physiol Behav 81:179-209. 2004
    Concepts of motivation are vital to progress in behavioral neuroscience. Motivational concepts help us to understand what limbic brain systems are chiefly evolved to do, i.e., to mediate psychological processes that guide real behavior...
  75. ncbi A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation
    E L Deci
    Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology, University of Rochester, New York 14627, USA
    Psychol Bull 125:627-68; discussion 692-700. 1999
    A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice ..
  76. pmc A randomized controlled trial to evaluate self-determination theory for exercise adherence and weight control: rationale and intervention description
    Marlene N Silva
    Department of Exercise and Health, Faculty of Human Kinetics, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
    BMC Public Health 8:234. 2008
    ....
  77. doi Motivation and its relationship to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight loss intervention
    Kelly H Webber
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
    J Nutr Educ Behav 42:161-7. 2010
    To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention.
  78. doi Exercise autonomous motivation predicts 3-yr weight loss in women
    Marlene N Silva
    Faculty of Human Kinetics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:728-37. 2011
    ..in women by analyzing the extent to which sustained exercise participation and self-determination theory (SDT)-based exercise motivation variables mediated the impact of a behavioral weight control intervention on 3-yr weight change.
  79. ncbi Emotion and motivation II: sex differences in picture processing
    M M Bradley
    Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, Health Sciences Center, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610-0165, USA
    Emotion 1:300-19. 2001
    ..Biological and sociocultural factors in shaping sex differences in emotional reactivity are considered as possible mediators of sex differences in emotional response...
  80. pmc Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: a critical period of addiction vulnerability
    R Andrew Chambers
    Connecticut Mental Health Center, the Problem Grambling Clinic, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06508, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 160:1041-52. 2003
    ..The authors describe basic and clinical data supporting adolescent neurodevelopment as a biologically critical period of greater vulnerability for experimentation with substances and acquisition of substance use disorders...
  81. pmc A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between attentional bias and subjective craving in substance abuse
    Matt Field
    School of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Psychol Bull 135:589-607. 2009
    ..These results suggest that attentional bias and craving are related phenomena, although the relationship is generally modest and appears to be moderated by various factors. Theoretical implications are discussed...
  82. ncbi Unconscious affective reactions to masked happy versus angry faces influence consumption behavior and judgments of value
    Piotr Winkielman
    Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull 31:121-35. 2005
    ..can influence consequential behavior, they work without eliciting conscious feelings, and they interact with motivation. The authors investigated these properties by testing the influence of subliminally presented happy versus angry ..
  83. ncbi Emotion, motivation, and the brain: reflex foundations in animal and human research
    Peter J Lang
    NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, FL 32610 0165, USA
    Prog Brain Res 156:3-29. 2006
    ..Parallel results are described from experiments with humans, showing similar activation patterns in brain and body in response to emotion cues, co-varying with participants' reports of affective valence and increasing emotional arousal...
  84. ncbi Dysfunction of ventral striatal reward prediction in schizophrenic patients treated with typical, not atypical, neuroleptics
    Georg Juckel
    Department of Psychiatry, Charite University Medical Center, Campus Charité Mitte CCM, Schumannstr 20 21, Berlin 10117, Germany
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 187:222-8. 2006
    ..Dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system may contribute to negative symptoms in schizophrenia...
  85. ncbi A computational substrate for incentive salience
    Samuel M McClure
    Center for Theoretical Neuroscience, Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Trends Neurosci 26:423-8. 2003
    ..To the contrary, we demonstrate that both of these functions can be captured in a single computational model of the involvement of dopamine in reward prediction for the purpose of reward seeking...
  86. pmc Community participation for malaria elimination in Tafea Province, Vanuatu: Part I. Maintaining motivation for prevention practices in the context of disappearing disease
    Jo An M Atkinson
    Pacific Malaria Initiative Support Centre, Australian Centre for International and Tropical Health, School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    Malar J 9:93. 2010
    ..In the context of disappearing disease, obtaining and maintaining community participation in strategies to eliminate malaria in the rest of Tafea Province, Vanuatu will be significantly more challenging...
  87. ncbi The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings
    R J Stubbs
    Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, UK
    Br J Nutr 84:405-15. 2000
    ..Under laboratory conditions, subjectively rated motivation to eat using VAS is sensitive to experimental manipulations and has been found to be reproducible in relation to ..
  88. doi Energy-drink consumption in college students and associated factors
    Sema Attila
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
    Nutrition 27:316-22. 2011
    ..To investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in a group of college students...
  89. ncbi Correlated coding of motivation and outcome of decision by dopamine neurons
    Takemasa Satoh
    Department of Physiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kawaramachi Hirokoji, Kamigyo ku, Kyoto 602 8566, Japan
    J Neurosci 23:9913-23. 2003
    ..with that of reinforcers, suggesting a modulation of the effectiveness of REEs as a teaching signal by motivation. For instance, rate of learning could be faster when animals are motivated, whereas it could be slower when less ..
  90. doi Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women
    Erno J Hermans
    Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Neuroimage 52:277-83. 2010
    ..Notably, this effect interacted with levels self-reported intrinsic appetitive motivation: individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation exhibited larger testosterone-induced increases but had ..
  91. doi Neural basis of extraordinary empathy and altruistic motivation
    Vani A Mathur
    Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, USA
    Neuroimage 51:1468-75. 2010
    ..Here we examined the neural basis of extraordinary empathy and altruistic motivation in African-American and Caucasian-American individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
  92. ncbi Exercise motivation, eating, and body image variables as predictors of weight control
    Pedro J Teixeira
    Department of Exercise and Health, Faculty of Human Movement, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:179-88. 2006
    ....
  93. pmc Leptin regulates energy balance and motivation through action at distinct neural circuits
    Jon F Davis
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45237 0506, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 69:668-74. 2011
    ..The current study asked whether leptin signaling within the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and midbrain is involved in effort-based responding for food rewards and/or the modulation of mesolimbic dopamine...
  94. ncbi The neurosteroids, progesterone and 3alpha,5alpha-THP, enhance sexual motivation, receptivity, and proceptivity in female rats
    C A Frye
    Department of Psychology, The University of Albany, SUNY, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222, USA
    Brain Res 808:72-83. 1998
    ..3alpha,5alpha-THP) on ovariectomized (ovx), estradiol-3-benzoate (EB)-primed rats on sexual motivation, receptivity, and proceptivity were examined...
  95. pmc Ventromedial and orbital prefrontal neurons differentially encode internally and externally driven motivational values in monkeys
    Sebastien Bouret
    Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 30:8591-601. 2010
    ....
  96. doi Selective visual attention and motivation: the consequences of value learning in an attentional blink task
    Jane E Raymond
    School of Psychology, Penrallt Rd, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2AS, United Kingdom
    Psychol Sci 20:981-8. 2009
    ..Motivational salience acts independently of attention to modulate simple perceptual decisions, but when attention is limited, visual processing is biased in favor of reward-associated stimuli...
  97. pmc Chronic cocaine-induced H3 acetylation and transcriptional activation of CaMKIIalpha in the nucleus accumbens is critical for motivation for drug reinforcement
    Lei Wang
    Pharmacology Research Center and the State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Medical College and Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    Neuropsychopharmacology 35:913-28. 2010
    ..under fixed-ratio schedule and increased the break point under progressive-ratio schedule, indicating enhanced motivation for self-administered drug...
  98. ncbi The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) firefighter study: outcomes of two models of behavior change
    Diane L Elliot
    Division of Health Promotion and Sports Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239 3098, USA
    J Occup Environ Med 49:204-13. 2007
    ..PHLAME's (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) objective was to assess and compare two means to promote healthy lifestyles...
  99. ncbi Client commitment language during motivational interviewing predicts drug use outcomes
    Paul C Amrhein
    Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions, University of New Mexico, USA
    J Consult Clin Psychol 71:862-78. 2003
    ..CS for client evaluation of a change plan predicted outcome PDA. CS was predicted by strength of desire, ability, need, and reasons, but more strongly predicted outcome PDA, suggesting CS is a pathway for their influence on behavior...
  100. ncbi Exposure to internet pornography among children and adolescents: a national survey
    Michele L Ybarra
    Internet Solutions for Kids, Inc, Irvine, California 92618, USA
    Cyberpsychol Behav 8:473-86. 2005
    ..Findings from these cross-sectional data provide justification for longitudinal studies aimed at parsing out temporal sequencing of psychosocial experiences...
  101. ncbi Mental fatigue, motivation and action monitoring
    Maarten A S Boksem
    Experimental and Work Psychology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Biol Psychol 72:123-32. 2006
    ..We will discuss the effects prolonged task performance on the behavioural and physiological indices of action monitoring, as well as the relationship between fatigue, motivation and individual differences.

Research Grants91

  1. Quantifying Collateral Perfusion in Cerebrovascular Disease
    GREGORY GEORGE ZAHARCHUK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>MOTIVATION Collateral blood flow plays a central role during acute ischemic stroke, and the presence of good collaterals has been linked to improved clinical and radiological outcome measures both with and without treatment...
  2. Quantifying Collateral Perfusion in Cerebrovascular Disease
    GREGORY ZAHARCHUK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>MOTIVATION Collateral blood flow plays a central role during acute ischemic stroke, and the presence of good collaterals has been linked to improved clinical and radiological outcome measures both with and without treatment...
  3. Predicting Placebo Responses Across Disease States
    Jon Kar Zubieta; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the proportion of the variance in placebo effects explained by the function of reward, decision-making and "motivation" regions...
  4. NEURAL PATHWAYS UNDERLYING EMOTIONAL CONDITIONING
    Joseph E LeDoux; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PIT, on the other hand, is useful for exploring how a Pavlovian CS alters the motivation to perform a previously acquired instrumental response...
  5. SEQUENCE AND POLYMORPHISM OF RHESUS MACAQUE MHC
    Daniel Geraghty; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These deficiencies provide substantial motivation to better understand the genetics and immunogenetics of rhesus macaques that could be useful in the design and ..
  6. Gustatory Control of Sodium Appetite
    Ralph Norgren; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Sodium appetite fulfills all of the criteria for motivation, as do hunger and thirst, but has some distinct advantages...
  7. DISCOVERY OF SMALL-MOLECULE ORPHANIN FQ RECEPTOR LIGANDS
    Nurulain Zaveri; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..ligand nociceptin or orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) have been shown to play a role in the regulation of reward and motivation pathways related to substance abuse...
  8. Promoting Walking in African Americans with Peripheral Arterial Disease
    TRACIE CHIANTI COLLINS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such efforts should target low motivation. Given its effectiveness for individuals who are less ready to change, motivational interviewing is an ideal ..
  9. Genetic Architecture of Adiposity in Multiple Large Cohorts
    Kari E North; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..disease, fatty liver disease, various cancers, as well as a host of other morbidities, there is strong motivation to understand the genetic architecture of adiposity traits...
  10. GENETIC AND NEUROENDOCRINE CONTROL OF BEHAVIORAL SYSTEMS
    EMILIE RISSMAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..the aromatase system to catecholamines, particularly dopamine, which is well known to play a role in male sexual motivation. For this proposal, genetically engineered knockout mice will be utilized...
  11. Environmental/Behavioral Factors Shaping Circumcision Decisions in Zimbabwe
    Daniel E Montano; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..capacity, structure, culture) and individual (attitude, normative, personal agency) factors influencing motivation regarding MC-related behaviors among four key groups in Zimbabwe: policy makers, clinicians, adolescent and ..
  12. Environmental/Behavioral Factors Shaping Circumcision Decisions in Zimbabwe
    Daniel Montano; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..capacity, structure, culture) and individual (attitude, normative, personal agency) factors influencing motivation regarding MC-related behaviors among four key groups in Zimbabwe: policy makers, clinicians, adolescent and ..
  13. CRCNS:Investigating perceptual processing speed and its impact on choice behavior
    Terrence R Stanford; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..measurements is complicated because they are affected by numerous sensory and motor factors, such as readiness, motivation, task difficulty and speed-accuracy trade-offs...
  14. BEHAVIORAL PHYSIOLOGY OF BODY WEIGHT REGULATION
    DIANNE FIGLEWICZ LATTEMANN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and affordability of palatable, high caloric density foods;activation of responsive CNS pathways that mediate motivation and reward;and loss of effectiveness of endocrine adiposity signals to act at the CNS, may all contribute to ..
  15. Motivational Interviewing and Physical Activity Behavior Change in Arthritis
    Linda Ehrlich Jones; Fiscal Year: 2010
    I have been intrigued with the adaptability of people with arthritis, and how their motivation to strive for independence influences their ability to manage their disease. In 2005, Dr...
  16. Gustatory Control of Sodium Appetite
    Ralph Norgren; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>Motivation remains a central puzzle of neuroscience. Understanding its neural bases is key in developing rational therapies for a broad spectrum of maladies such as drug addiction, obesity, anorexia nervosa, and depression...
  17. INTEGRATION OF CHEMOSENSORY AND HORMONAL STIMULI
    Ruth Wood; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Castration also reduces sexual motivation, as measured by interest in vaginal odors and preference for a receptive female...
  18. INTEGRATION OF CHEMOSENSORY AND HORMONAL STIMULI
    Ruth Wood; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Castration also reduces sexual motivation, as measured by interest in vaginal odors and preference for a receptive female...
  19. Rapid HIV Home Test and Decision-Making Among HIV-Negative Men
    Alex Carballo Dieguez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..It has two Specific Aims (SA). SA1 is to elicit men's (a) motivation (or lack of motivation) to use OraQuick as a screening tool prior to intercourse; (b) anticipated strategies (or ..
  20. Striatal Deep Brain Stimulation for Learning Enhancement
    Emad N Eskandar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The nuclei comprising the anterior striatum play a critical role in learning and motivation. Derangements of these nuclei are implicated in a broad range of diseases including depression, drug addiction, and learning disorders...
  21. Striatal Deep Brain Stimulation for Learning Enhancement
    Emad Eskandar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The nuclei comprising the anterior striatum play a critical role in learning and motivation. Derangements of these nuclei are implicated in a broad range of diseases including depression, drug addiction, and learning disorders...
  22. Striatal Deep Brain Stimulation for Learning Enhancement
    Emad N Eskandar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The nuclei comprising the anterior striatum play a critical role in learning and motivation. Derangements of these nuclei are implicated in a broad range of diseases including depression, drug addiction, and learning disorders...
  23. Enhancing Motivation for Physical Activity to Reduce the Risk of Falls
    SIOBHAN KATHLEEN MCMAHON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to address the gap between research and practice, the proposed study will utilize a tested theory, the wellness motivation theory, to address behavioral change in combination with instruction for physical activity...
  24. SEROTONIN Treatment of Cocaine Dependence
    ERIC STRAIN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..sizes, heterogeneous study populations, failure to ensure compliance in taking medication, inadequate patient motivation)...
  25. STUDENT OPPORTUNITIES IN APPLIED RESEARCH (SOAR)
    Clifton Monahan; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The motivation for the SOAR program lies in a need within the biomedical research community to recruit more veterinarians, ..
  26. NURSING INTERVENTION FOR MIDLIFE WOMEN--WALKING PROGRAM
    JoEllen Wilbur; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The specific aims are: (1) to compare women's health symptoms, physical fitness, and exercise motivation after completing the walking program with their own preprogram measures and those of a control group of ..
  27. Incentive Motivation and Addiction: PKA Mechanisms
    Jane Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  28. DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION--COGNITION/MOTIVATION/MOOD IN PD
    Marjan Jahanshahi; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..number generation) and learning (conditional associative learning, motor sequence learning) and on mood and motivation using a series of clinical neuropsychological and PET activation studies. The specific aims are: 1...