cataleptic freezing reaction

Summary

Summary: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Effects of cannabidiol and diazepam on behavioral and cardiovascular responses induced by contextual conditioned fear in rats
    Leonardo B M Resstel
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14090 090, Brazil
    Behav Brain Res 172:294-8. 2006
  2. ncbi A neural switch for active and passive fear
    Alessandro Gozzi
    Neurosciences CEDD, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Via Fleming 4, 37135 Verona, Italy
    Neuron 67:656-66. 2010
  3. ncbi Involvement of medial prefrontal cortex neurons in behavioral and cardiovascular responses to contextual fear conditioning
    L B M Resstel
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049 900, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Neuroscience 143:377-85. 2006
  4. ncbi Acquisition of fear extinction requires activation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the lateral amygdala
    Francisco Sotres-Bayon
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1929-40. 2007
  5. ncbi Fluoxetine attenuates the effects of pentylenetetrazol on rat freezing behavior and c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial periaqueductal gray
    Małgorzata Zienowicz
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26 28, 00 927 Warsaw, Poland
    Neurosci Lett 414:252-6. 2007
  6. ncbi 5-HT2 receptor mechanisms of the dorsal periaqueductal gray in the conditioned and unconditioned fear in rats
    Luciana Chrystine Oliveira
    Instituto de Neurociencias and Comportamento, Campus USP, 14040 901, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:253-62. 2007
  7. ncbi Neurotoxic lesions centered on the perifornical hypothalamus abolish the cardiovascular and behavioral responses of conditioned fear to context but not of restraint
    Teri Furlong
    Department of Anatomy, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2035 Australia
    Brain Res 1128:107-19. 2007
  8. ncbi CA3 NMDA receptors are crucial for rapid and automatic representation of context memory
    Catherine J Cravens
    Unit on Genetics of Cognition and Behaviour, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3710, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 24:1771-80. 2006
  9. ncbi The role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in acquisition and expression of contextual and auditory fear conditioning in rats - a comparison
    A Gravius
    Preclinical R and D, Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Eckenheimer Landstrasse 100, 60318 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Neuropharmacology 51:1146-55. 2006
  10. ncbi Immediate shock deficit in fear conditioning: effects of shock manipulations
    J Landeira-Fernandez
    Departamento de Psicologia, Pontificia Universidade Catolico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Behav Neurosci 120:873-9. 2006

Detail Information

Publications171 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Effects of cannabidiol and diazepam on behavioral and cardiovascular responses induced by contextual conditioned fear in rats
    Leonardo B M Resstel
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14090 090, Brazil
    Behav Brain Res 172:294-8. 2006
    ..In conclusion, the results suggest that CBD has anxiolytic-like properties similar to those of diazepam in a rat model of conditioned fear to context...
  2. ncbi A neural switch for active and passive fear
    Alessandro Gozzi
    Neurosciences CEDD, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Via Fleming 4, 37135 Verona, Italy
    Neuron 67:656-66. 2010
    ..Our findings identify a neural circuit in CeA that biases fear responses toward either passive or active coping strategies...
  3. ncbi Involvement of medial prefrontal cortex neurons in behavioral and cardiovascular responses to contextual fear conditioning
    L B M Resstel
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049 900, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Neuroscience 143:377-85. 2006
    ..They also indicate a cardiovascular response observed during re-exposure of non-conditioned rats to the context is completely dependent on vMPFC integrity...
  4. ncbi Acquisition of fear extinction requires activation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the lateral amygdala
    Francisco Sotres-Bayon
    Center for Neural Science, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1929-40. 2007
    ..Thus, our results support a previously not known role for NMDA-dependent plasticity in the lateral amygdala during the acquisition of fear extinction...
  5. ncbi Fluoxetine attenuates the effects of pentylenetetrazol on rat freezing behavior and c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial periaqueductal gray
    Małgorzata Zienowicz
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 26 28, 00 927 Warsaw, Poland
    Neurosci Lett 414:252-6. 2007
    ..Our experiment based on PTZ-enhanced aversive conditioning revealed that acutely administered fluoxetine antagonized PTZ-induced panic-like behavior, and this phenomenon was accompanied by inhibition of activity of DMPAG...
  6. ncbi 5-HT2 receptor mechanisms of the dorsal periaqueductal gray in the conditioned and unconditioned fear in rats
    Luciana Chrystine Oliveira
    Instituto de Neurociencias and Comportamento, Campus USP, 14040 901, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191:253-62. 2007
    ..However, in spite of the notion that past stressful experiences play a role in certain types of anxiety, only studies with the stimulation of the dPAG of rats without previous aversive experience have been conducted so far...
  7. ncbi Neurotoxic lesions centered on the perifornical hypothalamus abolish the cardiovascular and behavioral responses of conditioned fear to context but not of restraint
    Teri Furlong
    Department of Anatomy, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2035 Australia
    Brain Res 1128:107-19. 2007
    ..Thus, the perifornical hypothalamus is critical for some forms of stress but not others. We propose that it is a necessary relay for emotional responses in which the psychological component is stronger than the sensory component...
  8. ncbi CA3 NMDA receptors are crucial for rapid and automatic representation of context memory
    Catherine J Cravens
    Unit on Genetics of Cognition and Behaviour, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3710, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 24:1771-80. 2006
    ..It appears that rapid and automatic context memory representations from one-time experience are mediated, at least in part, by CA3 NMDA receptors...
  9. ncbi The role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in acquisition and expression of contextual and auditory fear conditioning in rats - a comparison
    A Gravius
    Preclinical R and D, Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Eckenheimer Landstrasse 100, 60318 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Neuropharmacology 51:1146-55. 2006
    ..In conclusion, group I mGlu receptors are shown to be involved in the acquisition of hippocampus-dependent CFC, but not hippocampus-independent AFC. Unlike mGluR5, mGluR1 does not seem be involved in expression of AFC...
  10. ncbi Immediate shock deficit in fear conditioning: effects of shock manipulations
    J Landeira-Fernandez
    Departamento de Psicologia, Pontificia Universidade Catolico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Behav Neurosci 120:873-9. 2006
    ..However, immediate shock seems to sensitize subsequent context conditioning (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the associative deficit produced by immediate shock is not related to the rat's ability to process the footshock US...
  11. ncbi The expression of fear-potentiated startle during development: integration of learning and response systems
    Robert C Barnet
    Department of Psychology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 8795, USA
    Behav Neurosci 120:861-72. 2006
    ..The authors conclude that engaging mechanisms of associative encoding when FPS pathways are functional is a critical condition for integrating learning and FPS response systems in development...
  12. ncbi Retrosplenial cortex lesions impair acquisition of active avoidance while sparing fear-based emotional memory
    Nikolai V Lukoyanov
    Department of Anatomy, Porto Medical School, Alameda Prof Hernani Monteiro, 4200 319 Porto, Portugal
    Behav Brain Res 173:229-36. 2006
    ..They are also consistent with the idea that RC is a part of the limbic system that is involved in the compilation of motor programs for complex stereotyped movements such as approach and avoidance...
  13. ncbi An endogenous inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II is up-regulated during consolidation of fear memory
    Eve M Lepicard
    Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 23:3063-70. 2006
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that the CaMKIINalpha inhibitor has a physiological role in controlling CaMKII activity from an early stage of memory consolidation...
  14. ncbi Dorsal hippocampal contributions to unimodal contextual conditioning
    Tim Otto
    Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08854, USA
    J Neurosci 26:6603-9. 2006
    ..Thus, the hippocampus appears to contribute importantly to the acquisition of fear conditioned to explicitly nonspatial, unimodal, temporally, and spatially diffuse contextual stimuli...
  15. ncbi Opioid receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray regulate prediction errors during pavlovian fear conditioning
    Gavan P McNally
    School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Behav Neurosci 120:313-23. 2006
    ..These experiments show that v1PAG micro-opioid receptors contribute to Pavlovian fear learning by regulating predictive error...
  16. ncbi Predator odor-induced conditioned fear involves the basolateral and medial amygdala
    Lorey K Takahashi
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Manoa, HI, USA
    Behav Neurosci 121:100-10. 2007
    ....
  17. ncbi Complete or partial hippocampal damage produces equivalent retrograde amnesia for remote contextual fear memories
    Hugo Lehmann
    Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, The University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1K 3M4
    Eur J Neurosci 25:1278-86. 2007
    ..These findings support the idea that the hippocampal formation has an essential and long-lasting, possibly permanent, role in memory for contexts...
  18. ncbi Dissociated theta phase synchronization in amygdalo- hippocampal circuits during various stages of fear memory
    Rajeevan T Narayanan
    Institut fur Physiologie I, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Robert Koch Str 27a, Munster, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 25:1823-31. 2007
    ....
  19. ncbi Effects of escapable and inescapable stressors on behavior and interleukin-2 in the brain
    Yen Ti Lee
    Institute of Behavioral Medicine, Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Neuroreport 19:1243-7. 2008
    ..These data provide insight into the pathophysiological role of IL-2 in stress-related disorders...
  20. ncbi The role of the dorsomedial part of the prefrontal cortex serotonergic innervation in rat responses to the aversively conditioned context: behavioral, biochemical and immunocytochemical studies
    Małgorzata Lehner
    Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, 9 Sobieskiego Street, 02 957 Warsaw, Poland
    Behav Brain Res 192:203-15. 2008
    ....
  21. ncbi Effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the acquisition of contextual and tone fear conditioning in rats
    Raquel V Fornari
    Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Behav Neurosci 122:98-106. 2008
    ..The data support the negative role of N/OFQ in the acquisition of aversively motivated tasks, which encompass a spatial component and depend on the hippocampus...
  22. ncbi Influence of massed and distributed context preexposure on contextual fear and Egr-1 expression in the basolateral amygdala
    A Perez-Villalba
    Laboratory of Biopsychology and Comparative Neuroscience, Cavanilles Institute ICBiBE, University of Valencia, Poligono de la Coma s n, Paterna 46980 Valencia Spain
    Physiol Behav 93:206-14. 2008
    ..We suggest that the delayed shock deficit associated with massed preexposure derives from perceptual fade-out or inattention and its reversal by a brief change of context from attentional recovery...
  23. ncbi Enduring effects of infant memories: infant odor-shock conditioning attenuates amygdala activity and adult fear conditioning
    Yannick Sevelinges
    Institut des Sciences Cognitives, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1070-9. 2007
    ..Early life adverse experience alters adult emotional and cognitive development. Here we assess early life learning about adverse experience and its consequences on adult fear conditioning and amygdala activity...
  24. ncbi Effects of brief and long maternal separations on the HPA axis activity and the performance of rats on context and tone fear conditioning
    Jussara Z Guijarro
    Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Behav Brain Res 184:101-8. 2007
    ..e., both manipulations lead to similar performance in hippocampus-dependent and independent memory tasks...
  25. ncbi The role of dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala NMDA receptors in the acquisition and retrieval of context and contextual fear memories
    Patricia Matus-Amat
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Behav Neurosci 121:721-31. 2007
    ..However, both DL-AP5 and L-AP5 reduced the expression of fear when they were injected into the amygdala prior to testing for contextual fear...
  26. ncbi Time course of extracellular catecholamine and glutamate levels in the rat medial prefrontal cortex during and after extinction of conditioned fear
    Sandrine Hugues
    JE 2441, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Psychopathologie, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2, France
    Synapse 61:933-7. 2007
  27. ncbi Contribution of corticosterone to cued versus contextual fear in rats
    Alain R Marchand
    Centre de Neurosciences Intégratives et Cognitives, UMR 5228, CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, Bâtiment B2, Avenue des Facultes, F 33405 Talence Cedex, France
    Behav Brain Res 183:101-10. 2007
    ..Globally, these results suggest that the predictive value of the conditioned stimulus may be the main determinant of the facilitatory action of acutely enhanced corticosterone in fear conditioning...
  28. ncbi Conditioned behavioral responses to a context paired with the predator odor trimethylthiazoline
    Thomas Endres
    Tierphysiologie, Zoologisches Institut, Fakultat fur Biologie, Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Behav Neurosci 121:594-601. 2007
    ..These results indicate that expression of conditioned fear behavior in response to a TMT-paired context is dependent on the experimental setup used, as well as the strategy of the individual rat...
  29. ncbi The effect of yohimbine on the extinction of conditioned fear: a role for context
    Richard W Morris
    Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401, USA
    Behav Neurosci 121:501-14. 2007
    ..The results suggest that yohimbine, when administered in the presence of a neutral context, creates a form of inhibition in that context that allows that specific context to reduce fear of an extinguished CS...
  30. pmc Amygdala-dependent and amygdala-independent pathways for contextual fear conditioning
    R Ponnusamy
    Psychology and the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Neuroscience 147:919-27. 2007
    ..Normally, learning is dominated by the more efficient primary pathway, which prevents learning in the alternate pathway. However, alternate pathways compensate when the dominant pathway is compromised...
  31. pmc Cancer chemotherapy impairs contextual but not cue-specific fear memory
    Jill E MacLeod
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, United States
    Behav Brain Res 181:168-72. 2007
    ..Together, these data indicate that administration of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin may have toxic effects on the hippocampus and results in specific learning deficits shortly after treatment has ended...
  32. pmc Controllable versus uncontrollable stressors bi-directionally modulate conditioned but not innate fear
    M V Baratta
    Department of Psychology and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, CB345, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuroscience 146:1495-503. 2007
    ..Finally, we explored if the protective effects of ES extended to an unconditioned fear stimulus, ferret odor. Unlike conditioned fear, prior ES increased the fear response to ferret odor to the same degree as did IS...
  33. ncbi Fear conditioning is impaired in systemic kainic acid and amygdala-stimulation models of epilepsy
    E J Samuli Kemppainen
    Epilepsy Research Laboratory, A I Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, Finland
    Epilepsia 47:820-9. 2006
    ..We studied whether contextual or tone-cued fear conditioning is impaired in two status epilepticus models of epilepsy and whether impairment correlates with the extent of damage in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala...
  34. ncbi Environmental enrichment increases responding to contextual cues but decreases overall conditioned fear in the rat
    A Barbelivien
    Laboratoire de Neurosciences Comportementales et Cognitives, FRE 2855, Universite Louis Pasteur, CNRS, IFR 37 des Neurosciences, Strasbourg, France
    Behav Brain Res 169:231-8. 2006
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that environmental enrichment in adult rats enhances learning about contextual cues and reduces overall fear associated with aversive events...
  35. ncbi WIN 55212-2 impairs contextual fear conditioning through the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors
    Fabricio Alano Pamplona
    Departamento de Farmacologia CCB UFSC, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, 88049 900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil
    Neurosci Lett 397:88-92. 2006
    ..This effect appears to be related to the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors and confirms that cannabinoids might provide a novel approach for the treatment of unpleasant memories...
  36. ncbi Age-related deficits in the retention of memories for cued fear conditioning are reversed by galantamine treatment
    Thomas J Gould
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Program, Temple University, Weiss Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Behav Brain Res 165:160-71. 2005
    ..This retention deficit for cued fear conditioning is ameliorated by treatment with the AChE inhibitor galantamine...
  37. ncbi Rat ultrasonic vocalization in aversively motivated situations and the role of individual differences in anxiety-related behavior
    A Borta
    Experimental and Physiological Psychology Unit, Section for Experimental and Biological Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Philipps University of Marburg, Gutenbergstr 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 166:271-80. 2006
    ..These data are discussed with respect to the presumed role of ultrasonic vocalization in aversively motivated situations, and the mechanisms, which may account for the behavioral differences between HOA and LOA rats in such tests...
  38. ncbi Overt behavior and ultrasonic vocalization in a fear conditioning paradigm: a dose-response study in the rat
    Markus Wohr
    Experimental and Physiological Psychology, Philipps University of Marburg, Gutenbergstr 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 84:228-40. 2005
    ....
  39. pmc An egr-1 (zif268) antisense oligodeoxynucleotide infused into the amygdala disrupts fear conditioning
    Seema Malkani
    Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA
    Learn Mem 11:617-24. 2004
    ....
  40. ncbi The midbrain periaqueductal gray and fear extinction: opioid receptor subtype and roles of cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, and mitogen-activated protein kinase
    Gavan P McNally
    School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Behav Neurosci 119:1023-33. 2005
    ..These mechanisms are different from the cellular mechanisms for extinction in the amygdala and from the known cellular mechanisms for opioid analgesia in the vlPAG...
  41. ncbi Amygdalar unit activity during three learning tasks: eyeblink classical conditioning, Pavlovian fear conditioning, and signaled avoidance conditioning
    Linda M Rorick-Kehn
    Department of Psychology and Program in Neural Science, Indiana University, 1101 E 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Behav Neurosci 119:1254-76. 2005
    ..Results suggest the CeA mediates the Pavlovian association between sensory stimuli and the BLA mediates the modulation of instrumental responding through the assignment of motivational value to the unconditioned stimulus...
  42. ncbi Bright light suppresses hyperactivity induced by excitotoxic dorsal hippocampus lesions in the rat
    Bill P Godsil
    Interdepartmental PhD Program in Neuroscience, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Behav Neurosci 119:1339-52. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that a mild fear stimulus, such as bright light, can suppress DH lesion-evoked hyperactivity, and this hyperactivity results from impaired contextual processing...
  43. ncbi Conditioned and unconditioned fear organized in the periaqueductal gray are differentially sensitive to injections of muscimol into amygdaloid nuclei
    Raquel Chacon Ruiz Martinez
    Laboratorio de Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040 901 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 85:58-65. 2006
    ..Thus, the amygdala can affect some, but not all, aspects of unconditioned freezing. Post-stimulation freezing may reflect the process of transferring aversive information from dPAG to higher brain structures...
  44. pmc Olfactory fear conditioning induces field potential potentiation in rat olfactory cortex and amygdala
    Yannick Sevelinges
    Institut des Sciences Cognitives, Unité Mixte de Recherche UMR 5015, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Université Lyon 1, France
    Learn Mem 11:761-9. 2004
    ....
  45. ncbi AlphaCaMKII autophosphorylation contributes to rapid learning but is not necessary for memory
    Elaine E Irvine
    Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Neurosci 8:411-2. 2005
    ..We conclude that alphaCaMKII autophosphorylation contributes to single-trial learning but is dispensable for memory...
  46. ncbi Selective neurotoxic lesions of basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala produce differential effects on fear conditioning
    Ja Wook Koo
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8205, USA
    J Neurosci 24:7654-62. 2004
    ..Instead, the expression of conditioned fear appears to primarily involve BLA projections that course through the CeA en route to downstream fear response structures...
  47. ncbi Amygdalic levels of dopamine and serotonin rise upon exposure to conditioned fear stress without elevation of glutamate
    Masamoto Yokoyama
    Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 2 1 1 Asamizodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 8520, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 379:37-41. 2005
    ..The periods of elevated dopamine and serotonin were longer on Day 1 than on Day 2. These results suggest that greater amounts of glutamate, dopamine and serotonin are necessary for acquisition than for recall of conditioned fear...
  48. ncbi Chronic corticosterone administration does not potentiate unconditioned freezing to the predator odor, trimethylthiazoline
    Jeffrey B Rosen
    Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, United States
    Behav Brain Res 194:32-8. 2008
    ..Thus, chronic CORT appears to increase fear as measured by freezing, possibly by enhancing vigilance, but does not facilitate fear behavior induced by the innate fear stimulus, TMT...
  49. ncbi Immediate post-reminder injection of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) agonist midazolam attenuates reactivation of forgotten fear in the infant rat
    Jee Hyun Kim
    School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Behav Neurosci 121:1328-32. 2007
    ..From this, it appears that alterations in GABAergic neurotransmission may be an underlying process mediating memory reactivation in the infant rat...
  50. pmc The synthetic substance hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide elicits alarm reactions in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
    Kevin V Parra
    Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Mississauga, ON, Canada
    Behav Brain Res 205:336-41. 2009
    ..We discuss the translational relevance of our findings and conclude that hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide will have utility to elicit fear responses in the laboratory in a precisely controlled manner in zebrafish...
  51. ncbi Fear extinction across development: the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex as assessed by temporary inactivation and immunohistochemistry
    Jee Hyun Kim
    School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
    J Neurosci 29:10802-8. 2009
    ..Together, these findings show that extinction in P17 rats does not involve the mPFC, which has important theoretical and clinical implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders in humans...
  52. ncbi Effects of chronic footshock, restraint and corticotropin-releasing factor on freezing, ultrasonic vocalization and forced swim behavior in rats
    Artur H Swiergiel
    Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, P O Box 33932, Shreveport, LA 71130 3932, USA
    Behav Brain Res 183:178-87. 2007
    ..On the other hand, the enhancement of conditioned freezing by CFS, and of conditioned USV's by CRF in CFS rats, indicates more complex effects...
  53. ncbi Effects of beta-adrenoreceptor blockade during chronic exercise on contextual fear conditioning and mRNA for galanin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor
    Jacqueline D Van Hoomissen
    Department of Excercise Science, University of Georgia, USA
    Behav Neurosci 118:1378-90. 2004
    ..The exercise-related induction of GAL gene expression in the LC may influence noradrenergic transmission to facilitate CFC...
  54. ncbi The antidepressant effect of running is associated with increased hippocampal cell proliferation
    Astrid Bjørnebekk
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 8:357-68. 2005
    ..Thus, suppression of cell proliferation in the hippocampus could constitute one of the mechanisms that underlie depression, and physical activity might be an efficient antidepressant...
  55. pmc Impaired synaptic plasticity and learning in mice lacking beta-adducin, an actin-regulating protein
    Rebecca L Rabenstein
    Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06508, USA
    J Neurosci 25:2138-45. 2005
    ..The current results indicate that beta-adducin may play an important role in the cellular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory...
  56. ncbi BDNF impairment in the hippocampus is related to enhanced despair behavior in CB1 knockout mice
    Ester Aso
    Grup de Recerca de Neurobiologia del Comportament GRNC, Departament de Ciencies Experimentals i de la Salut, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, PRBB, Barcelona, Spain
    J Neurochem 105:565-72. 2008
    ....
  57. ncbi Aversion- vs fear-inducing properties of 2,4,5-trimethyl-3-thiazoline, a component of fox odor, in comparison with those of butyric acid
    Thomas Endres
    Tierphysiologie, Zoologisches Institut, Fakultat fur Biologie, Universitat Tubingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    J Exp Biol 212:2324-7. 2009
    ..This supports the hypothesis that TMT indeed has specific fear-inducing properties and that the observed behavioral effects could not simply be reduced to the aversive properties of TMT...
  58. ncbi WFS1 gene as a putative biomarker for development of post-traumatic syndrome in an animal model
    Y Kesner
    Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences and the Leslie and Susan Gonda Goldshmied Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel
    Mol Psychiatry 14:86-94. 2009
    ..Since Wolframin gene undergoes alternative splicing and has polymorphism in the population, it may serve a future marker for identification of the vulnerable population exposed to a traumatic event...
  59. pmc Activation of basolateral amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptors modulates the consolidation of contextual fear
    D T Hubbard
    Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
    Neuroscience 150:818-28. 2007
    ..Collectively, results implicate a role of BLA CRF(1) receptors in activating the fear memory consolidation process, which may involve BLA pCREB-induced synaptic plasticity...
  60. ncbi Swim stress exaggerates the hyperactive mesocortical dopamine system in a rodent model of autism
    Akane Nakasato
    Department of Physiology, Toho University School of Medicine, 5 21 16 Omori nishi, Ota ku, Tokyo 143 8540, Japan
    Brain Res 1193:128-35. 2008
    ..These results suggest that this rodent model of autism exhibits a hyperactive mesocortical DA system, which is exaggerated by swim stress. This abnormality may be responsible for depressive and withdrawal behavior observed in autism...
  61. pmc Hippocampal CA3 output is crucial for ripple-associated reactivation and consolidation of memory
    Toshiaki Nakashiba
    The RIKEN MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Neuron 62:781-7. 2009
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that the posttraining integrity of the trisynaptic pathway and the ripple-associated reactivation of hippocampal memory engram are crucial for memory consolidation...
  62. ncbi Alprazolam treatment immediately after stress exposure interferes with the normal HPA-stress response and increases vulnerability to subsequent stress in an animal model of PTSD
    Michael A Matar
    Ministry of Health Mental Health Center, Anxiety and Stress Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 19:283-95. 2009
    ....
  63. ncbi Main olfactory system mediates social buffering of conditioned fear responses in male rats
    Yasushi Kiyokawa
    Laboratory of Veterinary Ethology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 29:777-85. 2009
    ..Thus, we conclude that the main olfactory system is essential for the social buffering but does not require physical contact between the dyad...
  64. ncbi Estrogen modulates sexually dimorphic contextual fear extinction in rats through estrogen receptor beta
    Yao Ju Chang
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
    Hippocampus 19:1142-50. 2009
    ..These results reveal a crucial role for estrogen in mediating sexually dimorphic contextual fear extinction, and that estrogen-mediated enhancement of fear extinction involves the activation of ERbeta...
  65. ncbi Chronic stress induces dendritic atrophy in the rat medial geniculate nucleus: effects on auditory conditioning
    Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre
    Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, Neuroscience Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile
    Behav Brain Res 203:88-96. 2009
    ..Comparable alterations could be produced in major depression...
  66. ncbi Post-training administration of corticosterone enhances consolidation of contextual fear memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats
    Kataneh Abrari
    Department of Biology, Damghan University of Basic Sciences, Damghan, Iran
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 91:260-5. 2009
    ..The above findings suggest that glucocorticoids may enhance contextual fear memory consolidation via enhancing hippocampal LTP...
  67. pmc Post-training ethanol disrupts trace conditioned fear in rats: effects of timing of ethanol, dose and trace interval duration
    Pamela S Hunt
    Department of Psychology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 8795, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 91:73-80. 2009
    ..Collectively the results suggest that ethanol administration impairs post-acquisition memory processing of hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning...
  68. ncbi Alterations in extracellular levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the rat basolateral amygdala and periaqueductal gray during conditioned fear, persistent pain and fear-conditioned analgesia
    Kieran Rea
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, NCBES Neuroscience Cluster and Centre for Pain Research, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    J Pain 10:1088-98. 2009
    ....
  69. ncbi Exposure to oral methylphenidate from adolescence through young adulthood produces transient effects on hippocampal-sensitive memory in rats
    José A Bethancourt
    Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología INDICASAT AIP, Cognición, Cerebro y Conducta, Panama, Panama
    Behav Brain Res 202:50-7. 2009
    ....
  70. ncbi The intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of freezing of gait
    Mark Hallett
    Human Motor Control Section, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1428, USA
    Mov Disord 23:S439-43. 2008
    ..The sensory factors can both help or hinder freezing. Analogous to the problem with set-shifting, there is also some difficulty in regulation of internal versus external factors and in regulation of different external factors...
  71. ncbi The clinical spectrum of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease
    Yasuyuki Okuma
    Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan
    Mov Disord 23:S426-30. 2008
    ..Careful observation and gait pattern analysis may lead to a successful management of individual PD patients with FOG...
  72. ncbi Gait festination and freezing in Parkinson's disease: pathogenesis and rehabilitation
    Meg E Morris
    School of Physiotherapy, The University of Melbourne, Australia
    Mov Disord 23:S451-60. 2008
    ..On the basis of these findings, we propose strategies to reduce the frequency and severity of freezing episodes for a range of locomotion tasks...
  73. ncbi The effect of CRF and alpha-helical CRF((9-41)) on rat fear responses and amino acids release in the central nucleus of the amygdala
    Anna Skórzewska
    Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland
    Neuropharmacology 57:148-56. 2009
    ....
  74. doi Defensive responses to predator threat in the rat and mouse
    D Caroline Blanchard
    University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
    Curr Protoc Neurosci . 2005
    ..These factors indicate the need for selective, reliable, and convenient tests of defensiveness to predators and predator odors using rat and mouse subjects...
  75. pmc Glutaminase-deficient mice display hippocampal hypoactivity, insensitivity to pro-psychotic drugs and potentiated latent inhibition: relevance to schizophrenia
    Inna Gaisler-Salomon
    Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:2305-22. 2009
    ....
  76. pmc Making context memories independent of the hippocampus
    Hugo Lehmann
    Psychology Department, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
    Learn Mem 16:417-20. 2009
    ..The latter provides a new account for patterns of hippocampal retrograde amnesia and how memories may become independent of the hippocampus...
  77. ncbi Acute systemic fibroblast growth factor-2 enhances long-term extinction of fear and reduces reinstatement in rats
    Bronwyn M Graham
    School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1875-82. 2009
    ..Together, these experiments demonstrate that FGF2 facilitates extinction and attenuates relapse. Thus, FGF2 may be a novel pharmacological adjunct to exposure therapy...
  78. ncbi CB1 receptor deficiency decreases wheel-running activity: consequences on emotional behaviours and hippocampal neurogenesis
    Sarah Dubreucq
    AVENIR Team Endocannabinoids and NeuroAdaptation, NeuroCentre INSERM U862, 33077 Bordeaux, France
    Exp Neurol 224:106-13. 2010
    ..This study suggests that mouse CB1 receptors control wheel running but not its neurogenic consequences in the hippocampus...
  79. ncbi Classical tone-shock conditioning induces Zenk expression in the pigeon (Columba livia) hippocampus
    I Brito
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sa Paulo, Brazil
    Behav Neurosci 120:353-61. 2006
    ..The expression of Zenk in specific neuronal populations within the pigeon hippocampus may be indicative of plasticity-associated aversive classical conditioning...
  80. ncbi Hypofunction of the dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptors impairs retrieval of memory to partially presented foreground context in a single-trial fear conditioning in rats
    Enver Melik
    Department of Physiology, Division of Neurophysiology, Medical Faculty, University of Cukurova, 01330 Balcali, Adana, Turkey
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 16:241-7. 2006
    ....
  81. ncbi Impaired trace and contextual fear conditioning in aged rats
    James R Moyer
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, USA
    Behav Neurosci 120:612-24. 2006
    ..The authors suggest that these aging-related conditioning deficits furnish useful indices of functional changes within hippocampus or perirhinal cortex...
  82. ncbi Enhancement of auditory fear conditioning after housing in a complex environment is attenuated by prior treatment with amphetamine
    Lisa A Briand
    Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Learn Mem 12:553-6. 2005
    ..Prior treatment with amphetamine eliminated this effect. These results indicate that living in a complex environment facilitates conditional freezing to an auditory CS, and that this effect is abolished by pretreatment with amphetamine...
  83. ncbi Sleep deprivation abolishes the locomotor stimulant effect of ethanol in mice
    Nilza P Araujo
    Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 04023 062, Brazil
    Brain Res Bull 69:332-7. 2006
    ..The present findings demonstrate that the acute effect of ETOH on mice's motor activity are behaviorally complex and can be specifically modulated by SD...
  84. ncbi Methylene blue facilitates the extinction of fear in an animal model of susceptibility to learned helplessness
    Kathryn M Wrubel
    Department of Psychology and Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 87:209-17. 2007
    ....
  85. pmc Strain difference in the effect of infralimbic cortex lesions on fear extinction in rats
    Chun hui Chang
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1043, USA
    Behav Neurosci 124:391-7. 2010
    ..Thus, we conclude that rat strain is an important variable that influences the role of infralimbic cortex in fear extinction...
  86. ncbi Increased spontaneous recovery with increases in conditioned stimulus alone exposures
    Hiu Tin Leung
    School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia
    J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 36:354-67. 2010
    ..The results are discussed in terms of some contemporary models of recovery and of the inferences permitted by the use of the compound assessment technique...
  87. ncbi Lack of neurotensin type 1 receptor facilitates contextual fear memory depending on the memory strength
    Daisuke Yamada
    Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4 1 1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 187 8502, Japan
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 96:363-9. 2010
    ..These results suggest that Ntsr1 plays inhibitory roles in weak fear memory...
  88. ncbi A new rating instrument to assess festination and freezing gait in Parkinsonian patients
    Kerstin Ziegler
    Neurologisches Krankenhaus München, Schön Kliniken, Center for Parkinson s disease and Movement Disorders, Munich, Germany
    Mov Disord 25:1012-8. 2010
    ..05). The FOG score correlates with the 10 m number of steps (rho = 0.58; P = 0.001) and with the self-evaluation of FOG (rho = 0.51; P < 0.01). Our results encourage the further use of the FOG score to evaluate festination and FOG...
  89. ncbi Behavioral expression of learned fear: updating of early memories
    Carol S L Yap
    School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Behav Neurosci 119:1467-76. 2005
    ..This updating effect appears to be modality specific, whereby the subsequent training must involve a CS of the same sensory modality as the original training...
  90. ncbi The effects of FG7142 on overexpectation of Pavlovian fear conditioning
    Joshua B B Garfield
    School of Psychology, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Behav Neurosci 123:75-85. 2009
    ..They support claims that overexpectation shares features with extinction...
  91. ncbi Early life stress impairs fear conditioning in adult male and female rats
    Therese A Kosten
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, VA CT Hospital System, 950 Campbell Ave, Building 5, 3rd Floor, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
    Brain Res 1087:142-50. 2006
    ..These opposing effects may reflect developmental differences on stress-induced alterations on hippocampal regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis...
  92. ncbi An antidepressant mechanism of desipramine is to decrease tumor necrosis factor-alpha production culminating in increases in noradrenergic neurotransmission
    J L Reynolds
    Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    Neuroscience 133:519-31. 2005
    ..Thus, the efficacy of desipramine is due to decreased levels of TNF in the brain induced by this drug, ultimately modifying noradrenergic neurotransmission...
  93. ncbi Auditory fear conditioning and conditioned stress raise NO(3) level in the Amygdala
    Taku Sato
    Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan
    Neuropsychobiology 53:142-7. 2006
    ..Nitric oxide biosynthesized in the brain is reportedly involved in several kinds of learning...
  94. ncbi Reduced evoked fos expression in activity-related brain regions in animal models of behavioral depression
    Eric A Stone
    Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Ave, New York, NY 10016, United States
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31:1196-207. 2007
    ....
  95. ncbi Central locomotor and cognitive effects of a NPFF receptor agonist in mouse
    Alexandre Betourne
    Universite de Toulouse, Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale, France
    Peptides 31:221-6. 2010
    ..1 DMe injected i.c.v. induces a delayed hyperlocomotion and mildly impairs both short-term and long-term spatial memory processing without affecting contextual fear memory...
  96. ncbi Stress-induced priming of glutamate synapses unmasks associative short-term plasticity
    J Brent Kuzmiski
    Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Nat Neurosci 13:1257-64. 2010
    ..Our findings indicate that the priming of synapses to express STP is a synaptic correlate to stress-induced behavioral and neuroendocrine sensitization...
  97. ncbi Mineralocorticoid receptors in control of emotional arousal and fear memory
    V Brinks
    Division of Medical Pharmacology, LACDR LUMC, Gorlaeus Laboratories, PO Box 9502, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Horm Behav 56:232-8. 2009
    ..We propose that such a disbalance in MR:GR functions in MR(CaMKCre) mice provides the conditions for an animal model for anxiety-related disorders...
  98. ncbi Behavioral effects and pattern of brain c-fos mRNA induced by 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a component of fox feces odor in GAD67-GFP knock-in C57BL/6 mice
    K Janitzky
    Institute of Anatomy, University of Magdeburg, D 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 202:218-24. 2009
    ....
  99. ncbi Temperature-dependent aposematic behavior in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster
    Koji Mochida
    Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    Zoolog Sci 27:555-8. 2010
    ....
  100. ncbi ERK2 and CREB activation in the amygdala when an event is remembered as "Fearful" and not when it is remembered as "Instructive"
    Yana Ilin
    Department of Psychology, The Institute for the Study of Affective Neuroscience ISAN, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel
    J Neurosci Res 87:1823-31. 2009
    ..Also, our findings support the view that an emotionally charged reminder cue activates the amygdala but that, as a previously fear-evoking memory cue becomes instructive, the involvement of the amygdale lessens...
  101. pmc Amygdalar and hippocampal substrates of anxious temperament differ in their heritability
    Jonathan A Oler
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA
    Nature 466:864-8. 2010
    ..Even though these structures are closely linked, the results suggest differential influences of genes and environment on how these brain regions mediate AT and the ongoing risk of developing anxiety and depression...

Research Grants20

  1. MICROPET: HIGH RESOLUTION SMALL ANIMAL PET SCANNER
    Ned Kalin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..This scanner will also enhance research efforts in such wide-ranging areas as cardiology, oncology neurology, radiology and medical physics. ..
  2. Role of Central CRH in Stress-Induced Behavior
    Ned Kalin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  3. SOCIAL LEARNING AND ALCOHOL INTAKE IN ADOLESCENT RATS
    Pamela Hunt; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The end result of this work will be an increased understanding of the neurochemical and behavioral factors underlying social acquisition of ethanol preferences. ..
  4. Neonatal Ethanol-Induced Memory Impairments in Rats
    Pamela Hunt; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The potential for amelioration of these cognitive deficits using both behavioral and pharmacological strategies will provide important information regarding treatment approaches for afflicted individuals. ..
  5. Noninvasive monitoring of physiological parameters in mice
    LARRY SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed applications have particular significance for studies of behavior and sleep. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. Mechanisms of Appetitive and Aversive Context Learning
    KENNON LATTAL; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These experiments will lay the groundwork for a research program that is focused on asking questions about the nature of specific contextual associations in learning and memory. ..
  7. GABA Receptors in the Acquisition and Extinction of Fear
    Scott Heldt; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. PHENOTYPICAL EXPRESSION OF ANXIETY AND SLEEP
    LARRY SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  9. Temporal factors in extinction and spontaneous recovery
    KENNON MATTHEW LATTAL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  10. A Simple Behavioral Model of Cocaine Withdrawal in Rats
    WILLIAM CARLEZON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Together, these studies may facilitate the identification and development of innovative treatments that more effectively treat the symptoms of withdrawal from cocaine and other drugs of abuse. ..
  11. NEUROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ALTERED MOTOR CONTROL IN REM
    LARRY SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies may lead to a better understanding of disorders of REM, such as REM behavior disorder, which, like REM-A, is characterized by overt behavior during sleep. ..
  12. BIOBEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF DRUG REWARD AND ADDICTION
    WILLIAM CARLEZON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding mechanistic links between cocaine-induced adaptations in gene expression and adaptations in behavior may facilitate the development of novel treatments for cocaine addiction and craving. ..
  13. MINORITY PREDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM
    Michael Baratta; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Viral Encephalitis, Chemokines and Sleep
    LARRY D contact SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such understanding may provide insight that could lead to improved therapies and improved prognosis for infectious diseases. ..
  15. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF MOUSE CORTICOHIPPOCAMPAL SYSTEMS
    REBECCA BURWELL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Another major aim of the proposed studies is to use neuropsychological approaches within a comparative framework to investigate the function of specific target structures. ..
  16. Prefrontal Neuronal Responses During Extinction of Fear
    Mohammed Milad; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This proposed study will bring us closer to understanding the mechanisms of fear extinction. Facilitation of extinction processes in patients with disorders such as PTSD could potentially help in curing such disorders. ..
  17. Nicotine & Ethanol Influences on Contextual Conditioning
    Thomas Gould; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Understanding the underlying neurobiology will not only further aid in this understanding but will also aid in developing treatments for alcoholism and nicotine addiction. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Intranasal immune challenge, brain cytokines and gender differences in depression
    Leonardo Tonelli; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This information may be useful to prevent and treat depression in women. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  19. Regulation of Stress-Induced Cortical Monoamine Activity
    Gina Forster; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Positive findings here will provide essential information as to the role of serotonin in stress, and offer options for the 'fine-tuning' of pharmacological therapeutics to limit stress responsiveness and aid rehabilitation. ..
  20. Early Experience and Adult Responses to Stress
    Brian Sanders; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Consistent with the mission of the AREA program, this project will provide a significant training and educational opportunity for undergraduate students. ..