single person


Summary: The unmarried man or woman.

Top Publications

  1. Qian X, Tang S, Garner P. Unintended pregnancy and induced abortion among unmarried women in China: a systematic review. BMC Health Serv Res. 2004;4:1 pubmed
    ..One large rural study documented a lower low pregnancy rate (20%) and induced abortion rate (0.8%). There is a large unmet need for temporary methods of contraception in urban areas of China. ..
  2. Liu Z, Zhu M, Dib H, Li Z, Shi S, Wang Z. RH knowledge and service utilization among unmarried rural-to-urban migrants in three major cities, China. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:74 pubmed publisher
  3. Yan H, Li L, Bi Y, Xu X, Li S, Maddock J. Family and peer influences on sexual behavior among female college students in Wuhan, China. Women Health. 2010;50:767-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Interventions to protect young women from sexually transmitted diseases need to target early sex education and address peer and parents influences. ..
  4. DeKlyen M, Brooks Gunn J, McLanahan S, Knab J. The mental health of married, cohabiting, and non-coresident parents with infants. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:1836-41 pubmed
    ..Government initiatives aimed at increasing marriage rates among low-income couples need to consider the mental health status of unmarried parents. ..
  5. Wang B, Li X, Stanton B, Kamali V, Naar King S, Shah I, et al. Sexual attitudes, pattern of communication, and sexual behavior among unmarried out-of-school youth in China. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:189 pubmed
    ..A substantial proportion of out-of-school youth engage in risky sexual behaviors. Prevention programs that empower communication and sexual negotiation skills, and promote condom use should be implemented for this vulnerable group. ..
  6. Willitts M, Benzeval M, Stansfeld S. Partnership history and mental health over time. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004;58:53-8 pubmed
    ..Future work should consider other factors that may mediate, confound, or jointly determine the relation between partnership change and health. ..
  7. Zhang L, Gao X, Dong Z, Tan Y, Wu Z. Premarital sexual activities among students in a university in Beijing, China. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29:212-5 pubmed
    ..Today, more students are engaging in premarital sexual intercourse. Thus, it is necessary to reinforce reproductive health education among college students and provide convenient and optional services that are easily accessed. ..
  8. Zheng Z, Zhou Y, Zheng L, Yang Y, Zhao D, Lou C, et al. Sexual behaviour and contraceptive use among unmarried, young women migrant workers in five cities in China. Reprod Health Matters. 2001;9:118-27 pubmed
  9. Tang J, Gao X, Yu Y, Ahmed N, Zhu H, Wang J, et al. Sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among unmarried migrant female workers in China: a comparative analysis. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:917 pubmed publisher
    ..The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed. ..

More Information


  1. Chen H, Zhang L, Han Y, Lin T, Song X, Chen G, et al. HIV/AIDS knowledge, contraceptive knowledge, and condom use among unmarried youth in China. AIDS Care. 2012;24:1550-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, more of an effort should be made to improve youth's skill on communication and negotiation about condom use during sex. These conclusions are also useful to other countries with similar situation with China. ..
  2. Zhou Y, Xiong C, Xiong J, Shang X, Liu G, Zhang M, et al. A blind area of family planning services in China: unintended pregnancy among unmarried graduate students. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:198 pubmed publisher
  3. Cai Y, Wang Y, Zheng Z, Wang J, Yao W, Ma J. Predictors of reducing sexual and reproductive risk behaviors based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model among unmarried rural-to-urban female migrants in Shanghai, China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62787 pubmed publisher
    ..The IMB model could be used to predict reducing sexual and reproductive risk behaviors and it suggests future interventions should focus on improving SRH related information and behavioral skills. ..
  4. Tu X, Cui N, Lou C, Gao E. Do family-planning workers in China support provision of sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried young people?. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:274-80 pubmed
    ..Training programmes for family-planning workers are urgently needed to address this issue. ..
  5. Qian X, Smith H, Huang W, Zhang J, Huang Y, Garner P. Promoting contraceptive use among unmarried female migrants in one factory in Shanghai: a pilot workplace intervention. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007;7:77 pubmed
    ..Further research should focus on the specific needs and service preferences of this population and these should be considered in any policy reform so that contraceptive use may be encouraged among young urban migrant workers. ..
  6. Turner A, Nikolova S, Sutton M. The effect of living alone on the costs and benefits of surgery amongst older people. Soc Sci Med. 2016;150:95-103 pubmed publisher
    ..These increase the costs per patient by £179.88 (3.12%) and amount to an additional £4.9 million per annum. A lack of post-discharge support for those living alone is likely to be a key driver of these additional costs. ..
  7. Yacoub Y, Amine B, Laatiris A, Hajjaj Hassouni N. Spinsterhood and its impact on disease features in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2011;9:58 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems important to consider not only disease-related parameters but also social status as a determinant factor of poor course in RA. ..
  8. Sarna A, Sebastian M, Bachani D, Sogarwal R, Battala M. Pretreatment loss-to-follow-up after HIV diagnosis from 27 counseling and testing centers across India: findings from a cohort study. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2014;13:223-31 pubmed publisher
    ..66; 95%CI:1.15-6.15) were more likely to not register. In conclusion, the majority of newly diagnosed PLHIV do reach ARTCs. Disclosure concerns and a perception of good health prevent PLHIV from accessing services. ..
  9. de Groot J, Mah K, Fyles A, Winton S, Greenwood S, Depetrillo D, et al. Do single and partnered women with gynecologic cancer differ in types and intensities of illness- and treatment-related psychosocial concerns? A pilot study. J Psychosom Res. 2007;63:241-5 pubmed
  10. Akalanka E, Fujiwara T, Desapriya E, Peiris D, Scime G. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2012;24:91-103 pubmed publisher
    ..It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws. ..
  11. Campbell L. Sons who care: examining the experience and meaning of filial caregiving for married and never-married sons. Can J Aging. 2010;29:73-84 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, caregiving for married sons was more limited; caregiving for never-married sons was a more central element in their lives. ..
  12. He S, Tsang S, Zou H, Wu Y. Psychometric properties of the sexual attitudes scale in a sample of unmarried Chinese young adults. J Sex Res. 2010;47:269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant, positive correlations were found between Permissiveness and both the number of previous and current sexual partners. The factor structure of the SAS and the potential applications of this tool in China are discussed. ..
  13. van Laere I, de Wit M, Klazinga N. Pathways into homelessness: recently homeless adults problems and service use before and after becoming homeless in Amsterdam. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:3 pubmed publisher
    ..Contacts with services were fragmented and did not prevent homelessness. For homelessness prevention, systematic and outreach social medical care before and during homelessness should be provided. ..
  14. Denollet J, Maas K, Knottnerus A, Keyzer J, Pop V. Anxiety predicted premature all-cause and cardiovascular death in a 10-year follow-up of middle-aged women. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62:452-6 pubmed publisher
    ..91, 95% CI: 0.90-4.06, P=0.095) but not for breast cancer death. Anxiety predicted premature all-cause and cardiovascular death in middle-aged women, after adjustment for standard risk factors and depression. ..
  15. Tach L, Edin K. The compositional and institutional sources of union dissolution for married and unmarried parents in the United States. Demography. 2013;50:1789-818 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that differential responses to economic or relationship disadvantage do not explain why unmarried parents are more likely to end their unions than married parents. ..
  16. Kessler R, Walters E, Forthofer M. The social consequences of psychiatric disorders, III: probability of marital stability. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:1092-6 pubmed
    ..The debate over whether society can afford to provide universal treatment for psychiatric disorders needs to take these costs into consideration. ..
  17. Waite L. How is household vulnerability gendered? Female-headed households in the collectives of Suleimaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan. Disasters. 2000;24:153-72 pubmed
    ..The research also establishes the methodological necessity of examining intra-household distributive mechanisms that determine individuals' well-being. ..
  18. Fowers B, Lyons E, Montel K, Shaked N. Positive illusions about marriage among married and single individuals. J Fam Psychol. 2001;15:95-109 pubmed
    ..The presence of illusions about a future marriage among single individuals suggests that positive marital illusions are a cultural phenomenon. ..
  19. Morrison Beedy D, Carey M, Lewis B. Modeling condom-use stage of change in low-income, single, urban women. Res Nurs Health. 2002;25:122-34 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest implications for developing gender-relevant HIV-prevention interventions. ..
  20. Boström K, Ahlstrom G. Quality of life in patients with muscular dystrophy and their next of kin. Int J Rehabil Res. 2005;28:103-9 pubmed
    ..It is also important to include the patient's close relations when giving rehabilitation. ..
  21. Hervey T. Buy baby: the European Union and regulation of human reproduction. Oxf J Leg Stud. 1998;18:207-33 pubmed
  22. Silveira M, Erbelding E, Ghanem K, Johnson H, Burke A, Zenilman J. Risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy: effectiveness of guidelines-based screening in identifying cases. Int J STD AIDS. 2010;21:367-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that factors other than age may impact upon the diagnosis of CT in pregnant women and that a more comprehensive testing strategy should be considered...
  23. Catania J, Binson D, Stone V. Relationship of sexual mixing across age and ethnic groups to herpes simplex virus-2 among unmarried heterosexual adults with multiple sexual partners. Health Psychol. 1996;15:362-70 pubmed
    ..The results have implications for understanding HIV-STD transmission and for directing interventions toward population segments at high risk for transmitting HIV-STDs. ..
  24. Stack S. The effect of marital integration on African American suicide. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1996;26:405-14 pubmed
    ..Marital status may be less important for African Americans in suicide prevention because extended family ties are stronger for African Americans than Whites. ..
  25. Xiu Ying H, Qian C, Xiao Dong P, Xue Mei Z, Chang Quan H. Living arrangements and risk for late life depression: a meta-analysis of published literature. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2012;43:19-34 pubmed
    ..Older persons living alone, in a nursing home, or in an institutionalized setting have higher risk for depression. ..
  26. Sievert L, Waddle D, Canali K. Marital status and age at natural menopause: considering pheromonal influence. Am J Hum Biol. 2001;13:479-85 pubmed
    ..An alternative explanation is the pheromonal influence of a male in the household. This would explain the consistency of results across populations. This pilot study supports further biochemical investigation. ..
  27. Hashemi H, Saraei M. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in unmarried women in Qazvin, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2010;16:24-8 pubmed
    ..05). With two-thirds of these unmarried women seronegative, they represent a high-risk group in pregnancy. Such women need to be educated to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis. ..
  28. Sullivan S, Glasson E, Hussain R, Petterson B, Slack Smith L, Montgomery P, et al. Breast cancer and the uptake of mammography screening services by women with intellectual disabilities. Prev Med. 2003;37:507-12 pubmed
  29. van Laere I, De Wit M, Klazinga N. Preventing evictions as a potential public health intervention: characteristics and social medical risk factors of households at risk in Amsterdam. Scand J Public Health. 2009;37:697-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventing eviction deserves full attention as a potential effective public health intervention. ..
  30. Butrica B, Iams H. The impact of minority group status on the projected retirement income of divorced women in the baby boom cohort. J Women Aging. 2003;15:67-88; discussion 185-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude the paper by briefly discussing policy options to address the retirement needs of divorced women. ..
  31. Marston M, Slaymaker E, Cremin I, Floyd S, McGrath N, Kasamba I, et al. Trends in marriage and time spent single in sub-Saharan Africa: a comparative analysis of six population-based cohort studies and nine Demographic and Health Surveys. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85 Suppl 1:i64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These three measures are underlying determinants of sexual risk and HIV infection, and they may partially explain the variation in HIV prevalence levels between these populations. ..
  32. Kim H. Older Women's Health and Its Impact on Wealth. J Women Aging. 2006;18:75-91 pubmed
  33. Smith Reese J. The gift of dying at home alone. Caring. 2005;24:62-6, 68 pubmed
  34. Ozumba B, Obi S, Ijioma N. Knowledge, attitude and practice of modern contraception among single women in a rural and urban community in southeast Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;25:292-5 pubmed
    ..There is need to promote information and education on contraception among single women, their male partners and family planning providers. ..
  35. Perrig Chiello P, Hutchison S, Hoepflinger F. Role involvement and well-being in middle-aged women. Women Health. 2008;48:303-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Common to all groups was a considerable difference between actual and desired role investment. The findings are discussed in terms of a resource-oriented model of well-being. ..
  36. Freedman V, Aykan H, Wolf D, Marcotte J. Disability and home care dynamics among older unmarried Americans. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2004;59:S25-33 pubmed
    ..Older unmarried persons experience worsening, stabilizing, and recovery of function, and their care hours change accordingly. Evaluations of home care programs must be cognizant of such dynamic realities. ..
  37. Chang Y, Hayter M, Lin M. Chinese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex: implications for promoting sexual health. J Sch Nurs. 2014;30:420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Internal control includes the fear of pregnancy, the fear of parental rejection, and the fear of being judged. These findings can provide a reference for designing future sex education curricula and counseling programs for adolescents. ..
  38. Carroll D, Robinson E, Buselli E, Berry D, Rankin S. Activities of the APN to enhance unpartnered elders self-efficacy after myocardial infarction. Clin Nurse Spec. 2001;15:60-6 pubmed
    ..These activities enhanced the recovery of these vulnerable unpartnered elders after a myocardial infarction. ..
  39. Petterson S, Friel L. Psychological distress, hopelessness and welfare. Women Health. 2001;32:79-99 pubmed
    ..Finally, the paper shows that feelings of hopelessness mediate the relationship between material deprivation and psychological distress for both recipients and non-recipients. ..
  40. Reinhardt J, Fisher C. Kinship versus friendship: social adaptation in married and widowed elderly women. Women Health. 1988;14:191-211 pubmed
    ..Married women described relationships with both daughters and friends as more stimulating than widowed women. The value of assessing qualitative indices compared to quantitative indices of later life relationships is discussed. ..
  41. Crane M, Warnes A. Primary health care services for single homeless people: defects and opportunities. Fam Pract. 2001;18:272-6 pubmed
    ..The responsibility to identify and respond to exceptional needs should be clearly defined and allocated. ..
  42. Spielmann S, Macdonald G, Maxwell J, Joel S, Peragine D, Muise A, et al. Settling for less out of fear of being single. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2013;105:1049-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the present research suggests that fear of being single is a meaningful predictor of settling for less in relationships. ..
  43. Bae S, Urrutia Rojas X, Patel D, Migala W, Rivers P, Singh K. Comparison of health behaviors among single- and multiple-member households. Am J Health Behav. 2007;31:514-25 pubmed
    ..By analyzing local data, a profile can be established to develop and implement appropriate public health programs aimed at these various target communities for effective intervention and healthy change in the community. ..
  44. Russell D. The newly single man. Aust Fam Physician. 2009;38:98-100 pubmed
  45. Nettleman M, Brewer J, Ayoola A. Reasons for unprotected intercourse in adult women: a qualitative study. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007;52:148-152 pubmed publisher
    ..The reasons for unprotected intercourse were numerous, but could be organized into a logical framework. The results suggest that multidimensional interventions may be needed to effectively reduce the rate of unintended pregnancy. ..
  46. Ansari Moghaddam A, Habybabady R, Shakiba M, Mirzaei R, Shahriyari F, Aghaei S. Predictors of initiation, continuation and transition of drug use in south-eastern Iran. J Pak Med Assoc. 2012;62:698-703 pubmed
    ..05). A number of predictive factors of substance abuse identified in the study are of utmost important for any preventive effort. ..
  47. Mau M, Asao K, Efird J, Saito E, Ratner R, Hafi M, et al. Risk factors associated with methamphetamine use and heart failure among native Hawaiians and other Pacific Island peoples. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5:45-52 pubmed
    ..Health care providers should be aware of MU as a contributing factor in the approach and treatment of HF in NHs and PIPs. ..
  48. Jordal M, Wijewardena K, Ohman A, Essen B, Olsson P. Negotiating respectability: migrant women workers' perceptions of relationships and sexuality in free trade zones in Sri Lanka. Health Care Women Int. 2014;35:658-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Programs for improvement of migrant women's health should be informed by contextualized analysis of gender relations with its various dimensions and levels. ..
  49. Bennett L. Patterns of resistance and transgression in Eastern Indonesia: single women's practices of clandestine courtship and cohabitation. Cult Health Sex. 2005;7:101-12 pubmed
    ..Single women's practice of resistance and sexual transgression in premarital relationships are represented using the examples of pacaran backstreet (clandestine courtship) and cohabitation prior to marriage. ..
  50. Meillier L, Nielsen K, Larsen F, Larsen M. Socially differentiated cardiac rehabilitation: can we improve referral, attendance and adherence among patients with first myocardial infarction?. Scand J Public Health. 2012;40:286-93 pubmed publisher
    ..It seems possible to overcome unequal referral, attendance, and adherence in cardiac rehabilitation by organisation of systematic screening and social differentiation. ..
  51. Gheorghe A, Banner J, Hansen S, Stolborg U, Lynnerup N. Abandonment of newborn infants: a Danish forensic medical survey 1997-2008. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2011;7:317-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Causes of death were usually given as asphyxia, brain injury or simply undetermined. Two-thirds of the newborn infants showed signs of violence. None of the newborn infants had congenital malformations. ..
  52. Taubman Ben Ari O, Findler L, Bendet C, Stanger V, Ben Shlomo S, Kuint J. Mothers' marital adaptation following the birth of twins or singletons: empirical evidence and practical insights. Health Soc Work. 2008;33:189-97 pubmed
    ..The implications for the focus of social work interventions, particularly in the case of the birth of twins, are discussed. ..
  53. Zou X. [Investigation of reproductive health status and service needs among unmarried young men in Changshu]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2002;8:347-9, 352 pubmed
    ..8%). This survey suggested that the prevalence of pre-marital sexual behavior is relatively high in Changshu. It should be taken several methods to give unmarried young men the reproductibe education. ..