poly i c


Summary: Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.

Top Publications

  1. Ebstein F, Lange N, Urban S, Seifert U, Krüger E, Kloetzel P. Maturation of human dendritic cells is accompanied by functional remodelling of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:1205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data underline the importance of remodelling the ubiquitin-proteasome system for dendritic cell function. ..
  2. Kumar H, Koyama S, Ishii K, Kawai T, Akira S. Cutting edge: cooperation of IPS-1- and TRIF-dependent pathways in poly IC-enhanced antibody production and cytotoxic T cell responses. J Immunol. 2008;180:683-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that the adjuvant effects of poly IC require a cooperative activation of TLR and cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways. ..
  3. Morikawa T, Sugiyama A, Kume H, Ota S, Kashima T, Tomita K, et al. Identification of Toll-like receptor 3 as a potential therapeutic target in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:5703-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first report that TLR3 is overexpressed in CCRCC. These observations suggest that TLR3 pathway may represent a novel therapeutic target in CCRCC. ..
  4. Joffre O, Sancho D, Zelenay S, Keller A, Reis E Sousa C. Efficient and versatile manipulation of the peripheral CD4+ T-cell compartment by antigen targeting to DNGR-1/CLEC9A. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1255-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the restricted pattern of expression of DNGR-1 across species, this strategy could prove useful for developing immunotherapy protocols in humans. ..
  5. Besch R, Poeck H, Hohenauer T, Senft D, Hacker G, Berking C, et al. Proapoptotic signaling induced by RIG-I and MDA-5 results in type I interferon-independent apoptosis in human melanoma cells. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to their immunostimulatory and proapoptotic activity, RIG-I and MDA-5 ligands have therapeutic potential due to their ability to overcome the characteristic resistance of melanoma cells to apoptosis. ..
  6. Konat G, Borysiewicz E, Fil D, James I. Peripheral challenge with double-stranded RNA elicits global up-regulation of cytokine gene expression in the brain. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1381-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the endothelial NOS message was initially down-regulated and subsequently up-regulated, indicating stimulation of cerebral vasculature. ..
  7. De Miranda J, Yaddanapudi K, Hornig M, Lipkin W. Astrocytes recognize intracellular polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid via MDA-5. FASEB J. 2009;23:1064-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results illustrate the intricacy of extracellular and intracellular ds-RNA recognition in viral infections of the central nervous system and indicate the importance of MDA-5 helicase as an intracellular ds-RNA sensor in astrocytes. ..
  8. Gregoire C, Cognet C, Chasson L, Coupet C, Dalod M, Reboldi A, et al. Intrasplenic trafficking of natural killer cells is redirected by chemokines upon inflammation. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2076-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon ensures the segregation of NK cells outside of the white pulp and might contribute to the control of immunopathology. ..
  9. Dong L, Kong X, Yan H, Yu L, Chen L, Yang W, et al. Signal regulatory protein alpha negatively regulates both TLR3 and cytoplasmic pathways in type I interferon induction. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:3025-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus SIRPalpha may accomplish its inhibitory function in type I IFN induction, in part, through its association and sequestration of the signal transducer PI3K. ..

More Information


  1. Miyake T, Kumagai Y, Kato H, Guo Z, Matsushita K, Satoh T, et al. Poly I:C-induced activation of NK cells by CD8 alpha+ dendritic cells via the IPS-1 and TRIF-dependent pathways. J Immunol. 2009;183:2522-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, poly I:C activates the IPS-1- and TRIF-dependent pathways in CD8alpha(+) cDCs, which in turn leads to NK cell activation. ..
  2. Matsumoto M, Seya T. TLR3: interferon induction by double-stranded RNA including poly(I:C). Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2008;60:805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on TLR3 and discuss its possible role in innate and adaptive immunity. ..
  3. Trumpfheller C, Caskey M, Nchinda G, Longhi M, Mizenina O, Huang Y, et al. The microbial mimic poly IC induces durable and protective CD4+ T cell immunity together with a dendritic cell targeted vaccine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2574-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that poly IC be tested as an adjuvant with DC-targeted vaccines to induce numerous multifunctional CD4(+) Th1 cells with proliferative capacity. ..
  4. Dogusan Z, Garcia M, Flamez D, Alexopoulou L, Goldman M, Gysemans C, et al. Double-stranded RNA induces pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis by activation of the toll-like receptor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 3 pathways. Diabetes. 2008;57:1236-45 pubmed publisher
    ..PICex and PICin trigger beta-cell apoptosis via the TLR3 pathway or IRF-3 signaling, respectively. Execution of PICin-mediated apoptosis depends on autocrine effects of type I IFNs. ..
  5. Kalali B, Köllisch G, Mages J, Muller T, Bauer S, Wagner H, et al. Double-stranded RNA induces an antiviral defense status in epidermal keratinocytes through TLR3-, PKR-, and MDA5/RIG-I-mediated differential signaling. J Immunol. 2008;181:2694-704 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to building a physical barrier against infectious pathogens, keratinocytes are specially equipped with a full antiviral defense program that enables them to efficiently target viral infections of the skin. ..
  6. Longhi M, Trumpfheller C, Idoyaga J, Caskey M, Matos I, Kluger C, et al. Dendritic cells require a systemic type I interferon response to mature and induce CD4+ Th1 immunity with poly IC as adjuvant. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1589-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the adjuvant action of poly IC requires a widespread innate type I IFN response that directly links antigen presentation by DCs to adaptive immunity. ..
  7. Salaun B, Lebecque S, Matikainen S, Rimoldi D, Romero P. Toll-like receptor 3 expressed by melanoma cells as a target for therapy?. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:4565-74 pubmed
  8. Weber A, Kirejczyk Z, Besch R, Potthoff S, Leverkus M, Hacker G. Proapoptotic signalling through Toll-like receptor-3 involves TRIF-dependent activation of caspase-8 and is under the control of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in melanoma cells. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:942-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the proapoptotic activity of TLR3/TRIF/caspase-8 in melanoma cells is under the control of IAPs, and the use of novel Smac mimetics might be a feasible approach to target melanoma. ..
  9. Jiang Q, Wei H, Tian Z. Poly I:C enhances cycloheximide-induced apoptosis of tumor cells through TLR3 pathway. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrated the proapoptotic activity of TLR3 expressed by various tumor cells, which may open a new range of clinical applications for TLR3 agonists as an adjuvant of certain cancer chemotherapy. ..
  10. Niimi K, Asano K, Shiraishi Y, Nakajima T, Wakaki M, Kagyo J, et al. TLR3-mediated synthesis and release of eotaxin-1/CCL11 from human bronchial smooth muscle cells stimulated with double-stranded RNA. J Immunol. 2007;178:489-95 pubmed
  11. Yarilina A, DiCarlo E, Ivashkiv L. Suppression of the effector phase of inflammatory arthritis by double-stranded RNA is mediated by type I IFNs. J Immunol. 2007;178:2204-11 pubmed
  12. Genestier L, Taillardet M, Mondiere P, Gheit H, Bella C, Defrance T. TLR agonists selectively promote terminal plasma cell differentiation of B cell subsets specialized in thymus-independent responses. J Immunol. 2007;178:7779-86 pubmed
  13. Wolf N, Amouzegar T, Swanborg R. Synergistic interaction between Toll-like receptor agonists is required for induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;185:115-22 pubmed
    ..We conclude that selected combinations of TLR agonists can facilitate the induction of EAE by MBP peptide via the innate immune system. ..
  14. Akazawa T, Ebihara T, Okuno M, Okuda Y, Shingai M, Tsujimura K, et al. Antitumor NK activation induced by the Toll-like receptor 3-TICAM-1 (TRIF) pathway in myeloid dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:252-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, TICAM-1 in mDCs critically facilitated mDC-NK contact and activation of antitumor NK, resulting in the regression of low MHC-expressing tumors. ..
  15. Sawaki J, Tsutsui H, Hayashi N, Yasuda K, Akira S, Tanizawa T, et al. Type 1 cytokine/chemokine production by mouse NK cells following activation of their TLR/MyD88-mediated pathways. Int Immunol. 2007;19:311-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, NK cells, like T cells, induce orchestrated immune responses in collaboration with macrophages to show potent host defense effects during early infectious phase. ..
  16. Cunningham C, Campion S, Teeling J, Felton L, Perry V. The sickness behaviour and CNS inflammatory mediator profile induced by systemic challenge of mice with synthetic double-stranded RNA (poly I:C). Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21:490-502 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate clear CNS effects of peripheral TLR3 stimulation and will be useful in studying aspects of the effects of systemic viral infection on brain function in both normal and pathological situations. ..
  17. Touil T, Fitzgerald D, Zhang G, Rostami A, Gran B. Cutting Edge: TLR3 stimulation suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inducing endogenous IFN-beta. J Immunol. 2006;177:7505-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that a preferential activation of the MyD88-independent, type I IFN-inducing TLR pathway has immunoregulatory potential in this organ-specific autoimmune disease. ..
  18. Vijay Kumar M, Wu H, Aitken J, Kolachala V, Neish A, Sitaraman S, et al. Activation of toll-like receptor 3 protects against DSS-induced acute colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007;13:856-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, this viral RNA analog, which is under clinical trials for other inflammatory disorders (e.g., lupus), may also have therapeutic value for inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  19. Begon E, Michel L, Flageul B, Beaudoin I, Jean Louis F, Bachelez H, et al. Expression, subcellular localization and cytokinic modulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in normal human keratinocytes: TLR2 up-regulation in psoriatic skin. Eur J Dermatol. 2007;17:497-506 pubmed
    ..TLR2 over-expression in psoriatic skin provides new insights into TLR implication in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, through inappropriate stimulation by infectious or endogen ligands. ..
  20. Chew T, Noyce R, Collins S, Hancock M, Mossman K. Characterization of the interferon regulatory factor 3-mediated antiviral response in a cell line deficient for IFN production. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations further characterize the permissive nature of Vero cells to viral infection, and highlight the crucial involvement of IRF-3 in the innate antiviral response. ..
  21. Garrett S, Fitzgerald M, Sullivan K. LPS and poly I:C induce chromatin modifications at a novel upstream region of the IL-23 p19 promoter. Inflammation. 2008;31:235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that one of the mechanisms regulating IL-23 expression is the regulation of histone modifications at this distal upstream region of the promoter. ..
  22. Han F, Wang X, Yao C, Wang Z. Molecular characterization of Ran gene up-regulated in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) immunity. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;29:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that LycRan might play an important role in large yellow croaker defense against the pathogen infection. Our study, therefore, might provide a clue to elucidate the large yellow croaker innate immunity. ..
  23. Hardenberg G, Planelles L, Schwarte C, van Bostelen L, Le Huong T, Hahne M, et al. Specific TLR ligands regulate APRIL secretion by dendritic cells in a PKR-dependent manner. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:2900-11 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the specific induction of APRIL by CpG and poly I:C, and the signal integration by PKR, are regulated by translational modification and hint at a role for APRIL in the TI B cell response to viral infections. ..
  24. Berghaus L, Moore J, Hurley D, Vandenplas M, Fortes B, Wolfert M, et al. Innate immune responses of primary murine macrophage-lineage cells and RAW 264.7 cells to ligands of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;33:443-54 pubmed publisher
    ..7 cells to those of other primary macrophage-lineage cells, primarily because phenotype and function of the former cells may change with continuous culture. ..
  25. Nair P, O Donnell C, Janasek K, Sajduk M, Smith E, Golden J, et al. Lipopolysacchride-treated mammary carcinomas secrete proinflammatory chemokines and exhibit reduced growth rates in vivo, but not in vitro. Immunol Invest. 2009;38:730-48 pubmed publisher
  26. Lim D, Narasimhan S, Michaylira C, Wang M. TLR3-mediated NF-{kappa}B signaling in human esophageal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G1172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate for the first time that TLR3 is highly functional in the human esophageal epithelium and that TLR3-mediated NF-kappaB signaling may play an important regulatory role in esophageal epithelial homeostasis. ..
  27. Wen Yue X, Xing xiang W, Jie Q, Jian Hua D, Fu Sheng H. Plasmodium yoelii: influence of immune modulators on the development of the liver stage. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:254-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggests that sporozoite development into its exoerythrocytic form may be associated with Kupffer cell functional status. Immune modulation of Kupffer cells could be a promising strategy to prevent malaria parasite infection. ..
  28. Meyer U, Murray P, Urwyler A, Yee B, Schedlowski M, Feldon J. Adult behavioral and pharmacological dysfunctions following disruption of the fetal brain balance between pro-inflammatory and IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory signaling. Mol Psychiatry. 2008;13:208-21 pubmed
    ..Hence, shifts of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine classes may be a critical determinant of the final impact on neurodevelopment following early life infection or innate immune imbalances. ..
  29. Tamassia N, Le Moigne V, Rossato M, Donini M, McCartney S, Calzetti F, et al. Activation of an immunoregulatory and antiviral gene expression program in poly(I:C)-transfected human neutrophils. J Immunol. 2008;181:6563-73 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that neutrophils are able to activate antiviral responses via helicase recognition, thus acting at the frontline of immunity against viruses. ..
  30. Scaglione B, Salerno E, Gala K, Pan M, Langer J, Mostowski H, et al. Regulatory T cells as central regulators of both autoimmunity and B cell malignancy in New Zealand Black mice. J Autoimmun. 2009;32:14-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that while high levels of Tregs found in NZB mice might suppress a more severe autoimmune disease, they may also contribute to the development of the B cell malignancy. ..
  31. Hansdottir S, Monick M, Hinde S, Lovan N, Look D, Hunninghake G. Respiratory epithelial cells convert inactive vitamin D to its active form: potential effects on host defense. J Immunol. 2008;181:7090-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest a novel mechanism by which local conversion of inactive to active vitamin D alters immune function in the lung. ..
  32. Kanda T, Steele R, Ray R, Ray R. Hepatitis C virus infection induces the beta interferon signaling pathway in immortalized human hepatocytes. J Virol. 2007;81:12375-81 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggested that HCV infection in IHH induces the IFN signaling pathway, which corroborates observations from natural HCV infection in humans. ..
  33. Seppola M, Larsen A, Steiro K, Robertsen B, Jensen I. Characterisation and expression analysis of the interleukin genes, IL-1beta, IL-8 and IL-10, in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Mol Immunol. 2008;45:887-97 pubmed
    ..Along with the identification of important promoter regulatory motives, these results provide tools for studying inflammatory responses in cod. ..
  34. Noga O, Peiser M, Altenähr M, Knieling H, Wanner R, Hanf G, et al. Differential activation of dendritic cells by nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37:1701-8 pubmed
    ..These cells then may initiate inflammatory responses based on allergic sensitization releasing preferred cytokines inducing tolerance or a T-helper type 2 response. ..
  35. Burke S, Issekutz T, Mohan K, Lee P, Shmulevitz M, Marshall J. Human mast cell activation with virus-associated stimuli leads to the selective chemotaxis of natural killer cells by a CXCL8-dependent mechanism. Blood. 2008;111:5467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a novel role for mast cells in the recruitment of human NK cells to sites of early viral infection via CXCL8. ..
  36. Grossmann C, Tenbusch M, Nchinda G, Temchura V, Nabi G, Stone G, et al. Enhancement of the priming efficacy of DNA vaccines encoding dendritic cell-targeted antigens by synergistic toll-like receptor ligands. BMC Immunol. 2009;10:43 pubmed publisher
  37. Tumurkhuu G, Koide N, Dagvadorj J, Noman A, Khuda I, Naiki Y, et al. B1 cells produce nitric oxide in response to a series of toll-like receptor ligands. Cell Immunol. 2010;261:122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Physiologic peritoneal B1 cells also produced NO via the iNOS expression in response to LPS. The immunological significance of TLR ligands-induced NO production in B1 cells is discussed. ..
  38. Kim S, Kim H, Kim H, Lee K, Kim H. Generation of functionally mature dendritic cells from elutriated monocytes using polyinosinic : polycytidylic acid and soluble CD40 ligand for clinical application. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;154:365-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the protocol based on the combination of poly(I:C) and CD40L is more effective for the induction of clinical-grade DCs from elutriated monocytes than the standard cytokine cocktail. ..
  39. Démoulins T, Abdallah A, Kettaf N, Baron M, Gerarduzzi C, Gauchat D, et al. Reversible blockade of thymic output: an inherent part of TLR ligand-mediated immune response. J Immunol. 2008;181:6757-69 pubmed
  40. Koarai A, Sugiura H, Yanagisawa S, Ichikawa T, Minakata Y, Matsunaga K, et al. Oxidative stress enhances toll-like receptor 3 response to double-stranded RNA in airway epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:651-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of this pathway may be a therapeutic target for viral-induced exacerbations of COPD. ..
  41. Dugan J, Albor A, David L, Fowlkes J, Blackledge M, Martin T, et al. Nucleotide oligomerization domain-2 interacts with 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase type 2 and enhances RNase-L function in THP-1 cells. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate connectivity in pathways involved in innate immunity to bacteria and viruses and suggest a regulatory role whereby NOD2 enhances the function of RNase-L. ..
  42. Zhou Y, Ye L, Wan Q, Zhou L, Wang X, Li J, et al. Activation of Toll-like receptors inhibits herpes simplex virus-1 infection of human neuronal cells. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:2916-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that human neuronal cells possess intracellular TLR-mediated innate immune protection against HSV-1 infection. ..
  43. Seya T, Matsumoto M. The extrinsic RNA-sensing pathway for adjuvant immunotherapy of cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009;58:1175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we focus on the potential role of dsRNA in modulating the inflammatory milieu around mDCs and tumor-associated antigens to drive specific cellular effectors against the tumor. ..
  44. Lauer M, Fulop C, Mukhopadhyay D, COMHAIR S, Erzurum S, Hascall V. Airway smooth muscle cells synthesize hyaluronan cable structures independent of inter-alpha-inhibitor heavy chain attachment. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, if hyaluronan cables derived from MASM and HASM cells are substituted with HCs, the amount of substitution is significantly below the limit of detection when compared with COC extracts of similar hyaluronan mass. ..
  45. Wornle M, Sauter M, Kastenmüller K, Ribeiro A, Mussack T, Ladurner R, et al. Role of toll-like receptor 3, RIG-I, and MDA5 in the expression of mesothelial IL-8 induced by viral RNA. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;160:1179-87 pubmed publisher
  46. Rhule A, Rase B, Smith J, Shepherd D. Toll-like receptor ligand-induced activation of murine DC2.4 cells is attenuated by Panax notoginseng. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;116:179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..4 cells than ginsenoside Rb1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that notoginseng inhibits the production of specific inflammatory molecules and innate immune responsiveness by DCs following TLR activation. ..
  47. Poulin L, Salio M, Griessinger E, Anjos Afonso F, Craciun L, Chen J, et al. Characterization of human DNGR-1+ BDCA3+ leukocytes as putative equivalents of mouse CD8alpha+ dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The characterization of human DNGR-1+ BDCA3hi DCs and the ability to grow them in vitro opens the door for exploiting this subset in immunotherapy...
  48. Schuurhuis D, Lesterhuis W, Kramer M, Looman M, van Hout Kuijer M, Schreibelt G, et al. Polyinosinic polycytidylic acid prevents efficient antigen expression after mRNA electroporation of clinical grade dendritic cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009;58:1109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data show that electroporation of mature DC with TAA-encoding mRNA is attractive for use in DC vaccination protocols in cancer patients, but protein expression should be tested for each maturation cocktail. ..
  49. Zheng X, Bian F, Ma P, de Paiva C, Stern M, Pflugfelder S, et al. Induction of Th17 differentiation by corneal epithelial-derived cytokines. J Cell Physiol. 2010;222:95-102 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate for the first time that Th17 differentiation can be promoted by cytokines produced by corneal epithelium that are exposed to hyperosmotic, microbial, and inflammatory stimuli. ..
  50. Ichinohe T, Tamura S, Kawaguchi A, Ninomiya A, Imai M, Itamura S, et al. Cross-protection against H5N1 influenza virus infection is afforded by intranasal inoculation with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1313-20 pubmed
  51. Ebihara T, Masuda H, Akazawa T, Shingai M, Kikuta H, Ariga T, et al. Induction of NKG2D ligands on human dendritic cells by TLR ligand stimulation and RNA virus infection. Int Immunol. 2007;19:1145-55 pubmed
    ..Hence, the results reflect the important role of NKG2DLs on human mDCs in mDC-mediated NK cell activation. ..
  52. Ito H, Smith S, Hsiao E, Patterson P. Maternal immune activation alters nonspatial information processing in the hippocampus of the adult offspring. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:930-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that altered processing of object-related information may be part of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia-like cognitive behaviors. ..
  53. Schlosser E, Mueller M, Fischer S, Basta S, Busch D, Gander B, et al. TLR ligands and antigen need to be coencapsulated into the same biodegradable microsphere for the generation of potent cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Vaccine. 2008;26:1626-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, coencapsulation of adjuvant and antigen is an important paradigm for the generation of potent CTL responses. ..