poly i


Summary: A group of inosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each inosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.

Top Publications

  1. Finger A, Bisoffi M, Wetterwald A, Gautschi E, Hohenfeld U, Klima I, et al. Scavenger receptor block as strategy for the identification of bone marrow homing phages by panning in vivo random peptide phage displayed libraries. J Immunol Methods. 2002;264:173-86 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, this panning strategy in vivo may be useful for the identification of targeting motifs specific for cells located in the extravascular space of various tissues. ..
  2. Haisma H, Kamps J, Kamps G, Plantinga J, Rots M, Bellu A. Polyinosinic acid enhances delivery of adenovirus vectors in vivo by preventing sequestration in liver macrophages. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1097-105 pubmed publisher
    ..In systemic gene-therapy applications, this will have great impact on the development of targeted adenoviral vectors. ..
  3. Campa V, Iglesias J, Carcedo M, Rodriguez R, Riera J, Ramos S, et al. Polyinosinic acid induces TNF and NO production as well as NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcriptional activation in the monocytemacrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Inflamm Res. 2005;54:328-37 pubmed
    This study evaluates the poly inosinic acid (poly I)-induced activation in the murine monocytemacrophage cell line RAW 264.7, which led to an inflammatory phenotype. RAW 264.7, and WEHI 164 cell lines were used...
  4. Shimaoka T, Kume N, Minami M, Hayashida K, Sawamura T, Kita T, et al. LOX-1 supports adhesion of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. J Immunol. 2001;166:5108-14 pubmed
    ..aureus and E. coli, in a mechanism similar to that of class A scavenger receptors; however, other unknown molecules may also be involved in the adhesion of E. coli to BAEC, which is enhanced by poly(I). ..
  5. Buckheit R, Lackman Smith C, Snow M, Halliday S, White E, Ross L, et al. PMTI, a broadly active unusual single-stranded polyribonucleotide, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus replication by multiple mechanisms. Antivir Chem Chemother. 1999;10:23-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the homopolyribonucleotide PMTI blocks HIV replication in human cells at its earliest stages by multiple mechanisms, inhibition of virus entry and inhibition of RT. ..
  6. Li Korotky H, Kelly L, Piltcher O, Hebda P, Doyle W. Evaluation of microbial RNA extractions from Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Microbiol Methods. 2007;68:342-8 pubmed
    ..homogenization in TRIZOL was the most efficient for releasing microbial RNA, and addition of polyinosinic acid (Poly I) as an RNA carrier increased the assay sensitivity to 10(2) colony forming units when detected by RT-PCR ..
  7. Chen J, You Y, Chen J, Huang T, Kuo C. Organization and promoter analysis of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) interferon gene. DNA Cell Biol. 2005;24:641-50 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the interferon promoter is active in a tissue-specific manner, and suggest that the interferon promoter plays an important role in virus resistance during teleost growth. ..
  8. Liu Y, Tong C, Dispenzieri A, Federspiel M, Russell S, Peng K. Polyinosinic acid decreases sequestration and improves systemic therapy of measles virus. Cancer Gene Ther. 2012;19:202-11 pubmed publisher
    ..1 and myeloma KAS6/1 xenografts in mice. Higher gene expression and improved control of tumor growth was noted early post therapy. Based on these results, incorporation of MPS blockade into MV treatment regimens is warranted. ..
  9. Gieseler R, Marquitan G, Schlattjan M, Sowa J, Bechmann L, Timm J, et al. Hepatocyte apoptotic bodies encasing nonstructural HCV proteins amplify hepatic stellate cell activation: implications for chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:760-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that AB uptake stimulates HSCs and indicate that HCV infection leads to amplified fibrogenic mRNA expression and enhanced HSC activation. ..

More Information


  1. Sorokin V, Valeev V, Usenko E, Andrus E, Blagoĭ I. [The nature of different influence of Cd2+ ions on the conformation of three-stranded polyU-polyA-polyU and polyI-polyA-polyI in aqueous solution]. Biofizika. 2007;52:1017-29 pubmed
    ..Cd2+ ions on the conformational equilibrium of three-stranded (A21, A2U) and single-stranded (poly U, poly A and poly I) polynucleotides in aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M Na+ (pH 7)...
  2. Bruneau N, Richard S, Silvy F, Verine A, Lombardo D. Lectin-like Ox-LDL receptor is expressed in human INT-407 intestinal cells: involvement in the transcytosis of pancreatic bile salt-dependent lipase. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:2861-75 pubmed
    ..Globally, these data support the view that LOX-1 could be an intestinal receptor for BSDL, which is implicated in the transcytosis of this enzyme throughout Int407 cells. ..
  3. Murgas P, Godoy B, von Bernhardi R. A? potentiates inflammatory activation of glial cells induced by scavenger receptor ligands and inflammatory mediators in culture. Neurotox Res. 2012;22:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..and NF-?B signaling pathways by Western blot, in primary rat glial cultures exposed to SR ligands (fucoidan and Poly I), LPS + IFN? (LI), and A?...
  4. Sorokin V, Valeev V, Andrus E, Gladchenko G, Blagoi Y. Na+ and Mg2+ ion effect on the stability of a poly I . poly A . poly I triple helix. Macromol Biosci. 2004;4:532-8 pubmed
    ..UV spectroscopy was used to study the temperature dependence of the conformational equilibrium in aqueous poly I . poly A . poly I (A2I) solutions containing Na+ (0.1-2 M) and Mg2+ (10(-5)-0.005 M) ions...
  5. Kapinsky M, Torzewski M, Büchler C, Duong C, Rothe G, Schmitz G. Enzymatically degraded LDL preferentially binds to CD14(high) CD16(+) monocytes and induces foam cell formation mediated only in part by the class B scavenger-receptor CD36. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21:1004-10 pubmed
  6. Fu D, Wu M, Zhang J, Du M, Yang S, Hammad S, et al. Mechanisms of modified LDL-induced pericyte loss and retinal injury in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetologia. 2012;55:3128-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous studies we have shown that extravasated, modified LDL is associated with pericyte loss, an early feature of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Here we sought to determine detailed mechanisms of this LDL-induced pericyte loss...
  7. Patel P, Giljohann D, Daniel W, Zheng D, Prigodich A, Mirkin C. Scavenger receptors mediate cellular uptake of polyvalent oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles. Bioconjug Chem. 2010;21:2250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyvalent nanoparticles functionalized with siRNA are shown to enter through the same pathway. Thus, scavenger receptors are required for cellular uptake of polyvalent oligonucleotide functionalized nanoparticles. ..
  8. Raynal I, Prigent P, Peyramaure S, Najid A, Rebuzzi C, Corot C. Macrophage endocytosis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: mechanisms and comparison of ferumoxides and ferumoxtran-10. Invest Radiol. 2004;39:56-63 pubmed
    ..The comparison between Ferumoxides and Ferumoxtran-10 confirms that macrophage uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles depends mainly on the size of these contrast agents. ..
  9. Saheki A, Fukui Y, Hoshi Y, Fukui H, Seki J, Tamai I. Influence of preparation method on polynucleotide conformation and pharmacological activity of lipoplex. Int J Pharm. 2011;406:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that polynucleotide conformation in lipoplex is markedly influenced by the preparation method, and the polynucleotide conformation in lipoplex has a substantial effect on pharmacological activity. ..
  10. Yakovlev G, Mitkevich V, Struminskaya N, Varlamov V, Makarov A. Low molecular weight chitosan is an efficient inhibitor of ribonucleases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:584-8 pubmed
    ..14 M. The preferential contribution to the chitosan complex formation with RNases is due to establishment of 5-6 ion pairs. The results of this work show that polycations may efficiently inhibit ribonuclease activities. ..
  11. Minchin R, Carpenter D, Orr R. Polyinosinic acid and polycationic liposomes attenuate the hepatic clearance of circulating plasmid DNA. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;296:1006-12 pubmed
    ..This study shows that pharmacological manipulation of the uptake and degradation of DNA can alter its distribution and clearance in vivo. These results may be useful in optimizing gene delivery procedures for in vivo gene therapy. ..
  12. Petrovic A, Polavarapu P. Quadruplex structure of polyriboinosinic acid: dependence on alkali metal ion concentration, pH and temperature. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:2255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that the quadruplex structure of polyI in the film state resists heat-induced disruptions. ..
  13. Lendvai G, Monazzam A, Velikyan I, Eriksson B, Josephsson R, Langstrom B, et al. Non-hybridization saturable mechanisms play a role in the uptake of (68)Ga-Labeled LNA-DNA mixmer antisense oligonucleotides in rats. Oligonucleotides. 2009;19:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that these processes may be sequence-dependent suggests that proof of in vivo hybridization through imaging may not be obtained by only comparing sense and antisense sequences and proving dose-dependency. ..
  14. Yoshinaga T, Yasuda K, Ogawa Y, Takakura Y. Efficient uptake and rapid degradation of plasmid DNA by murine dendritic cells via a specific mechanism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:389-94 pubmed
    ..These findings may suggest the important role of the dendritic cells in the innate immune system for host defense. ..
  15. Mykhaĭlyk I, Prokopova K, Ostapchenko L, Kucherenko M. [Activity of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase in rat lymphoid cells under the effect of X-ray irradiation]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2003;75:49-53 pubmed
    ..It was shown that the combined action of radiation and interferon inducers causes the stimulation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase activity. ..
  16. Gimenez A, Lima L, Françoso K, Denapoli P, Panatieri R, Bargieri D, et al. Vaccine Containing the Three Allelic Variants of the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Antigen Induces Protection in Mice after Challenge with a Transgenic Rodent Malaria Parasite. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1275 pubmed publisher
    ..pastoris. These recombinant proteins are promising candidates for clinical trials aiming to develop a multiallele vaccine against P. vivax malaria...
  17. Suc I, Brunet S, Mitchell G, Rivard G, Levy E. Oxidative tyrosylation of high density lipoproteins impairs cholesterol efflux from mouse J774 macrophages: role of scavenger receptors, classes A and B. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:89-99 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the impaired capacity of HDL(T) in promoting cholesterol efflux from J774-AI was accompanied by diminished nCEH and enhanced recognition by SR-AI/II, which appears to involve the transport of cholesterol into cells. ..
  18. Rice P, Kelley J, Kogan G, Ensley H, Kalbfleisch J, Browder I, et al. Human monocyte scavenger receptors are pattern recognition receptors for (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:140-6 pubmed
    ..Polymer charge has a dramatic effect on the affinity of glucans with macrophage scavenger receptors. However, it is also clear that human monocyte scavenger receptors recognize the basic glucan structure independent of charge. ..
  19. Abdiryim T, Jamal R, Ubul A, Nurulla I. Solid-state synthesis of poly(3',4'-dimethoxy-2,2':5',2"- terthiophene): comparison with poly(terthiophene) and poly(3',4'-ethylenedioxy-2,2':5',2"- terthiophene). Molecules. 2012;17:8647-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the poly(TMT) and poly(TT) are mostly made up of dimers with a small amount of higher molecular weight components. ..
  20. Minami S, Sun B, Popat K, Kauppinen T, Pleiss M, Zhou Y, et al. Selective targeting of microglia by quantum dots. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:22 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that QDs can be used to specifically label and modulate microglia in primary cortical cultures and in brain and may allow for the selective delivery of therapeutic agents to these cells. ..
  21. Haberzettl P, Schins R, Höhr D, Wilhelmi V, Borm P, Albrecht C. Impact of the FcgammaII-receptor on quartz uptake and inflammatory response by alveolar macrophages. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L1137-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate a major role of FcgammaII-R and its downstream signaling cascade in the phagocytosis of quartz particles in AM as well as in the associated generation and release of inflammatory mediators...
  22. Yamasaki Y, Sumimoto K, Nishikawa M, Yamashita F, Yamaoka K, Hashida M, et al. Pharmacokinetic analysis of in vivo disposition of succinylated proteins targeted to liver nonparenchymal cells via scavenger receptors: importance of molecular size and negative charge density for in vivo recognition by receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301:467-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, the present study has provided useful basic information for a therapeutic strategy and the molecular design of succinylated proteins for use as drug carriers and therapeutic agents per se for SR-mediated targeting in vivo. ..
  23. Moulay G, Boutin S, Masurier C, Scherman D, Kichler A. Polymers for improving the in vivo transduction efficiency of AAV2 vectors. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15576 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the pre-injection of polymers can improve the overall transduction efficiency of systemically administered AAV2 and reduce the humoral response against the capsid proteins. ..
  24. Kamps J, Morselt H, Swart P, Meijer D, Scherphof G. Massive targeting of liposomes, surface-modified with anionized albumins, to hepatic endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11681-5 pubmed
    ..Aco-HSA liposomes thus may represent an attractive drug carrier system for treatment of various liver or liver endothelium-associated disorders. ..
  25. Sastry M, Zhang B, Chen M, Joyce M, Kong W, Chuang G, et al. Adjuvants and the vaccine response to the DS-Cav1-stabilized fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186854 pubmed publisher
    ..The vaccine response to pre-F-stabilized RSV F is augmented by adjuvant, but the degree of adjuvant-induced enhancement appears to be both context-dependent and species-specific...
  26. Wang X, Greilberger J, Ledinski G, Kager G, Jurgens G. Binding and uptake of differently oxidized low density lipoprotein in mouse peritoneal macrophages and THP-1 macrophages: involvement of negative charges as well as oxidation-specific epitopes. J Cell Biochem. 2001;81:557-69 pubmed
    ..Both, the negative charge and the oxidation-specific epitopes of oxLDL are involved in these processes. ..
  27. Sulahian T, Imrich A, Deloid G, Winkler A, Kobzik L. Signaling pathways required for macrophage scavenger receptor-mediated phagocytosis: analysis by scanning cytometry. Respir Res. 2008;9:59 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate the utility of scanning cytometry for the analysis of phagocytosis and that phagocytosis of unopsonized particles has both shared and distinct features when compared to opsonin-mediated phagocytosis. ..
  28. Kruth H, Zhang W, Skarlatos S, Chao F. Apolipoprotein B stimulates formation of monocyte-macrophage surface-connected compartments and mediates uptake of low density lipoprotein-derived liposomes into these compartments. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:7495-500 pubmed
  29. Lysko P, Weinstock J, Webb C, Brawner M, Elshourbagy N. Identification of a small-molecule, nonpeptide macrophage scavenger receptor antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;289:1277-85 pubmed
    ..Utilization of this permanently transfected HEK 293 cell line will allow the identification of more potent macrophage scavenger receptor antagonists, so that their utility as therapeutics for atherosclerosis can be determined. ..
  30. Smith J, Xu Z, Byrnes A. A quantitative assay for measuring clearance of adenovirus vectors by Kupffer cells. J Virol Methods. 2008;147:54-60 pubmed
    ..As an example of the utility of this method, it was found that pre-injecting mice with polyinosinic acid reduces accumulation of Ad in Kupffer cells by approximately 90%. ..
  31. Adrian J, Kamps J, Scherphof G, Meijer D, van Loenen Weemaes A, Reker Smit C, et al. A novel lipid-based drug carrier targeted to the non-parenchymal cells, including hepatic stellate cells, in the fibrotic livers of bile duct ligated rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1768:1430-9 pubmed
    ..M6P receptors and scavenger receptors are involved in the cellular recognition of these liposomes, allowing multiple pharmacological interference in different pathways involved in the fibrosis. ..
  32. Tasneem S, Ali R. Binding of SLE autoantibodies to native poly(I), ROS-poly(I) and native DNA: a comparative study. J Autoimmun. 2001;17:199-205 pubmed
    ..The data suggested that hydroxyl radical-modified nucleic acids like RNA and DNA might be agent for the induction of circulating SLE anti-DNA autoantibodies. ..
  33. Jang S, Ohtani K, Fukuoh A, Yoshizaki T, Fukuda M, Motomura W, et al. Scavenger receptor collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) predominantly mediates zymosan phagocytosis by human vascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:3956-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we confirmed that CL-P1 is expressed in human and murine vascular endothelial layers. Our results demonstrated that CL-P1 predominantly mediated phagocytosis for fungi in vascular endothelia. ..
  34. Gardner T, Chen Q, Jin Y, Ajuebor M. Toll-like receptor 3 ligand dampens liver inflammation by stimulating Valpha 14 invariant natural killer T cells to negatively regulate gammadeltaT cells. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1779-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of polyriboinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a replication-competent viral double-stranded RNA mimic and a specific agonist that recognizes the cellular ..
  35. Kuwahara S, Mannering G. Effects of interferon, polyriboinosinic acid--polyribocytidilic acid and steroids on the cytochrome P450 system of cultured primary mouse hepatocytes. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1993;72:199-204 pubmed
    ..These studies emphasize the necessity of maintaining an acceptable level of homeostasis in cultured hepatocytes if one is to derive meaningful interpretations of certain biological events. ..
  36. Przewlocki G, Lipecka J, Edelman A, Przykorska A. New sequence-specific human ribonuclease: purification and properties. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:4047-55 pubmed
    ..Our results show that RNase T84 is a new sequence-specific enzyme whose gene is abundantly expressed in human colon carcinoma cell lines. ..
  37. Tasneem S, Ali R. Antigenicity of poly(I) and ROS-poly(I) and their recognition of human anti-DNA autoantibodies. Immunol Invest. 2001;30:335-45 pubmed
    ..Recognition of both poly(I) and ROS-poly(I) by human SLE anti-DNA autoantibodies was observed. The possible significance of these findings in the etiology of SLE has been discussed. ..
  38. van Oosten M, van Amersfoort E, van Berkel T, Kuiper J. Scavenger receptor-like receptors for the binding of lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid to liver endothelial and Kupffer cells. J Endotoxin Res. 2001;7:381-4 pubmed
    ..A main component in the catabolism of LTA is the interaction of LTA with plasma lipoproteins, which limit the uptake of LTA by tissues and extend the plasma half-life of LTA. ..
  39. Giacometti A. Structure-function relationship of three triple-helical nucleic acids. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2001;18:671-6 pubmed
  40. Chandrasekaran R, Giacometti A, Arnott S. Structure of poly (I).poly (A).poly (I). J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2000;17:1035-45 pubmed
    ..Its compact, grooveless cylindrical shape is consistent with the lack of lateral organization. ..
  41. Kamps J, Morselt H, Scherphof G. Uptake of liposomes containing phosphatidylserine by liver cells in vivo and by sinusoidal liver cells in primary culture: in vivo-in vitro differences. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;256:57-62 pubmed
    ..In vivo the phosphatidylserine head groups may be masked by plasma proteins adsorbed to the liposomal surface, thus preventing recognition by receptors, which are intrinsically able to recognize phosphatidylserine. ..
  42. Haisma H, Boesjes M, Beerens A, van der Strate B, Curiel D, Plüddemann A, et al. Scavenger receptor A: a new route for adenovirus 5. Mol Pharm. 2009;6:366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of adenoviral SR-A uptake can be utilized in gene therapy applications to increase its efficiency and efficacy...
  43. Yakovlev G, Mitkevich V, Shaw K, Trevino S, Newsom S, Pace C, et al. Contribution of active site residues to the activity and thermal stability of ribonuclease Sa. Protein Sci. 2003;12:2367-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, the active site residues in the ribonuclease Sa make different contributions to the stability. ..
  44. Jo Chitester B, Walz F. Kinetic studies of guanine recognition and a phosphate group subsite on ribonuclease T1 using substitution mutants at Glu46 and Lys41. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;406:73-7 pubmed
    ..Subsite interactions for ribonucleases are shown to mainly increase k(cat) and result in an attenuated pH dependence of k(cat)/K(M). ..
  45. Lei Z, Zhang Z, Jing Q, Qin Y, Pei G, Cao B, et al. OxLDL upregulates CXCR2 expression in monocytes via scavenger receptors and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Cardiovasc Res. 2002;53:524-32 pubmed
    ..This observation demonstrated that oxLDL upregulates CXCR2 expression in monocytes and promotes the chemotaxis and adhesion of monocytes. The effect of oxLDL is mediated through scavenger receptor and p38 MAPK activation. ..
  46. Webster S, Galvan M, Ferran E, Garzon Rodriguez W, Glabe C, Tenner A. Antibody-mediated phagocytosis of the amyloid beta-peptide in microglia is differentially modulated by C1q. J Immunol. 2001;166:7496-503 pubmed
  47. Mitkevich V, Schulga A, Trofimov A, Dorovatovskii P, Goncharuk D, Tkach E, et al. Structure and functional studies of the ribonuclease binase Glu43Ala/Phe81Ala mutant. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2013;69:991-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to this, the new mutant form is not dimeric in the crystal. The catalytic efficiency of the mutant form is increased 1.7-fold and its cytotoxic properties are enhanced compared with the wild-type enzyme. ..
  48. Juca M, Aoyama H. 2'-Fluoropolynucleotide-directed reverse transcriptase reactions. Effect of homologous polynucleotides. J Enzyme Inhib. 1995;8:261-5 pubmed
  49. Marshall Clarke S, Downes J, Haga I, Bowie A, Borrow P, Pennock J, et al. Polyinosinic acid is a ligand for toll-like receptor 3. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:24759-66 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that TLR3 is able to sense both single-stranded RNA and dsRNA. ..
  50. van Dijk R, Montenegro Miranda P, Riviere C, Schilderink R, ten Bloemendaal L, van Gorp J, et al. Polyinosinic acid blocks adeno-associated virus macrophage endocytosis in vitro and enhances adeno-associated virus liver-directed gene therapy in vivo. Hum Gene Ther. 2013;24:807-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study shows that SR-A mediates the endocytosis of AAV8 in vitro and in vivo and that blocking this receptor can improve the efficacy of AAV-mediated liver-directed gene therapy. ..
  51. Knights A, Zaniou A, Rees R, Pawelec G, Muller L. Prediction of an HLA-DR-binding peptide derived from Wilms' tumour 1 protein and demonstration of in vitro immunogenicity of WT1(124-138)-pulsed dendritic cells generated according to an optimised protocol. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2002;51:271-81 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the WT1 protein may yield epitopes immunogenic to CD4 as well as CD8 T cells, and therefore constitute a novel potential target for specific immunotherapy. ..
  52. Rothkopf C, Fahr A, Fricker G, Scherphof G, Kamps J. Uptake of phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in the serum-free perfused rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1668:10-6 pubmed
    ..The present results emphasize that the high in vitro endothelial cell uptake in the absence of serum from earlier observations was not an artifact induced by the cell isolation procedure. ..
  53. Yang J, Croniger C, Lekstrom Himes J, Zhang P, Fenyus M, Tenen D, et al. Metabolic response of mice to a postnatal ablation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38689-99 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that C/EBPalpha is essential for the survival of animals during postnatal life and that its ablation leads to distinct biphasic change in metabolic processes. ..