Summary: POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS composed of three fused BENZENE rings.

Top Publications

  1. Teng F, Beray Berthat V, Coqueran B, Lesbats C, Kuntz M, Palmier B, et al. Prevention of rt-PA induced blood-brain barrier component degradation by the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitor PJ34 after ischemic stroke in mice. Exp Neurol. 2013;248:416-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, co-treatment with a PARP inhibitor seems to be a promising strategy to reduce rt-PA-induced vascular toxicity after stroke. ..
  2. Banerjee S, Thayanithy V, Sangwan V, Mackenzie T, Saluja A, Subramanian S. Minnelide reduces tumor burden in preclinical models of osteosarcoma. Cancer Lett. 2013;335:412-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Triptolide/Minnelide effectively downregulated the levels of pro-survival proteins such as heat shock proteins, cMYC, survivin and targets the NF-?B pathway. ..
  3. Huang M, Zhang H, Liu T, Tian D, Gu L, Zhou M. Triptolide inhibits MDM2 and induces apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells through a p53-independent pathway. Mol Cancer Ther. 2013;12:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that increased inhibition of XIAP due to downregulation of MDM2 may play a critical role in triptolide-induced apoptosis in MDM2-overexpressing cancers. ..
  4. Li H, Hui L, Xu W, Shen H, Chen Q, Long L, et al. Triptolide modulates the sensitivity of K562/A02 cells to adriamycin by regulating miR-21 expression. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1233-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicated that triptolide modulates the sensitivity of K562/A02 cells to adriamycin by regulating miR-21 expression. Triptolide inhibited miR-21 expression and enhanced PTEN levels in K562/A02 cells. ..
  5. Chen F, Liu Y, Wang S, Guo X, Shi P, Wang W, et al. Triptolide, a Chinese herbal extract, enhances drug sensitivity of resistant myeloid leukemia cell lines through downregulation of HIF-1? and Nrf2. Pharmacogenomics. 2013;14:1305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..TPL is able to enhance drug sensitivity of resistant myeloid leukemia cell lines through downregulation of HIF-1? and Nrf2. ..
  6. Park S, Kim Y. Triptolide induces apoptosis of PMA-treated THP-1 cells through activation of caspases, inhibition of NF-?B and activation of MAPKs. Int J Oncol. 2013;43:1169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that triptolide inhibits the growth of THP-1 cells by inducing apoptosis through caspase activation and the mechanism involves NF-?B inhibition and the MAPK pathway. ..
  7. Krosch T, Sangwan V, Banerjee S, Mujumdar N, Dudeja V, Saluja A, et al. Triptolide-mediated cell death in neuroblastoma occurs by both apoptosis and autophagy pathways and results in inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activity. Am J Surg. 2013;205:387-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric malignancy with significant chemotherapeutic resistance. We assessed triptolide as a potential therapy...
  8. Zheng Y, Zhang W, Wang X. Triptolide with potential medicinal value for diseases of the central nervous system. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2013;19:76-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the potential therapeutic role of triptolide on CNS diseases, and discusses the structural features, potential modifications, and the other pharmacological activities of triptolide. ..
  9. Zhao H, Yang Z, Wang X, Zhang X, Wang M, Wang Y, et al. Triptolide inhibits ovarian cancer cell invasion by repression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 and 19 and upregulation of E-cadherin. Exp Mol Med. 2012;44:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that triptolide is a good candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer and reduction of metastasis. ..

More Information


  1. Wen L, Chen Y, Zeng L, Zhao F, Li R, Liu Y, et al. Triptolide induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of human multiple myeloma cells in vitro via altering expression of histone demethylase LSD1 and JMJD2B. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Triptolide potently inhibits the growth of MM cells via regulating the expression of histone demethylase LSD1 and JMJD2B, which lead to abnormal histone methylation. ..
  2. Liu L, Jiang Z, Liu J, Huang X, Wang T, Liu J, et al. Sex differences in subacute toxicity and hepatic microsomal metabolism of triptolide in rats. Toxicology. 2010;271:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggested that CYP3A2 made an important contribution to the sex-related metabolism of triptolide, which may result in the sex differences in triptolide toxicity. ..
  3. Xia Y, Mao J, Chen Y, Wang D, Cao L, Yao S, et al. Clinical outcomes in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis grade IIIa or IIIb. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26:1083-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results may also suggest that treatment with steroid may not alter the clinical outcome of such grade IIIa or IIIb patients...
  4. Wang Y, Lu J, He L, Yu Q. Triptolide (TPL) inhibits global transcription by inducing proteasome-dependent degradation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23993 pubmed publisher
  5. Zhu W, He S, Li Y, Qiu P, Shu M, Ou Y, et al. Anti-angiogenic activity of triptolide in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is mediated by targeting vascular endothelial and tumor cells. Vascul Pharmacol. 2010;52:46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The multicellular targets emphasize triptolide as a high-performance and potential angiogenesis inhibitor. ..
  6. Lu Y, Bao X, Sun T, Xu J, Zheng W, Shen P. Triptolide attenuate the oxidative stress induced by LPS/D-GalN in mice. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:1022-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that triptolide can effectively reduce the oxidative stress and partially rescue the damage in the liver induced by LPS/D-GalN. ..
  7. Liu J, Jiang Z, Xiao J, Zhang Y, Lin S, Duan W, et al. Effects of triptolide from Tripterygium wilfordii on ERalpha and p53 expression in two human breast cancer cell lines. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:1006-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that triptolide is much more sensitive to ERalpha-positive MCF-7 cells than to ERalpha-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, and the sensitivity is significantly associated with the ERalpha and p53 status...
  8. Hailong Ge -, Yujie Zhou -, Hanying Ma -, Lei Liu -, Xiaoli Liu -, Zhijian Wang -, et al. Effectiveness of triptolide-coated stent on decreasing inflammation and attenuation of intimal hyperplasia in a pig after coronary angioplasty. Angiology. 2011;62:265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Triptolide-coated stent showed the effect of preventing restenosis via inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia and anti-inflammation acts after coronary angioplasty. ..
  9. Jiang B, Zhang L, Wang Y, Li M, Wu W, Guan S, et al. Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate protects against cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1538-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have provided the considerable evidences that TSNIIA-SS is a protective agent against DXR-induced cardiac injury. ..
  10. Liu Q. Triptolide and its expanding multiple pharmacological functions. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, PG490-88 has been approved entry into Phase I clinical trial for treatment of prostate cancer in USA. This review will focus on these breakthrough findings of triptolide and its implications. ..
  11. Wu P, Liu K, Huang W, Ma C, Lin H, Yang J, et al. Triptolide induces apoptosis in human adrenal cancer NCI-H295 cells through a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:551-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that triptolide is able to induce apoptosis on NCI-H295 cells through the mitochondrial-dependent signal pathway. ..
  12. Turcotte D, Akhtar P, Bowerman M, Kiparissis Y, Brown R, Hodson P. Measuring the toxicity of alkyl-phenanthrenes to early life stages of medaka (Oryzias latipes) using partition-controlled delivery. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:487-95 pubmed publisher
    Alkyl-phenanthrenes are a class of compounds present in crude oil and toxic to developing fish...
  13. Zhou G, Hu Z, Fang H, Zhang F, Pan X, Chen X, et al. Biologic activity of triptolide in t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia cells. Leuk Res. 2011;35:214-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Triptolide downregulates p65 and inhibits the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B. Our data indicate that triptolide might be an effective agent for t(8;21) leukemia. ..
  14. Mujumdar N, Mackenzie T, Dudeja V, Chugh R, Antonoff M, Borja Cacho D, et al. Triptolide induces cell death in pancreatic cancer cells by apoptotic and autophagic pathways. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:598-608 pubmed publisher
  15. Jin Y, Kim C, Kim Y, Nizamutdinova I, Ha Y, Kim H, et al. Cryptotanshinone, a lipophilic compound of Salvia miltiorrriza root, inhibits TNF-alpha-induced expression of adhesion molecules in HUVEC and attenuates rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;614:91-7 pubmed publisher
  16. Fan G, Gao X, Wang H, Zhu Y, Zhang J, Hu L, et al. The anti-inflammatory activities of Tanshinone IIA, an active component of TCM, are mediated by estrogen receptor activation and inhibition of iNOS. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;113:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it could serve as a potential selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) to treat inflammation-associated neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases without increasing the risk of breast cancer. ..
  17. Kang D, Lee J, Oh D, Park S, Woo T, Kim M, et al. Triptolide-induced suppression of phospholipase D expression inhibits proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Exp Mol Med. 2009;41:678-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we demonstrate that triptolide suppresses the expression of PLD via inhibition of NFkappaB activation and then decreases cell proliferation. ..
  18. Li Z, Zhou Z, Miao Z, Lin L, Feng H, Tong L, et al. Design and synthesis of novel C14-hydroxyl substituted triptolide derivatives as potential selective antitumor agents. J Med Chem. 2009;52:5115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our study gives new insights into the structure-activity relationship of 1 and also produces a promising anticancer drug candidate with unique anticancer activities. ..
  19. Ahammed G, Yuan H, Ogweno J, Zhou Y, Xia X, Mao W, et al. Brassinosteroid alleviates phenanthrene and pyrene phytotoxicity by increasing detoxification activity and photosynthesis in tomato. Chemosphere. 2012;86:546-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that BR has an anti-stress effect on tomato seedlings contaminated with PHE or PYR and this effect is mainly attributed by increased detoxification activity. ..
  20. Zhang Y, Ma X. Triptolide inhibits IL-12/IL-23 expression in APCs via CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. J Immunol. 2010;184:3866-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides mechanistic insights into the immunomodulatory capacity of triptolide and has strong implications for its therapeutic applications in autoimmune diseases. ..
  21. Yang F, Zhuo L, Ananda S, Sun T, Li S, Liu L. Role of reactive oxygen species in triptolide-induced apoptosis of renal tubular cells and renal injury in rats. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2011;31:335-341 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that ROS plays a critical role in triptolide-induced apoptosis of renal tubular cells and renal injury. The protective administration of vitamin C may help alleviate triptolide-induced renal injury and nephrotoxicity. ..
  22. Hwang J, Lee S, Hong S, Han X, Lee C, Kang S, et al. Phenanthrenes from Dendrobium nobile and their inhibition of the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:3785-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the methanol extract of the stems of Dendrobium nobile yielded a new phenanthrene together with nine known phenanthrenes and three known bibenzyls...
  23. Wu C, Yang C, Lee Y, Chuang T, Wu P, Chao Y, et al. Tylophorine arrests carcinoma cells at G1 phase by downregulating cyclin A2 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;386:140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we are the first to report that the downregulated cyclin A2 plays a vital role in G1 arrest by tylophorine in carcinoma cells. ..
  24. Antonoff M, Chugh R, Borja Cacho D, Dudeja V, Clawson K, Skube S, et al. Triptolide therapy for neuroblastoma decreases cell viability in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Surgery. 2009;146:282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest that triptolide killed cells via apoptosis and in association with inhibition of Hsp-70 expression. Triptolide may provide a novel therapy for neuroblastoma. ..
  25. Mak D, Schober W, Chen W, Konopleva M, Cortes J, Kantarjian H, et al. Triptolide induces cell death independent of cellular responses to imatinib in blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia cells including quiescent CD34+ primitive progenitor cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:2509-16 pubmed publisher
  26. Vispé S, DeVries L, Creancier L, Besse J, Bréand S, Hobson D, et al. Triptolide is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase I and II-dependent transcription leading predominantly to down-regulation of short-lived mRNA. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:2780-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the data shed light on the effect of triptolide on transcription, along with its novel potential applications in cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia, which is in part driven by the aforementioned oncogenic factors. ..
  27. Sun L, Yan X, Liao X, Wen Y, Chong Z, Liang T. Interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L. Environ Pollut. 2011;159:3398-405 pubmed publisher
    ..vitatta in the co-exposure and application potential of P. vitatta in phytoremediation of arsenic and PAHs co-contamination...
  28. Kitzen J, de Jonge M, Lamers C, Eskens F, van der Biessen D, van Doorn L, et al. Phase I dose-escalation study of F60008, a novel apoptosis inducer, in patients with advanced solid tumours. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:1764-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacokinetic studies showed high inter-individual variability and rendered F60008 a far from optimal derivate of triptolide. ..
  29. Zhao F, Chen Y, Zeng L, Li R, Zeng R, Wen L, et al. Effects of triptolide on RIZ1 expression, proliferation, and apoptosis in multiple myeloma U266 cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010;31:733-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Triptolide increased the protein expression of RIZ1, inhibited the proliferation, and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in U266 cells. ..
  30. Antonoff M, Chugh R, Skube S, Dudeja V, Borja Cacho D, Clawson K, et al. Role of Hsp-70 in triptolide-mediated cell death of neuroblastoma. J Surg Res. 2010;163:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that Hsp-70 inhibition plays a significant role in triptolide-mediated neuroblastoma cell death. ..
  31. Wang Y, Gao W, Svitkin Y, Chen A, Cheng Y. DCB-3503, a tylophorine analog, inhibits protein synthesis through a novel mechanism. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11607 pubmed publisher
    ..Translation inhibitors with novel mechanism could complement current chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of human cancers and suppress the occurrence of drug resistance. ..
  32. He M, Huang Y, Wu L, Ge W, Shaw P, But P. Triptolide functions as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:266-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that antitumor action of triptolide is partly via inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by blocking 2 endothelial receptor-mediated signaling pathways, and triptolide can be a promising antiangiogenic agent. ..
  33. Fallahtafti S, Rantanen T, Brown R, Snieckus V, Hodson P. Toxicity of hydroxylated alkyl-phenanthrenes to the early life stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Aquat Toxicol. 2012;106-107:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzymatic metabolism of alkyl phenanthrenes generates ring and chain hydroxylated derivatives...
  34. Borja Cacho D, Yokoyama Y, Chugh R, Mujumdar N, Dudeja V, Clawson K, et al. TRAIL and triptolide: an effective combination that induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010;14:252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Pancreatic cancer is highly resistant to anti-death receptor therapy, but combined therapy with TRAIL and triptolide is an effective therapy that induces apoptotic cell death in pancreatic cancer cells. ..
  35. Luo Y, Shi C, Liao M. [Advance in the anti-tumor mechanism of triptolide]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:2024-6 pubmed
    ..The advance in the anti-tumor mechanism of triptolide is described in the following review. ..
  36. Meng H, Zhu L, Ni W, You L, Jin J, Qian W. Triptolide inhibits the proliferation of cells from lymphocytic leukemic cell lines in association with downregulation of NF-?B activity and miR-16-1*. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011;32:503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our in vitro studies suggest that TPL might be an effective therapeutic agent for treatment of T-cell lymphocytic leukemia and that its cytotoxic effects could be associated with inhibition of NF-?B and down-regulation of miR-16-1*. ..
  37. Kuo C, Chen B, Yu C, Weng C, Hsu M, Chen C, et al. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. J Biomed Sci. 2009;16:43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that denbinobin might activate ASK1 through ROS production to cause JNK/AP-1 activation, which in turn induces Bim expression, and ultimately results in A549 cell apoptosis. ..
  38. Gonzales A, Garcia Z, Amberg G, Earley S. Pharmacological inhibition of TRPM4 hyperpolarizes vascular smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C1195-202 pubmed publisher
  39. Zhou B, Miao Z, Deng G, Ding J, Yang Y, Feng H, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel triptolide analogues for anticancer activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:6217-21 pubmed publisher
    ..05nM for SKOV-3 cells, clearly challenging the traditional viewpoint on the necessity of 9,11-?-epoxide group of triptolide. In addition, structure-activity relationships for three classes of compounds were studied. ..
  40. Sun L, Zhang S, Jiang Z, Huang X, Wang T, Huang X, et al. Triptolide inhibits COX-2 expression by regulating mRNA stability in TNF-?-treated A549 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;416:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a novel mechanism of action for triptolide which may be important in the treatment of lung cancer. ..
  41. Clawson K, Borja Cacho D, Antonoff M, Saluja A, Vickers S. Triptolide and TRAIL combination enhances apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma. J Surg Res. 2010;163:244-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that combination of TRAIL and triptolide enhance apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. ..
  42. Tao R, Lu L, Zhang R, Hu J, Ni J, Shen W. Triptolide inhibits rat vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and cell cycle progression via attenuation of ERK1/2 and Rb phosphorylation. Exp Mol Pathol. 2011;90:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Triptolide drug-eluting stents attenuated neointimal formation after stent implantation in rabbit vessel. We believe that triptolide may potentially be useful in treating cardiovascular restenosis after PCI. ..
  43. Li J, Zhu W, Leng T, Shu M, Huang Y, Xu D, et al. Triptolide-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human renal cell carcinoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:979-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, triptolide emerges as a stimulator of apoptosis by influencing coordinate regulation of proliferation and apoptosis, and may be applicable to the treatment of human renal cell carcinoma. ..
  44. Chen Y, Lin G, Chuang Y, Chia W, Hueng D, Lin C, et al. Triptolide circumvents drug-resistant effect and enhances 5-fluorouracil antitumor effect on KB cells. Anticancer Drugs. 2010;21:502-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate the therapeutic value of triptolide on multidrug-resistant cells, and when combined with 5-fluorouracil for the enhancement of cancer therapy...
  45. Zhan X, Zhang X, Yin X, Ma H, Liang J, Zhou L, et al. H(+)/phenanthrene symporter and aquaglyceroporin are implicated in phenanthrene uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots. J Environ Qual. 2012;41:188-96 pubmed publisher
  46. Kang F, Gao Y, Wang Q. Inhibition of free DNA degradation by the deformation of DNA exposed to trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:8891-6 pubmed publisher
  47. Zhao F, Chen Y, Li R, Liu Y, Wen L, Zhang C. Triptolide alters histone H3K9 and H3K27 methylation state and induces G0/G1 arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis in multiple myeloma in vitro. Toxicology. 2010;267:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Triptolide decreased histone H3K9 and H3K27 methylation via the downregulation of histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 and EZH2, respectively, which possibly was the anti-myeloma mechanism of triptolide. ..
  48. Zhang Y, Wei L, Sun D, Cao F, Gao H, Zhao L, et al. Tanshinone IIA pretreatment protects myocardium against ischaemia/reperfusion injury through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway in diabetic rats. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010;12:316-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This was accompanied with decreased cardiac apoptosis and inflammation. The possible mechanism responsible for the effects of TSN is associated with the PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. ..
  49. Ding X, Zhou X, Zhang H, Qing J, Qiang H, Zhou G. Triptolide augments the effects of 5-lipoxygenase RNA interference in suppressing pancreatic tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;69:253-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Synergistic effects of combined treatment in VEGF expression may contribute to the mechanisms of the strong antitumor effects. ..
  50. Racz B, Hanto K, Tapodi A, Solti I, Kalman N, Jakus P, et al. Regulation of MKP-1 expression and MAPK activation by PARP-1 in oxidative stress: a new mechanism for the cytoplasmic effect of PARP-1 activation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:1978-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that regulation of a protein that can directly influence cytoplasmic signaling cascades at the expression level represents a novel mechanism for the cytoplasmic action of PARP-1 inhibition. ..
  51. Zhan X, Ma H, Zhou L, Liang J, Jiang T, Xu G. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L.) seedlings: passive or active uptake?. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:52 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that an active, carrier-mediated and energy-consuming influx process is involved in the uptake of PHE by plant roots. ..
  52. Tan B, Tan B, Chiu G. Effect of triptolide on focal adhesion kinase and survival in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:1315-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data present the first evidence of triptolide-mediated induction of FAK cleavage that correlates with cell detachment and loss of adhesion potential to the extracellular matrix. ..
  53. Yu C, Shan T, Feng A, Li Y, Zhu W, Xie Y, et al. Triptolide ameliorates Crohn's colitis is associated with inhibition of TLRs/NF-?B signaling pathway. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:709-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also support the possibility that targeted inhibition of TLR signaling pathway is an approach deserving further investigation as a therapeutic strategy for CD. ..