Summary: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.

Top Publications

  1. Lacey C, Wright A, Weber J, Profy A. Direct measurement of in-vivo vaginal microbicide levels of PRO 2000 achieved in a human safety study. AIDS. 2006;20:1027-30 pubmed
  2. Keller M, Guzman E, Hazrati E, Kasowitz A, Cheshenko N, Wallenstein S, et al. PRO 2000 elicits a decline in genital tract immune mediators without compromising intrinsic antimicrobial activity. AIDS. 2007;21:467-76 pubmed
    ..There was a modest reduction in mucosal immune mediators, but this loss was not associated with a reduction in intrinsic antimicrobial activity. ..
  3. Osma J, Saravia V, Toca Herrera J, Couto S. Sunflower seed shells: a novel and effective low-cost adsorbent for the removal of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater. 2007;147:900-5 pubmed
    ..This was also corroborated by the SEM photographs. On the whole, the results in this study indicated that SS were very attractive materials for removing anionic dyes from dyed effluents. ..
  4. Akar T, Divriklioglu M. Biosorption applications of modified fungal biomass for decolorization of Reactive Red 2 contaminated solutions: batch and dynamic flow mode studies. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:7271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, batch and continuous mode data suggest that this environmentally friendly and efficient biosorbent may be useful for the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous media. ..
  5. Mesquita P, Cheshenko N, Wilson S, Mhatre M, Guzman E, Fakioglu E, et al. Disruption of tight junctions by cellulose sulfate facilitates HIV infection: model of microbicide safety. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:599-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Expansion of in vitro safety testing to include these models would provide a more stringent preclinical assessment of microbicide safety and may prove to be more predictive of clinical outcomes. ..
  6. Yang Y, Wang G, Wang B, Li Z, Jia X, Zhou Q, et al. Biosorption of Acid Black 172 and Congo Red from aqueous solution by nonviable Penicillium YW 01: kinetic study, equilibrium isotherm and artificial neural network modeling. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:828-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Characterization of the biosorbent and possible dye-biosorbent interaction were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ..
  7. Teleshova N, Chang T, Profy A, Klotman M. Inhibitory effect of PRO 2000, a candidate microbicide, on dendritic cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus transfer. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:1751-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Kamali A, Byomire H, Muwonge C, Bakobaki J, Rutterford C, Okong P, et al. A randomised placebo-controlled safety and acceptability trial of PRO 2000 vaginal microbicide gel in sexually active women in Uganda. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86:222-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Women found gel use highly acceptable. Both concentrations of PRO 2000 gel were found to be safe and well tolerated. These data justified testing the gels in large-scale effectiveness trials. ..
  9. Cardoso T, Ferrari H, Bregano L, Silva Frade C, Rosa A, Andrade A. Visual detection of turkey coronavirus RNA in tissues and feces by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) with hydroxynaphthol blue dye. Mol Cell Probes. 2010;24:415-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, RT-LAMP with HNB dye was shown to be a sensitive, simple assay for the rapid diagnosis of TCoV infection, either directly from feces or in association with virus isolation methods. ..

More Information


  1. Goto M, Honda E, Ogura A, Nomoto A, Hanaki K. Colorimetric detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction by using hydroxy naphthol blue. Biotechniques. 2009;46:167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The colorimetric LAMP method using HNB would be helpful for high-throughput DNA and RNA detection. ..
  2. McCormack S, Ramjee G, Kamali A, Rees H, Crook A, Gafos M, et al. PRO2000 vaginal gel for prevention of HIV-1 infection (Microbicides Development Programme 301): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Lancet. 2010;376:1329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..UK Department for International Development, UK Medical Research Council, European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, International Partnership for Microbicides, and Endo Pharmaceuticals Solutions. ..
  3. Iscen C, Kiran I, Ilhan S. Biosorption of Reactive Black 5 dye by Penicillium restrictum: the kinetic study. J Hazard Mater. 2007;143:335-40 pubmed
    ..04 mg (g biomass)(-1) at 200 mg dm(-3) initial dye concentration at 35 degrees C. The results indicate that the biosorption process obeys a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. ..
  4. Nazarov P, Koehorst R, Vos W, Apanasovich V, Hemminga M. FRET study of membrane proteins: determination of the tilt and orientation of the N-terminal domain of M13 major coat protein. Biophys J. 2007;92:1296-305 pubmed
  5. Abdool Karim S, Richardson B, Ramjee G, Hoffman I, Chirenje Z, Taha T, et al. Safety and effectiveness of BufferGel and 0.5% PRO2000 gel for the prevention of HIV infection in women. AIDS. 2011;25:957-66 pubmed publisher
    ..5% PRO2000 gel has little or no protective effect. BufferGel did not alter the risk of HIV infection. Both products were well tolerated. ..
  6. Patel S, Hazrati E, Cheshenko N, Galen B, Yang H, Guzman E, et al. Seminal plasma reduces the effectiveness of topical polyanionic microbicides. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1394-402 pubmed
    ..0007, log rank test). If these findings are reflective of what occurs in humans, modifications to microbicides to ensure that they retain activity in the presence of seminal plasma are indicated...
  7. Sismanoglu T, Kismir Y, Karakus S. Single and binary adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions onto clinoptilolite. J Hazard Mater. 2010;184:164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The pseudo-second-order model was the best choice among the kinetic models to describe the adsorption behaviour of single and binary dyes onto clinoptilolite. ..
  8. Nunn A, McCormack S, Crook A, Pool R, Rutterford C, Hayes R. Microbicides Development Programme: design of a phase III trial to measure the efficacy of the vaginal microbicide PRO 2000/5 for HIV prevention. Trials. 2009;10:99 pubmed publisher
    ..MDP301 is the largest Phase III microbicide trial to date, with 9404 enrolments, and is scheduled for completion in September 2009. Results are expected towards the end of 2009. ..
  9. Wilson S, Cheshenko N, Fakioglu E, Mesquita P, Keller M, Herold B. Susceptibility to genital herpes as a biomarker predictive of increased HIV risk: expansion of a murine model of microbicide safety. Antivir Ther. 2009;14:1113-24 pubmed publisher
  10. Ma X, Shu Y, Nie K, Qin M, Wang D, Gao R, et al. Visual detection of pandemic influenza A H1N1 Virus 2009 by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye. J Virol Methods. 2010;167:214-7 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-LAMP with HNB dye was demonstrated to be a sensitive and easy assay for rapid detection of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus. ..
  11. Van Damme L, Wright A, Depraetere K, Rosenstein I, Vandersmissen V, Poulter L, et al. A phase I study of a novel potential intravaginal microbicide, PRO 2000, in healthy sexually inactive women. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76:126-30 pubmed
    ..The 0.5% gel was better tolerated than the 4% gel as fewer genital epithelial adverse events were seen in the former. Phase II studies are about to begin in sexually active women. ..
  12. Rusconi S, Moonis M, Merrill D, Pallai P, Neidhardt E, Singh S, et al. Naphthalene sulfonate polymers with CD4-blocking and anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activities. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996;40:234-6 pubmed
  13. Bourne N, Bernstein D, Ireland J, Sonderfan A, Profy A, Stanberry L. The topical microbicide PRO 2000 protects against genital herpes infection in a mouse model. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:203-5 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the 4% gel provided significant protection even when viral challenge was delayed until 60 min after treatment. This is the first report to show that PRO 2000 can protect against infection with an STD pathogen in vivo. ..
  14. Greenhead P, Hayes P, Watts P, Laing K, Griffin G, Shattock R. Parameters of human immunodeficiency virus infection of human cervical tissue and inhibition by vaginal virucides. J Virol. 2000;74:5577-86 pubmed
    ..Such agents have major implications for world health, as they will provide women with a mechanism of personal and covert protection from HIV infection. ..
  15. Weber J, Nunn A, O CONNOR T, Jeffries D, Kitchen V, McCormack S, et al. 'Chemical condoms' for the prevention of HIV infection: evaluation of novel agents against SHIV(89.6PD) in vitro and in vivo. AIDS. 2001;15:1563-8 pubmed
  16. Tabet S, Callahan M, Mauck C, Gai F, Coletti A, Profy A, et al. Safety and acceptability of penile application of 2 candidate topical microbicides: BufferGel and PRO 2000 Gel: 3 randomized trials in healthy low-risk men and HIV-positive men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;33:476-83 pubmed
    ..These microbicides have acceptable safety profiles to proceed with planned phase 3 vaginal microbicide trials. ..
  17. Spencer S, Valentin Bon I, Whaley K, Jerse A. Inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital tract infection by leading-candidate topical microbicides in a mouse model. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:410-9 pubmed
    ..The findings of the present study suggest that topical agents may effectively reduce N. gonorrhoeae infection and that further evaluation is warranted. ..
  18. Fletcher P, Wallace G, Mesquita P, Shattock R. Candidate polyanion microbicides inhibit HIV-1 infection and dissemination pathways in human cervical explants. Retrovirology. 2006;3:46 pubmed
    ..DxS, while demonstrating significant inhibition of R5 infection, was less active against DC mediated dissemination pathways. PRO 2000 has now entered human phase III efficacy trials. ..
  19. Keller M, Zerhouni Layachi B, Cheshenko N, John M, Hogarty K, Kasowitz A, et al. PRO 2000 gel inhibits HIV and herpes simplex virus infection following vaginal application: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:27-35 pubmed
    ..5%) is sufficiently bioavailable and retains substantial antiviral activity after intravaginal application. This strategy provides a mechanism for testing the efficacy of a microbicide before embarking on large-scale clinical trials. ..
  20. Mayer K, Karim S, Kelly C, Maslankowski L, Rees H, Profy A, et al. Safety and tolerability of vaginal PRO 2000 gel in sexually active HIV-uninfected and abstinent HIV-infected women. AIDS. 2003;17:321-9 pubmed
    ..PRO 2000 Gel was safe and well tolerated in sexually active HIV-uninfected and sexually abstinent HIV-infected women, enabling the product to be considered for evaluation in efficacy trials. ..
  21. Cunniffe G, O Brien F, Partap S, Levingstone T, Stanton K, Dickson G. The synthesis and characterization of nanophase hydroxyapatite using a novel dispersant-aided precipitation method. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010;95:1142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that by fine-tuning the synthesis parameters and incorporating the dispersing agent, monodisperse, phase-pure nano-sized particles under 100 nm were attained, suitable for clinical applications in bone regeneration. ..
  22. Tan L, Qu Y, Zhou J, Ma F, Li A. Dynamics of microbial community for X-3B wastewater decolorization coping with high-salt and metal ions conditions. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:3003-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provided insights on the decolorization capability and the population dynamic shifts during decolorization process of azo dye wastewater coping with salt and metal ions. ..
  23. Gali Y, Delezay O, Brouwers J, Addad N, Augustijns P, Bourlet T, et al. In vitro evaluation of viability, integrity, and inflammation in genital epithelia upon exposure to pharmaceutical excipients and candidate microbicides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:5105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, identification of safety issues concerning the use of pharmaceutical excipients could help to formulate less toxic vaginal microbicide preparations. ..
  24. Pan B, Zhang W, Pan B, Qiu H, Zhang Q, Zhang Q, et al. Efficient removal of aromatic sulfonates from wastewater by a recyclable polymer: 2-naphthalene sulfonate as a representative pollutant. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:7411-6 pubmed
    ..Continuous column adsorption-regeneration cycles indicated negligible capacity loss of NDA-801 during operation and further validated its feasibility for potential application in associated wastewater treatment. ..
  25. Huang Y, Huang Y, Chang P, Chen C. Comparative study of oxidation of dye-Reactive Black B by different advanced oxidation processes: Fenton, electro-Fenton and photo-Fenton. J Hazard Mater. 2008;154:655-62 pubmed
    ..Oxalic acid is much more difficult to treat than other organic acids. It could get further mineralization with the use of the Fered-Fenton process. ..
  26. Li G, Park S, Rittmann B. Degradation of reactive dyes in a photocatalytic circulating-bed biofilm reactor. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2012;109:884-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A proposed ICPB pathway for RB5 suggests that a major intermediate, a naphthol derivative, was responsible for most of the residual COD, while most of the nitrogen in the azo-bonds (-N=N-) was oxidized to N?. ..
  27. Lofrano G, Meric S, Zengin G, Orhon D. Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review. Sci Total Environ. 2013;461-462:265-81 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries. ..
  28. Pourreza N, Ghomi M. Simultaneous cloud point extraction and spectrophotometric determination of carmoisine and brilliant blue FCF in food samples. Talanta. 2011;84:240-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 0.1 ?g mL(-1) was 4.14 and 3.30% (n=10), for carmoisine and brilliant blue FCF, respectively. The method was applied to the simultaneous determination of the dyes in different food samples. ..
  29. Nie K, Wang D, Qin M, Gao R, Wang M, Zou S, et al. [Colorimetric detection of human influenza A H1N1 virus by reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2010;26:81-7 pubmed
  30. Das A, Babiuk S, McIntosh M. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of capripoxviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1613-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The LAMP assay described in this report is simple to use, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and particularly well suited for the diagnosis of capripox in less well equipped laboratories and in rural settings where resources are limited...
  31. Szkudlarek A, Sułkowska A, Maciążek Jurczyk M, Chudzik M, Równicka Zubik J. Effects of non-enzymatic glycation in human serum albumin. Spectroscopic analysis. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2016;152:645-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Ketoprofen bound to unmodified human serum albumin stronger than for glycated albumin and one class of binding sites is observed (Scatchard linear plots). ..
  32. Prasad N, Vindal V, Narayana S, Ramakrishna V, Kunal S, Srinivas M. In silico analysis of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase active site with toxic industrial dyes. J Mol Model. 2012;18:2013-9 pubmed publisher
  33. Chen H, Kuo Y, Chiou C, You S, Ma C, Chang C. Mineralization of reactive Black 5 in aqueous solution by ozone/H2O2 in the presence of a magnetic catalyst. J Hazard Mater. 2010;174:795-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the results of our reuse and recovery experiments, the magnetic catalyst shows considerable promise for use in water treatment. ..
  34. Wang H, Qi Z, Guo A, Mao Q, Lu H, An X, et al. ADS-J1 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry by interacting with the gp41 pocket region and blocking fusion-active gp41 core formation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4987-98 pubmed publisher
  35. Pálfi T, Takacs E, Wojnárovits L. Degradation of H-acid and its derivative in aqueous solution by ionising radiation. Water Res. 2007;41:2533-40 pubmed
    ..In the case of hydrated electron, the primarily formed products have absorption spectra shifted to the low-wavelength region indicating the destruction of at least one of the aromatic rings. ..
  36. Corso C, Almeida E, Santos G, Morão L, Fabris G, Mitter E. Bioremediation of direct dyes in simulated textile effluents by a paramorphogenic form of Aspergillus oryzae. Water Sci Technol. 2012;65:1490-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that bioremediation occurs with A. oryzae in its paramorphogenic form, and it can be used as a biosorptive substrate for treatment of industrial waste water containing azo dyes. ..
  37. Sonza S, Johnson A, Tyssen D, Spelman T, Lewis G, Paull J, et al. Enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is not intrinsic to all polyanion-based microbicides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:3565-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The enhancement effect is likely to be a function of the assay conditions and is not an intrinsic property of these polyanions. ..
  38. Hui N, Niu X, Han J, Sun W, Jiao K. Voltammetric investigation on interaction of protein with chromotrope 2R and its analytical application. Amino Acids. 2010;38:711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The decrease of reductive peak current is proportional to HSA concentration and further used for protein detection. The binding ratio and the binding constant are further calculated with the experimental voltammetric data. ..
  39. Zhao D, Gao H. Turning calcium carbonate into a cost-effective wastewater-sorbing material by occluding waste dye. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2010;17:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..This work has developed a simple, eco-friendly and practical method for the production of a cost-effective wastewater-sorbing material. ..
  40. Pengthamkeerati P, Satapanajaru T, Singchan O. Sorption of reactive dye from aqueous solution on biomass fly ash. J Hazard Mater. 2008;153:1149-56 pubmed
    ..The sorption data was good fit with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. These results indicate that biomass fly ash is an interesting alternative for dye removal from the wastewater. ..
  41. Schönerklee M, Peev M, De Wever H, Reemtsma T, Weiss S. Modelling the degradation of micropollutants in wastewater: parameter estimation and application to pilot (laboratory-scale) MBR data in the case of 2,6-NDSA and BTSA. Water Sci Technol. 2009;59:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The work presents the full chain of theoretical model development, model analysis and practical application to case study data for micropollutants. ..
  42. Subramanian V, Feng Y. A new role for angiogenin in neurite growth and pathfinding: implications for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1445-53 pubmed
    ..Our findings clearly show that ANG plays an important role in neurite pathfinding and this has implications for ALS. ..
  43. Arimatsu Y, Kaewkes S, Laha T, Hong S, Sripa B. Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini copro-DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Parasitol Int. 2012;61:178-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The technique has great potential for differential diagnosis in endemic areas with mixed O. viverrini and intestinal fluke infections. As it is an easy and simple method, the LAMP is potentially applicable for point-of-care diagnosis. ..
  44. Montigny C, Champeil P. Use of metallochromic dyes and potentiometric pH-meter titration to detect binding of divalent cations to "Good's" buffers: 4-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (Mops) does not bind Mg2+. Anal Biochem. 2007;366:96-8 pubmed
  45. Romer D, Brighty D, Robson C, Sattentau Q. Candidate polyanionic microbicides inhibit human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 receptor interactions, cell-free infection, and cell-cell spread. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:678-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of these studies suggest that candidate topical microbicides may be of use in reducing HTLV-1 sexual transmission. ..
  46. Górecki A, Kepys B, Bonarek P, Wasylewski Z. Kinetic studies of cAMP-induced propagation of the allosteric signal in the cAMP receptor protein from Escherichia coli with the use of site-directed mutagenesis. Int J Biol Macromol. 2009;44:262-70 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the independent association of two cAMP molecules to the wt protein is followed by at least a three-step conformational change which alters the surroundings of HTH motifs. ..
  47. Ding F, Han B, Liu W, Zhang L, Sun Y. Interaction of imidacloprid with hemoglobin by fluorescence and circular dichroism. J Fluoresc. 2010;20:753-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This study enriches our understanding of toxic effect of imidacloprid to the physiologically important protein Hb. ..
  48. Byberg R, Cobb J, Martin L, Thompson R, Camesano T, Zahraa O, et al. Comparison of photocatalytic degradation of dyes in relation to their structure. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:3570-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Some structural parameters, related to the structure and the topology of the dye molecules, could be correlated with the apparent color removal rates at natural pH. ..
  49. Gianotti V, Gosetti F, Polati S, Gennaro M. HPLC-MSn and GC-MS methods to study sunlight and UV-lamp degradations of 1-amino-5-naphthalene sulfonate. Chemosphere. 2007;67:1993-9 pubmed
    ..4 min has been evaluated, in comparison with the value of t(1/2) of 26.8 min, observed for UV-lamp irradiation. The degradation pathway and the structures of the degradation products are proposed. ..
  50. Verbaeys I, León Tamariz F, Buyse J, De Cuyper M, Pottel H, van Boven M, et al. PEGylated cholecystokinin prolongs satiation in rats: dose dependency and receptor involvement. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:396-403 pubmed
    ..Both devazepide and 2-NAP completely abolished the anorectic effect of i.p. PEG-CCK(9) indicating that its anorectic effect was solely due to stimulation of peripheral CCK(1) receptors. ..
  51. Wang H, Zhang J, Gao C, Zhu Y, Wang C, Zheng W. Topical levamisole hydrochloride therapy attenuates experimental murine allergic rhinitis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;577:162-9 pubmed
    ..Levamisole showed analogous effects of down-regulating Th2 cytokines with budesonide and distinct up-regulating effects on Th1 cytokines gene expression. Our findings offer potential options for allergic rhinitis therapy. ..
  52. Chen F, Fulton D. An inhibitor of protein arginine methyltransferases, 7,7'-carbonylbis(azanediyl)bis(4-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (AMI-1), is a potent scavenger of NADPH-oxidase-derived superoxide. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;77:280-7 pubmed publisher