Summary: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)

Top Publications

  1. Conzuelo F, Gamella M, Campuzano S, Reviejo A, Pingarron J. Disposable amperometric magneto-immunosensor for direct detection of tetracyclines antibiotics residues in milk. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;737:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..ProtG-MBs) and screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs), for the specific detection and quantification of tetracyclines (TCs) residues in milk is reported...
  2. Joks R, Durkin H. Effect of tetracyclines on IgE allergic responses and asthma. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2011;5:221-8 pubmed
    There are no current therapies that specifically target IgE production in human allergic disease. We found that tetracyclines and chemically modified tetracyclines (CMT) that lack antibiotic activity prevent IgE production, making them ..
  3. Cazalis J, Tanabe S, Gagnon G, Sorsa T, Grenier D. Tetracyclines and chemically modified tetracycline-3 (CMT-3) modulate cytokine secretion by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood. Inflammation. 2009;32:130-7 pubmed publisher
    In addition to their bacteriostatic effect, tetracyclines, which are often used in the treatment of periodontitis, also present anti-inflammatory properties...
  4. Vega D, Agüí L, González Cortés A, Yáñez Sedeño P, Pingarrón J. Voltammetry and amperometric detection of tetracyclines at multi-wall carbon nanotube modified electrodes. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;389:951-8 pubmed
    ..Recoveries ranged from 87 +/- 6 to 99 +/- 3%. Under preconcentration conditions, limits of detection in the water samples were between 0.50 and 3.10 ng mL(-1). ..
  5. Kim H, Hong Y, Park J, Sharma V, Cho S. Sulfonamides and tetracyclines in livestock wastewater. Chemosphere. 2013;91:888-94 pubmed publisher
    Antibiotics (sulfonamides and tetracyclines) have attractive increasing attention due to their persistence for a long time, which lead to concern of widespread antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes in the aquatic environment...
  6. Zhang J, Zhang B, Wu Y, Jia S, Fan T, Zhang Z, et al. Fast determination of the tetracyclines in milk samples by the aptamer biosensor. Analyst. 2010;135:2706-10 pubmed publisher
    A novel aptamer biosensor for fast tetracyclines determination was established and illustrated in this paper. The tetracyclines aptamer as a specific affinity molecule was immobilized on the surface of the glassy carbon (GC) electrodes...
  7. Payne J, Golub L. Using tetracyclines to treat osteoporotic/osteopenic bone loss: from the basic science laboratory to the clinic. Pharmacol Res. 2011;63:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetracyclines, by virtue of their non-antimicrobial pro-anabolic and anti-catabolic properties, are excellent candidate ..
  8. Pailler J, Krein A, Pfister L, Hoffmann L, Guignard C. Solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, analgesics and hormones in surface water and wastewater in Luxembourg. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:4736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..investigation focuses on the analysis of four classes of veterinary and human pharmaceuticals (sulfonamides, tetracyclines, analgesics and hormones) in surface water and wastewater in Luxembourg...
  9. Jia A, Xiao Y, Hu J, Asami M, Kunikane S. Simultaneous determination of tetracyclines and their degradation products in environmental waters by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:4655-62 pubmed publisher
    A sensitive method was developed for the trace determination of six tetracyclines and ten of their degradation products in influent, effluent, and river waters using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection, ..

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  1. Kaczmarek M, Lis S. Chemiluminescence determination of tetracyclines using Fenton system in the presence europium(III) ions. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;639:96-100 pubmed publisher
    ..based on the europium(III) emission as a result of the energy transfer process from the excited product of the tetracyclines oxidation to the uncomplexed Eu(III)...
  2. Chen J, Fluharty F, St Pierre N, Morrison M, Yu Z. Technical note: Occurrence in fecal microbiota of genes conferring resistance to both macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B and tetracyclines concomitant with feeding of beef cattle with tylosin. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:2385-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The abundance of genes conferring resistance to MLS(B) (erm genes) and tetracyclines (tet genes) were quantified using class-specific, real-time PCR assays...
  3. De Luigi A, Colombo L, Diomede L, Capobianco R, Mangieri M, Miccolo C, et al. The efficacy of tetracyclines in peripheral and intracerebral prion infection. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1888 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that tetracyclines interact with and reverse the protease resistance of pathological prion protein extracted from scrapie-infected animals and patients with all forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, lowering the ..
  4. Federici T. The non-antibiotic properties of tetracyclines: clinical potential in ophthalmic disease. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:614-23 pubmed publisher
    Beyond their decades of long use as broad-spectrum antibiotics, tetracyclines and their derivatives have been shown to exhibit non-antimicrobial properties including their ability to interact with matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), tissue ..
  5. Lauhio A, Hästbacka J, Pettila V, Tervahartiala T, Karlsson S, Varpula T, et al. Serum MMP-8, -9 and TIMP-1 in sepsis: high serum levels of MMP-8 and TIMP-1 are associated with fatal outcome in a multicentre, prospective cohort study. Hypothetical impact of tetracyclines. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:590-4 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical studies examining the ability of MMP-inhibitors (such as the non-antimicrobial properties of tetracyclines) to diminish the MMP-mediated inflammatory response are needed to develop novel therapies in order to improve ..
  6. Bahrami F, Morris D, Pourgholami M. Tetracyclines: drugs with huge therapeutic potential. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2012;12:44-52 pubmed
    b>Tetracyclines are an amazing class of chemical agents with multiple therapeutic potential...
  7. Kim K, Pollard J, Norris A, McDonald J, Sun Y, Micewicz E, et al. High-throughput screening identifies two classes of antibiotics as radioprotectors: tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:7238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..All of two major classes of antibiotics, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, which share a common planar ring moiety, were radioprotective...
  8. Sun C, Wang Q, Brubaker J, Wright P, Lerner C, Noson K, et al. A robust platform for the synthesis of new tetracycline antibiotics. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:17913-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetracyclines and tetracycline analogues are prepared by a convergent, single-step Michael-Claisen condensation of AB precursor 1 or 2 with D-ring precursors of wide structural variability, followed by removal of protective groups (..
  9. Lillenberg M, Yurchenko S, Kipper K, Herodes K, Pihl V, Sepp K, et al. Simultaneous determination of fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines in sewage sludge by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:5949-54 pubmed publisher
    A new scheme for the quantitative determination of traces of fluoroquinolones (FQs), tetracyclines (TCs) and sulfonamides (SAs) in sewage sludge was developed...
  10. Bench T, Jeremias A, Brown D. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition with tetracyclines for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:561-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetracyclines inhibit MMPs through their ability to chelate zinc...
  11. Steinmeyer J, Kordelle J, Stürz H. In vitro inhibition of aggrecanase activity by tetracyclines and proteoglycan loss from osteoarthritic human articular cartilage. J Orthop Res. 2010;28:828-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetracyclines were reported to slow down the progression of cartilage damage both in an animal model of osteoarthritis (OA) and in humans...
  12. Pastor Navarro N, Morais S, Maquieira A, Puchades R. Synthesis of haptens and development of a sensitive immunoassay for tetracycline residues. Application to honey samples. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;594:211-8 pubmed
    A new synthesis way of haptens for tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline) based on the formation of their carboxamido and diazo derivatives that maintain the tetracyclic nucleus and possess an aromatic or ..
  13. Dalm D, Palm G, Aleksandrov A, Simonson T, Hinrichs W. Nonantibiotic properties of tetracyclines: structural basis for inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2. J Mol Biol. 2010;398:83-96 pubmed publisher
    ..A(2) is involved in inflammatory processes and was previously shown to be inhibited by lipophilic tetracyclines such as minocycline (minoTc) and doxycycline...
  14. Sorsa T, Tervahartiala T, Leppilahti J, Hernandez M, Gamonal J, Tuomainen A, et al. Collagenase-2 (MMP-8) as a point-of-care biomarker in periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases. Therapeutic response to non-antimicrobial properties of tetracyclines. Pharmacol Res. 2011;63:108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Research in periodontology and cardiology has identified a need for the development of innovative point-of-care diagnostic tests for MMP-8. We summarize and review the recent studies on these topics. ..
  15. Chu Q, Forouzesh B, Syed S, Mita M, Schwartz G, Cooper J, et al. A phase II and pharmacological study of the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPI) COL-3 in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Invest New Drugs. 2007;25:359-67 pubmed
    ..The median values for TTP and survival were 109 and 279 days, respectively. Based on these results, further studies of COL-3 on this administration schedule in patients with STS are not warranted. ..
  16. Forloni G, Salmona M, Marcon G, Tagliavini F. Tetracyclines and prion infectivity. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2009;9:23-30 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the chemical homology with anthracyclines, we rapidly moved to tetracyclines, compounds that are safer and widely used as antibiotics in clinical practice...
  17. Lokeshwar B. Chemically modified non-antimicrobial tetracyclines are multifunctional drugs against advanced cancers. Pharmacol Res. 2011;63:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The potent MMP inhibitory activities of tetracyclines, especially their chemically modified analogs, combined with their relatively well tolerated pharmacological ..
  18. Pikkemaat M, Rapallini M, Karp M, Elferink J. Application of a luminescent bacterial biosensor for the detection of tetracyclines in routine analysis of poultry muscle samples. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010;27:1112-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetracyclines are extensively used in veterinary medicine. For the detection of tetracycline residues in animal products, a broad array of methods is available...
  19. Ma T, Vickroy T, Shien J, Chou C. Improved nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis for tetracyclines at subparts per billion level. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:1679-82 pubmed publisher
    A NACE method with laser-induced fluorescence detection was modified for sensitive detection of 4 tetracyclines (TCs) in biological samples and feeds...
  20. Nelson M, Levy S. The history of the tetracyclines. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1241:17-32 pubmed publisher
    The history of the tetracyclines involves the collective contributions of thousands of dedicated researchers, scientists, clinicians, and business executives over the course of more than 60 years...
  21. Griffin M, Fricovsky E, Ceballos G, Villarreal F. Tetracyclines: a pleitropic family of compounds with promising therapeutic properties. Review of the literature. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C539-48 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetracyclines were developed as a result of the screening of soil samples for antibiotic organisms...
  22. Ishikawa C, Tsuda T, Konishi H, Nakagawa N, Yamanishi K. Tetracyclines modulate protease-activated receptor 2-mediated proinflammatory reactions in epidermal keratinocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1760-5 pubmed publisher
    In addition to their antibiotic effects, tetracyclines have anti-inflammatory action that is often beneficial in the control of inflammatory skin disorders...
  23. Monk E, Shalita A, Siegel D. Clinical applications of non-antimicrobial tetracyclines in dermatology. Pharmacol Res. 2011;63:130-45 pubmed publisher
    There are many proposed non-antimicrobial actions of tetracyclines. Pathways affected by these medications are often overexpressed in various dermatologic conditions...
  24. Traviesa Alvarez J, Costa Fernández J, Pereiro R, Sanz Medel A. Direct screening of tetracyclines in water and bovine milk using room temperature phosphorescence detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;589:51-8 pubmed
    ..2 and 11.6 nM for detection of tetracyclines in water samples (at a cut-off level of 4 nM) and in the range between 165 and 238 nM for detection of ..
  25. Roy S, Kendrick D, Sadowitz B, Gatto L, Snyder K, Satalin J, et al. Jack of all trades: pleiotropy and the application of chemically modified tetracycline-3 in sepsis and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:580-9 pubmed publisher
  26. Castro M, Kandasamy A, Youssef N, Schulz R. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor properties of tetracyclines: therapeutic potential in cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:551-60 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tetracyclines, especially doxycycline, have been frequently used as important MMP inhibitors since they inhibit MMP activity ..
  27. Dahl E, Shock J, Shenai B, Gut J, Derisi J, Rosenthal P. Tetracyclines specifically target the apicoplast of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:3124-31 pubmed
    b>Tetracyclines are effective but slow-acting antimalarial drugs whose mechanism of action remains uncertain...
  28. Krausse R, Schubert S. In-vitro activities of tetracyclines, macrolides, fluoroquinolones and clindamycin against Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma ssp. isolated in Germany over 20 years. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:1649-55 pubmed publisher
    ..hominis isolates (approximately 10-13%) than ureaplasmas (approximately 1-3%) were resistant to tetracyclines. Ofloxacin was effective against both species (>95% susceptibility)...
  29. Pellinen T, Rytkonen K, Ristiniemi N, Karp M, Lamminmaki U. Protein-DNA interaction-based detection of small molecules by employing Renilla luciferase fusion protein: quantitative and generic measurement of tetracyclines with a Renilla luciferase-tagged Tet repressor protein. Anal Biochem. 2006;358:301-3 pubmed
  30. Koesukwiwat U, Jayanta S, Leepipatpiboon N. Solid-phase extraction for multiresidue determination of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and pyrimethamine in Bovine's milk. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1149:102-11 pubmed
    ..for simultaneous extraction of 10 antibiotic residues in bovine milk, belonging to groups of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and pyrimethamine...
  31. Schneider M, Darwish A, Freeman D. Simultaneous multiresidue determination of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in catfish muscle using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;586:269-74 pubmed
    ..An efficient multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of fluoroquinolones (FQs) and tetracyclines (TCs) in catfish muscle has now been developed...
  32. Pautke C, Vogt S, Kreutzer K, Haczek C, Wexel G, Kolk A, et al. Characterization of eight different tetracyclines: advances in fluorescence bone labeling. J Anat. 2010;217:76-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the data suggest that fluorescence double labeling of bone is feasible using appropriate tetracycline derivates in combination with spectral imaging modalities. ..
  33. Virolainen N, Pikkemaat M, Elferink J, Karp M. Rapid detection of tetracyclines and their 4-epimer derivatives from poultry meat with bioluminescent biosensor bacteria. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:11065-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Except for doxycycline, the MRLs of these tetracyclines include their 4-epimer metabolites...
  34. Rempe S, Hayden J, Robbins R, Hoyt J. Tetracyclines and pulmonary inflammation. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2007;7:232-6 pubmed
    ..This review presents a brief summary of the recent research in the area of tetracycline and its derivatives in control of pulmonary inflammation. ..
  35. Mathers J, Flick S, Cox L. Longer-duration uses of tetracyclines and penicillins in U.S. food-producing animals: Indications and microbiologic effects. Environ Int. 2011;37:991-1004 pubmed publisher
    We review and analyze regulatory categories for longer duration of use (defined as ? 7 day) tetracyclines (TCs) and penicillins (PNs) approved for U.S...
  36. Ben W, Qiang Z, Adams C, Zhang H, Chen L. Simultaneous determination of sulfonamides, tetracyclines and tiamulin in swine wastewater by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1202:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..determination of three classes of commonly used veterinary antibiotics including five sulfonamides, three tetracyclines and one macrolide in swine wastewater using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass ..
  37. Cieslik M, Pyszko J, Strosznajder J. Docosahexaenoic acid and tetracyclines as promising neuroprotective compounds with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitory activities for oxidative/genotoxic stress treatment. Neurochem Int. 2013;62:626-36 pubmed publisher
    ..docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), major dietary ?-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as the action of tetracyclines, the novel suppressors of PARP-1, were examined...
  38. Gu Y, Lee H, Sorsa T, Salminen A, Ryan M, Slepian M, et al. Non-antibacterial tetracyclines modulate mediators of periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a mechanistic link between local and systemic inflammation. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:573-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-antimicrobial tetracyclines are known to have inhibitory effects on inflammatory mediators and effector molecules, including cytokines and ..
  39. Draper M, Bhatia B, Assefa H, Honeyman L, Garrity Ryan L, Verma A, et al. In vitro and in vivo antimalarial efficacies of optimized tetracyclines. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:3131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..to the development of new antimalarial drugs is to improve upon existing antimalarial agents, such as the tetracyclines. Tetracyclines exhibit potent, albeit relatively slow, action against malaria parasites, and doxycycline is ..
  40. Clark R, He M, Fyfe C, Lofland D, O Brien W, Plamondon L, et al. 8-Azatetracyclines: synthesis and evaluation of a novel class of tetracycline antibacterial agents. J Med Chem. 2011;54:1511-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Two compounds were identified that exhibit comparable efficacy to marketed tetracyclines in in vivo models of bacterial infection.
  41. Orsucci D, Calsolaro V, Mancuso M, Siciliano G. Neuroprotective effects of tetracyclines: molecular targets, animal models and human disease. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2009;8:222-31 pubmed
    b>Tetracyclines are a class of antibiotics which could play a therapeutic role in several neurological disorders. Minocycline, extensively studied in animal models, decreased the size of ischaemic and haemorrhagic infarct...
  42. Sloan B, Scheinfeld N. The use and safety of doxycycline hyclate and other second-generation tetracyclines. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2008;7:571-7 pubmed
    b>Tetracyclines have long been used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions, especially in the field of dermatology. Unfortunately, safety concerns, especially gastrointestinal (GI), have always been present...
  43. Niazi J, Lee S, Gu M. Single-stranded DNA aptamers specific for antibiotics tetracyclines. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008;16:7245-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Tetracyclines (TCs) are a group of antibiotics comprising of a common tetracycline (TET) nucleus with variable X(1) and X(2) positions on 5 and 6 carbon atoms, such as oxytetracycline (OTC) and doxycycline (DOX)...
  44. Degrange S, Renaudin H, Charron A, Bebear C, Bebear C. Tetracycline resistance in Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis: prevalence in Bordeaux, France, from 1999 to 2002 and description of two tet(M)-positive isolates of M. hominis susceptible to tetracyclines. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:742-4 pubmed
    ..For M. hominis, we also found an increase in tetracycline resistance and two tet(M)-positive isolates that were susceptible to tetracyclines.
  45. Webster G, Del Rosso J. Anti-inflammatory activity of tetracyclines. Dermatol Clin. 2007;25:133-5, v pubmed
    b>Tetracyclines are known to exhibit multiple significant anti-inflammatory actions. This article describes the mechanisms of this anti-inflammatory activity, such as inhibition of chemotaxis, granuloma formation, and protease...
  46. Hernandez Abanto S, Woolwine S, Jain S, Bishai W. Tetracycline-inducible gene expression in mycobacteria within an animal host using modified Streptomyces tcp830 regulatory elements. Arch Microbiol. 2006;186:459-64 pubmed
    ..Chemically regulatable gene expression during animal infection may be a useful tool in studying mycobacterial pathogenesis. ..
  47. Whetstine C, Slusser J, Zückert W. Development of a single-plasmid-based regulatable gene expression system for Borrelia burgdorferi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:6553-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Since target protein, operator, and repressor are carried by a single plasmid, the system's application is independent of a particular strain background. ..
  48. Forloni G, Colombo L, Girola L, Tagliavini F, Salmona M. Anti-amyloidogenic activity of tetracyclines: studies in vitro. FEBS Lett. 2001;487:404-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that tetracyclines, tetracycline and doxycycline, classical antibiotics, exhibit anti-amyloidogenic activity...
  49. Chopra I, Roberts M. Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2001;65:232-60 ; second page, table of contents pubmed
    b>Tetracyclines were discovered in the 1940s and exhibited activity against a wide range of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, and protozoan parasites...
  50. Speer B, Shoemaker N, Salyers A. Bacterial resistance to tetracycline: mechanisms, transfer, and clinical significance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1992;5:387-99 pubmed
    ..Thus, tetracycline has the double effect of selecting for recipients that acquire a resistance gene and stimulating transfer of the gene. ..
  51. Athamna A, Athamna M, Medlej B, Bast D, Rubinstein E. In vitro post-antibiotic effect of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, beta-lactams, tetracyclines, vancomycin, clindamycin, linezolid, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin and rifampicin on Bacillus anthracis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:609-15 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the PAE is unrelated to the MIC but may be related to the rapidity of bacterial kill. These observations may bear importance on treatment regimens of human anthrax. ..
  52. Charest M, Lerner C, Brubaker J, Siegel D, Myers A. A convergent enantioselective route to structurally diverse 6-deoxytetracycline antibiotics. Science. 2005;308:395-8 pubmed
    ..Five derivatives were synthesized from benzoic acid in yields ranging from 5 to 7% over 14 to 15 steps, and a sixth, (-)-doxycycline, was synthesized in 8.3% yield over 18 steps. ..
  53. Hidalgo M, Eckhardt S. Development of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors in cancer therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:178-93 pubmed
    ..Several members of this class of compounds are undergoing evaluation in phase III clinical trials. The tetracyclines and, particularly, the nonantibiotic chemically modified tetracyclines, interfere with several aspects of MMP ..
  54. Acharya M, Venitz J, Figg W, Sparreboom A. Chemically modified tetracyclines as inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases. Drug Resist Updat. 2004;7:195-208 pubmed
    ..b>Tetracyclines and chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) have been rationally designed to inhibit the activity of MMPs and ..
  55. Ramamurthy N, Rifkin B, Greenwald R, Xu J, Liu Y, Turner G, et al. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-mediated periodontal bone loss in rats: a comparison of 6 chemically modified tetracyclines. J Periodontol. 2002;73:726-34 pubmed
    Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs), devoid of antimicrobial activity, inhibit pathologically elevated collagenase activity both in vivo and in vitro...
  56. Henssler E, Bertram R, Wisshak S, Hillen W. Tet repressor mutants with altered effector binding and allostery. FEBS J. 2005;272:4487-96 pubmed
    ..This finding represents a novel communication mode of TetR. Thus, allostery may not only operate by the structural change proposed on the basis of the crystal structures. ..
  57. Nelson M. Chemical and biological dynamics of tetracyclines. Adv Dent Res. 1998;12:5-11 pubmed
  58. Sapadin A, Fleischmajer R. Tetracyclines: nonantibiotic properties and their clinical implications. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:258-65 pubmed
    b>Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics that act as such at the ribosomal level where they interfere with protein synthesis...