Summary: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.

Top Publications

  1. von Minckwitz G, Untch M, Blohmer J, Costa S, Eidtmann H, Fasching P, et al. Definition and impact of pathologic complete response on prognosis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in various intrinsic breast cancer subtypes. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1796-804 pubmed publisher
    ..pCR is a suitable surrogate end point for patients with luminal B/HER2-negative, HER2-positive (nonluminal), and triple-negative disease but not for those with luminal B/HER2-positive or luminal A tumors. ..
  2. Neilan T, Coelho Filho O, Shah R, Feng J, Peña Herrera D, Mandry D, et al. Myocardial extracellular volume by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Am J Cardiol. 2013;111:717-22 pubmed publisher
    ..T1 measurements obtained during cardiac magnetic resonance imaging were increased in patients treated with anthracyclines. We performed cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography and measured the ECV in 42 patients ..
  3. Kawanobe T, Kogure S, Nakamura S, Sato M, Katayama K, Mitsuhashi J, et al. Expression of human ABCB5 confers resistance to taxanes and anthracyclines. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;418:736-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that the expression of ABCB5 conferred resistance to taxanes and anthracyclines. Membrane vesicles prepared from ABCB5 baculovirus-infected Sf21 cells showed higher vanadate-sensitive ATPase ..
  4. Figueiredo N, Chora A, Raquel H, Pejanovic N, Pereira P, Hartleben B, et al. Anthracyclines induce DNA damage response-mediated protection against severe sepsis. Immunity. 2013;39:874-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the clinically approved group of anthracyclines acts therapeutically at a low dose regimen to confer robust protection against severe sepsis in mice...
  5. Kohail H, Shehata S, Mansour O, Gouda Y, Gaafar R, Hamid T, et al. A phase 2 study of the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines with/without taxanes. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2012;5:42-8 pubmed publisher
    Many patients with relapsed metastatic breast cancer are pre-treated with taxanes and anthracyclines, which are usually given in the neoadjuvant/adjuvant setting or as first-line treatment for metastatic disease...
  6. Asakuma M, Yamamoto M, Wada M, Ryuge S, Katono K, Yokoba M, et al. Phase I trial of irinotecan and amrubicin with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;69:1529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Use of rhG-CSF allowed the dose of amrubicin to be raised 40 % above that in the original regimen (60 mg/m(2) CPT-11 and 25 mg/m(2) amrubicin). ..
  7. Lipshultz S, Landy D, Lopez Mitnik G, Lipsitz S, Hinkle A, Constine L, et al. Cardiovascular status of childhood cancer survivors exposed and unexposed to cardiotoxic therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1050-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cardiovascular abnormalities in childhood cancer survivors are restricted to patients exposed to cardiotoxic anthracyclines and cardiac irradiation and how risk factors for atherosclerotic disease and systemic inflammation contribute ..
  8. Salvatorelli E, Menna P, Surapaneni S, Aukerman S, Chello M, Covino E, et al. Pharmacokinetic characterization of amrubicin cardiac safety in an ex vivo human myocardial strip model. I. Amrubicin accumulates to a lower level than doxorubicin or epirubicin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;341:464-73 pubmed publisher
    Antitumor anthracyclines such as doxorubicin and epirubicin are known to cause cardiotoxicity that correlates with anthracycline accumulation in the heart...
  9. Wysokinski D, Blasiak J, Wozniak K. Zinc differentially modulates DNA damage induced by anthracyclines in normal and cancer cells. Exp Oncol. 2012;34:327-31 pubmed
    ..We determined the effect of zinc on DNA damage induced by doxorubicin and idarubicin, two anthracyclines used in ALL treatment...

More Information


  1. Untch M, Loibl S, Bischoff J, Eidtmann H, Kaufmann M, Blohmer J, et al. Lapatinib versus trastuzumab in combination with neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy (GeparQuinto, GBG 44): a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:135-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Unless long-term outcome data show different results, lapatinib should not be used outside of clinical trials as single anti-HER2-treatment in combination with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. GlaxoSmithKline, Roche, and Sanofi-Aventis. ..
  2. Freeman C, Keane N, Swords R, Giles F. Vosaroxin: a new valuable tool with the potential to replace anthracyclines in the treatment of AML?. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14:1417-27 pubmed publisher
    ..efficacy as a novel cytotoxic agent, and despite a similar mechanism of action has significant advantages over anthracyclines. It evades common resistance pathways of p53 and P-glycoprotein (P- gp) and does not appear to generate ..
  3. Hannani D, Locher C, Yamazaki T, Colin Minard V, Vetizou M, Aymeric L, et al. Contribution of humoral immune responses to the antitumor effects mediated by anthracyclines. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explored the role of humoral immune responses in the anticancer efficacy of anthracyclines. Chemotherapy reduced the number of tumor-infiltrating B cells, and failed to promote humoral responses ..
  4. Brunello E, Brunelli M, Manfrin E, Nottegar A, Bersani S, Vergine M, et al. Classical lobular breast carcinoma consistently lacks topoisomerase-II? gene amplification: implications for the tailored use of anthracycline-based chemotherapies. Histopathology. 2012;60:482-8 pubmed publisher
    ..personalized and tailored therapies, we suggest that patients affected by the classical lobular subtype of breast carcinoma constantly lack the ad hoc predictive rationale for receiving common chemotherapy that includes anthracyclines.
  5. Salvatorelli E, Menna P, Gonzalez Paz O, Surapaneni S, Aukerman S, Chello M, et al. Pharmacokinetic characterization of amrubicin cardiac safety in an ex vivo human myocardial strip model. II. Amrubicin shows metabolic advantages over doxorubicin and epirubicin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;341:474-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results characterize amrubicin metabolic advantages over doxorubicin and epirubicin, which may correlate with amrubicin cardiac safety in preclinical or clinical settings. ..
  6. Ladoire S, Mignot G, Dalban C, Chevriaux A, Arnould L, Rébé C, et al. FOXP3 expression in cancer cells and anthracyclines efficacy in patients with primary breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in the phase III UNICANCER-PACS 01 trial. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:2552-61 pubmed
    ..So we made the hypothesis that FOXP3 expression predicts the response to anthracyclines in breast cancer patients and that adjuvant chemotherapy adding taxanes to anthracyclines confers an overall ..
  7. Giordano S, Lin Y, Kuo Y, Hortobagyi G, Goodwin J. Decline in the use of anthracyclines for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:2232-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of anthracycline-based chemotherapy has declined, and the majority of patients with breast cancer are instead receiving taxane-based chemotherapy. The potential impact on patient outcomes is unknown. ..
  8. Poterucha J, Kutty S, Lindquist R, Li L, Eidem B. Changes in left ventricular longitudinal strain with anthracycline chemotherapy in adolescents precede subsequent decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2012;25:733-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Two-dimensional speckle tracking-derived LV LPSS is potentially useful in the serial clinical monitoring of ANT cardiotoxicity. ..
  9. Sawaya H, Sebag I, Plana J, Januzzi J, Ky B, Tan T, et al. Assessment of echocardiography and biomarkers for the extended prediction of cardiotoxicity in patients treated with anthracyclines, taxanes, and trastuzumab. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;5:596-603 pubmed
    ..and blood biomarkers predict incident cardiotoxicity in patients with breast cancer during treatment with anthracyclines, taxanes, and trastuzumab...
  10. Seicean S, Seicean A, Plana J, Budd G, Marwick T. Effect of statin therapy on the risk for incident heart failure in patients with breast cancer receiving anthracycline chemotherapy: an observational clinical cohort study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60:2384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is consistent with prior animal studies and warrants further investigation through prospective randomized clinical trials. ..
  11. Munro A, Twelves C, Thomas J, Cameron D, Bartlett J. Chromosome instability and benefit from adjuvant anthracyclines in breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:71-4 pubmed publisher
    Duplication of the centromeric region of chromosome 17 (Ch17CEP) is associated with sensitivity to anthracyclines. An explanation may be chromosome instability (CIN); a frequent event in solid tumours associated with poor outcome...
  12. Lotrionte M, Biondi Zoccai G, Abbate A, Lanzetta G, D Ascenzo F, Malavasi V, et al. Review and meta-analysis of incidence and clinical predictors of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Am J Cardiol. 2013;112:1980-4 pubmed publisher
    The management of individual patients requiring anthracyclines remains challenging because uncertainty persists on predictors of cardiotoxicity...
  13. Kitagawa C, Saka H, Kajikawa S, Mori K, Oki M, Suzuki R. Phase I and pharmacologic study of weekly amrubicin in patients with refractory or relapsed lung cancer: Central Japan Lung Study Group (CJLSG) 0601 trial. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;69:1379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The best response rate was 15.4%, and adverse events with this schedule were tolerable. ..
  14. Mackey J, Martin M, Pienkowski T, Rolski J, Guastalla J, Sami A, et al. Adjuvant docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide in node-positive breast cancer: 10-year follow-up of the phase 3 randomised BCIRG 001 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a substantial percentage of patients had a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction, probably caused by anthracycline therapy, which warrants further investigation. Sanofi. ..
  15. Sterba M, Popelova O, Vavrova A, Jirkovsky E, Kovarikova P, Gersl V, et al. Oxidative stress, redox signaling, and metal chelation in anthracycline cardiotoxicity and pharmacological cardioprotection. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:899-929 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, or epirubicin) rank among the most effective anticancer drugs, but their clinical usefulness is hampered by the risk of cardiotoxicity...
  16. Jirkovsky E, Popelova O, Kriváková Stanková P, Vavrova A, Hroch M, Haskova P, et al. Chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity: molecular and functional analysis with focus on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and mitochondrial biogenesis pathways. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;343:468-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that global oxidative stress need not be a factor responsible for the development of anthracycline-induced HF, whereas suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis might be involved. ..
  17. Piekarski M, Jelińska A. Anthracyclines still prove effective in anticancer therapy. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013;13:627-34 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the search for new anthracycline derivatives with improved pharmacodynamic properties and fewer adverse effects is in progress, delivering promising results. ..
  18. Jeschke J, O Hagan H, Zhang W, Vatapalli R, Calmon M, Danilova L, et al. Frequent inactivation of cysteine dioxygenase type 1 contributes to survival of breast cancer cells and resistance to anthracyclines. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:3201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer cells with epigenetically silenced CDO1 resulted in restored expression and increased sensitivity to anthracyclines. We report that silencing of CDO1 is a critical epigenetic event that contributes to the survival of oxidative-..
  19. Roziakova L, Bojtarova E, Mistrik M, Dubrava J, Gergel J, Lenkova N, et al. Serial measurements of cardiac biomarkers in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012;31:13 pubmed publisher
    Previous therapy with anthracyclines (ANT) and conditioning regimen followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) represents a high risk for development of cardiotoxicity...
  20. Chen Y, Li L, Zeng J, Wu K, Zhou J, Guo P, et al. Twist confers chemoresistance to anthracyclines in bladder cancer through upregulating P-glycoprotein. Chemotherapy. 2012;58:264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic strategies targeting Twist may improve the management of recurrent bladder cancer after chemotherapy. ..
  21. Mordente A, Meucci E, Silvestrini A, Martorana G, Giardina B. Anthracyclines and mitochondria. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;942:385-419 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthracyclines remain the cornerstone in the treatment of many malignancies including lymphomas, leukaemias, and sarcomas...
  22. Regel I, Merkl L, Friedrich T, Burgermeister E, Zimmermann W, Einwächter H, et al. Pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat sensitizes gastric cancer cells to anthracyclines via induction of CITED2. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:99-109.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors modify chromatin and can block cancer cell proliferation and promote apoptosis...
  23. Shao N, Wang S, Yao C, Xu X, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, et al. Sequential versus concurrent anthracyclines and taxanes as adjuvant chemotherapy of early breast cancer: a meta-analysis of phase III randomized control trials. Breast. 2012;21:389-93 pubmed publisher
    ..outcomes for early-stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with sequential or concurrent anthracyclines and taxanes...
  24. Noro R, Yoshimura A, Yamamoto K, Miyanaga A, Mizutani H, Minegishi Y, et al. Alternating chemotherapy with amrubicin plus cisplatin and weekly administration of irinotecan plus cisplatin for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:1117-23 pubmed
    ..The novel alternating non-cross-resistant chemotherapy was probably active against ED-SCLC and had acceptable toxicities. Further evaluation of this treatment for ED-SCLC in randomized phase III trials is warranted. ..
  25. Fountzilas G, Dafni U, Bobos M, Batistatou A, Kotoula V, Trihia H, et al. Differential response of immunohistochemically defined breast cancer subtypes to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy with or without paclitaxel. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37946 pubmed publisher
    ..In the pre-trastuzumab era, the HER2-enriched subtype predicts favorable outcome following paclitaxel-containing treatment. ..
  26. Schindlbeck C, Mayr D, Olivier C, Rack B, Engelstaedter V, Jueckstock J, et al. Topoisomerase IIalpha expression rather than gene amplification predicts responsiveness of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy in women with primary breast cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136:1029-37 pubmed publisher
    ..TopIIa gene amplification did not add predictive information. Therefore, we conclude that TopIIa protein expression might rather be the target of anthracyclines independent from gene copy number.
  27. Gianni L, Norton L, Wolmark N, Suter T, Bonadonna G, Hortobagyi G. Role of anthracyclines in the treatment of early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:4798-808 pubmed publisher
    To review data relating to anthracyclines in the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. This is a report from a seminar in which the future of anthracyclines in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer was considered...
  28. Kizek R, Adam V, Hrabeta J, Eckschlager T, Smutný S, Burda J, et al. Anthracyclines and ellipticines as DNA-damaging anticancer drugs: recent advances. Pharmacol Ther. 2012;133:26-39 pubmed publisher
    Over the past forty years, anthracyclines and ellipticines have attracted attention as promising cytostatics. In this review, we focus on their mechanisms of cytoxicity, DNA-damaging effects and adverse side-effects...
  29. Burzykowski T, Buyse M, Piccart Gebhart M, Sledge G, Carmichael J, Lück H, et al. Evaluation of tumor response, disease control, progression-free survival, and time to progression as potential surrogate end points in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:1987-92 pubmed publisher
    ..No end point could be demonstrated as a good surrogate for OS in these trials. Tumor response may be an acceptable surrogate for PFS. ..
  30. Yun J, Kim K, Kang E, Gwak G, Choi M, Lee J, et al. Prophylactic use of lamivudine for hepatitis B exacerbation in post-operative breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Br J Cancer. 2011;104:559-63 pubmed publisher
    ..incidence of breast cancer worldwide, in particular in southeast Asia (including Korea), and the common use of anthracyclines in the adjuvant and metastatic settings, the occurrence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation may develop in ..
  31. Munro A, Cameron D, Bartlett J. Targeting anthracyclines in early breast cancer: new candidate predictive biomarkers emerge. Oncogene. 2010;29:5231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..HER2 has been extensively assessed as a predictive marker in a variety of chemotherapy regimens including anthracyclines. Analysis of anthracycline response in patients with HER2 amplification has given conflicting results...
  32. Hata A, Katakami N, Fujita S, Kaji R, Nanjo S, Otsuka K, et al. Amrubicin at a lower-dose with routine prophylactic use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for relapsed small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2011;72:224-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering both safety and efficacy, AMR at a dose of 35 mg/m(2) with routine prophylactic use of G-CSF may be more desirable for the treatment of relapsed SCLC in clinical practice. ..
  33. Smith L, Cornelius V, Plummer C, Levitt G, Verrill M, Canney P, et al. Cardiotoxicity of anthracycline agents for the treatment of cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:337 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need to improve cardiac monitoring in oncology trials. ..
  34. Graeser M, McCarthy A, Lord C, Savage K, Hills M, Salter J, et al. A marker of homologous recombination predicts pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:6159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Defective HR is frequent in triple-negative breast cancer, but it is also present in a subset of other subtypes, identifying breast cancers that may benefit from therapies that target defective HR such as PARP inhibitors. ..
  35. Ewer M, Ewer S. Cardiotoxicity of anticancer treatments: what the cardiologist needs to know. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2010;7:564-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In an effort to maximize both quality of life and survival, cardiologists and oncologists should collaborate with the aim of balancing the risks of cardiotoxicity with the benefits of oncologic therapy. ..
  36. Sawaya H, Sebag I, Plana J, Januzzi J, Ky B, Cohen V, et al. Early detection and prediction of cardiotoxicity in chemotherapy-treated patients. Am J Cardiol. 2011;107:1375-80 pubmed publisher
    As breast cancer survival increases, cardiotoxicity associated with chemotherapeutic regimens such as anthracyclines and trastuzumab becomes a more significant issue...
  37. Knauer M, Mook S, Rutgers E, Bender R, Hauptmann M, van de Vijver M, et al. The predictive value of the 70-gene signature for adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120:655-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This benefit was not significant in low risk patients, who were at such low risk for recurrence and cancer-related death, that adding CT does not appear to be clinically meaningful. ..
  38. Vahdat L, Pruitt B, Fabian C, Rivera R, Smith D, Tan Chiu E, et al. Phase II study of eribulin mesylate, a halichondrin B analog, in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:2954-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Eribulin demonstrated activity with manageable tolerability (including infrequent grade 3 and no grade 4 neuropathy) in heavily pretreated patients with MBC when dosed as a short IV infusion on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. ..
  39. Rayson D, Richel D, Chia S, Jackisch C, Van Der Vegt S, Suter T. Anthracycline-trastuzumab regimens for HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer: current experience and future strategies. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:1530-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of less cardiotoxic anthracyclines may be one strategy to lessen the risk of cardiotoxicity...
  40. Wang Y, Li J, Di G, Lu J, Wu J, Liu G, et al. [Retrospective analysis of trastuzumab treatment in 141 patients with Her-2 positive breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2010;32:864-7 pubmed
    ..Continued trastuzumab therapy combined with different chemotherapy treatment after disease progression may obtain additive clinical advantage. ..
  41. Cardoso F, Bedard P, Winer E, Pagani O, Senkus Konefka E, Fallowfield L, et al. International guidelines for management of metastatic breast cancer: combination vs sequential single-agent chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1174-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional research is needed to determine the impact of therapy on patient-rated quality of life and to identify predictive factors that can be used to guide therapy. ..
  42. Du X, Xia R, Liu C, Cormier J, Xing Y, Hardy D, et al. Cardiac toxicity associated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy in older women with breast cancer. Cancer. 2009;115:5296-308 pubmed publisher
    ..7% (31.9% vs 27.2%). After adjusting for patient and tumor characteristics, patients receiving anthracyclines were 25% more likely to have congestive heart failure compared with those without chemotherapy (hazard ratio [..
  43. Peres E, Levine J, Khaled Y, Ibrahim R, Braun T, Krijanovski O, et al. Cardiac complications in patients undergoing a reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2010;45:149-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Recurrence of arrhythmia occurred in 76% of patients. Day 100 mortality was 40% in this group. A history of high-dose anthracycline treatment and a low ejection fraction were risk factors for the development of cardiac complications. ..
  44. Stoodley P, Richards D, Hui R, Boyd A, Harnett P, Meikle S, et al. Two-dimensional myocardial strain imaging detects changes in left ventricular systolic function immediately after anthracycline chemotherapy. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2011;12:945-52 pubmed publisher
    The efficacy of anthracyclines is undermined by potential life-threatening cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is dependent upon several factors and the timing to its development is variable...
  45. Urbanova D, Urban L, Simkova I, Danova K, Mikuskova E, Mladosievicova B. Long-term cardiac effects of treatment for childhood leukemia. Neoplasma. 2010;57:179-83 pubmed
    ..Twenty six survivors of leukemia previously treated with anthracyclines with total cumulative dose 95-600 (median 221) mg/m(2) were evaluated...
  46. Marczak A. Fluorescence anisotropy of membrane fluidity probes in human erythrocytes incubated with anthracyclines and glutaraldehyde. Bioelectrochemistry. 2009;74:236-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because changes observed for TMA-DPH were the biggest from among tested probes we speculate that glutaraldehyde immobilizes drugs mainly at the surface of the erythrocytes cell membrane. ..
  47. Vici P, Viola G, Rossi S, Botti C, Vitucci C, Sergi D, et al. Optimal sequence of anthracyclines and taxanes as adjuvant breast cancer treatment. Clin Ter. 2008;159:453-6 pubmed advantage in DFS and OS for the taxane-arms, but the best schedule of administration, in combination with anthracyclines or in sequence, is still a debated issue, even if the sequential strategy appears to be less toxic...
  48. Ashley N, Poulton J. Mitochondrial DNA is a direct target of anti-cancer anthracycline drugs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:450-5 pubmed publisher
    The anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin (DXR), are potent anti-cancer drugs but they are limited by their clinical toxicity...
  49. Inoue A, Sugawara S, Yamazaki K, Maemondo M, Suzuki T, Gomi K, et al. Randomized phase II trial comparing amrubicin with topotecan in patients with previously treated small-cell lung cancer: North Japan Lung Cancer Study Group Trial 0402. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:5401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Amrubicin may be superior to topotecan with acceptable toxicity for previously treated patients with SCLC. Further evaluation of amrubicin for relapsed SCLC is warranted. ..
  50. Popelova O, Sterba M, Haskova P, Simunek T, Hroch M, Guncová I, et al. Dexrazoxane-afforded protection against chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity in vivo: effective rescue of cardiomyocytes from apoptotic cell death. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:792-802 pubmed publisher
  51. Popelova O, Sterba M, Simunek T, Mazurova Y, Guncová I, Hroch M, et al. Deferiprone does not protect against chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;326:259-69 pubmed publisher
  52. Moreno Aspitia A, Perez E. Anthracycline- and/or taxane-resistant breast cancer: results of a literature review to determine the clinical challenges and current treatment trends. Clin Ther. 2009;31:1619-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Resistance to the commonly used chemotherapies anthracyclines and taxanes, as well as the approval of new pharmacologic options for treating BC, present important clinical, ..
  53. Popat S, Smith I. Therapy Insight: anthracyclines and trastuzumab--the optimal management of cardiotoxic side effects. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2008;5:324-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthracyclines and trastuzumab are key agents in the management of patients with breast cancer, and have revolutionized the management of both early-stage and advanced-stage disease...
  54. Arun B, Granville L, Yin G, Middleton L, Dawood S, Kau S, et al. Glutathione-s-transferase-pi expression in early breast cancer: association with outcome and response to chemotherapy. Cancer Invest. 2010;28:554-9 pubmed publisher
    ..055). Further studies should evaluate the role of GST-pi expression in relation to response to different chemotherapies. ..
  55. O Brien M, Konopa K, Lorigan P, Bosquee L, Marshall E, Bustin F, et al. Randomised phase II study of amrubicin as single agent or in combination with cisplatin versus cisplatin etoposide as first-line treatment in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer - EORTC 08062. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:2322-30 pubmed publisher
    ..All regimens were active and PA met the criteria for further investigation, despite slightly higher haematological toxicity. ..
  56. Di Leo A, Desmedt C, Bartlett J, Piette F, Ejlertsen B, Pritchard K, et al. HER2 and TOP2A as predictive markers for anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimens as adjuvant treatment of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12:1134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..the prediction of responsiveness to anthracycline-based chemotherapy, our findings do not support the use of anthracyclines only in patients with HER2-amplified or TOP2A-aberrated tumours...
  57. Pritchard K, Munro A, O Malley F, Tu D, Li X, Levine M, et al. Chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) duplication as a predictor of anthracycline response: evidence from the NCIC Clinical Trials Group (NCIC CTG) MA.5 Trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;131:541-51 pubmed publisher
    ..5. An appropriately powered meta-analysis is required to discriminate the predictive value of these three candidate markers. ..
  58. Sawyer D, Peng X, Chen B, Pentassuglia L, Lim C. Mechanisms of anthracycline cardiac injury: can we identify strategies for cardioprotection?. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;53:105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..cardiac effects have provided several strategies currently in clinical use: limit dose exposure, encapsulate anthracyclines in liposomes to reduce myocardial uptake, administer concurrently with the iron chelator dexrazoxane to reduce ..
  59. Palmieri C, Krell J, James C, Harper Wynne C, Misra V, Cleator S, et al. Rechallenging with anthracyclines and taxanes in metastatic breast cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2010;7:561-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review examines the evidence for rechallenging with both anthracyclines and taxanes, and highlights the issues that need to be examined in the context of future clinical trials.
  60. Jotte R, Conkling P, Reynolds C, Galsky M, Klein L, Fitzgibbons J, et al. Randomized phase II trial of single-agent amrubicin or topotecan as second-line treatment in patients with small-cell lung cancer sensitive to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:287-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies are ongoing. ..
  61. Press M, Sauter G, Buyse M, Bernstein L, Guzman R, Santiago A, et al. Alteration of topoisomerase II-alpha gene in human breast cancer: association with responsiveness to anthracycline-based chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:859-67 pubmed publisher
    ..have coamplification of the topoisomerase II-alpha (TOP2A) gene encoding an enzyme that is a major target of anthracyclines. This study was designed to evaluate whether TOP2A gene alterations may predict incremental responsiveness to ..
  62. Trachtenberg B, Landy D, Franco V, Henkel J, Pearson E, Miller T, et al. Anthracycline-associated cardiotoxicity in survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatr Cardiol. 2011;32:342-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiac complications can occur years after exposure to anthracyclines and are a leading cause of noncancerous morbidity and mortality in this population...
  63. Bug M, Dobbelstein M. Anthracyclines induce the accumulation of mutant p53 through E2F1-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Oncogene. 2011;30:3612-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that the anthracyclines doxorubicin, daunorubicin and epirubicin further increase the amounts of mutant p53 mRNA and protein in cancer ..
  64. Oostendorp L, Stalmeier P, Donders A, van der Graaf W, Ottevanger P. Efficacy and safety of palliative chemotherapy for patients with advanced breast cancer pretreated with anthracyclines and taxanes: a systematic review. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12:1053-61 pubmed publisher
    ..combination palliative chemotherapy currently exists for patients with advanced breast cancer pretreated with anthracyclines and taxanes...
  65. Makino Y, Yamamoto N, Sato H, Ando R, Goto Y, Tanai C, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study on amrubicin and amrubicinol in Japanese patients with lung cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;69:861-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The pharmacokinetic profiles of amrubicin and amrubicinol were clarified, and the subsequent PK-PD analyses indicate that the clearance of amrubicinol is the major determinant of neutropenia. ..
  66. Simůnek T, Stérba M, Popelová O, Adamcová M, Hrdina R, Gersl V. Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity: overview of studies examining the roles of oxidative stress and free cellular iron. Pharmacol Rep. 2009;61:154-71 pubmed
    ..b>Anthracyclines may promote the formation of ROS through redox cycling of their aglycones as well as their anthracycline-iron ..
  67. Ross J, Slodkowska E, Symmans W, Pusztai L, Ravdin P, Hortobagyi G. The HER-2 receptor and breast cancer: ten years of targeted anti-HER-2 therapy and personalized medicine. Oncologist. 2009;14:320-68 pubmed publisher
    ..of HER-2 targeted therapy toxicity are included, and the review concludes with a consideration of HER-2 status in the prediction of response to non-HER-2 targeted treatments including hormonal therapy, anthracyclines, and taxanes.
  68. Fukuda M, Nakamura Y, Kasai T, Nagashima S, Nakatomi K, Doi S, et al. A phase I study of amrubicin and carboplatin for previously untreated patients with extensive-disease small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2009;4:741-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A dose of 35 mg/m(2) amrubicin and carboplatin AUC 5 was recommended in this regimen. This regimen is associated with an acceptable tolerability profile, and warrants evaluation in the phase II setting. ..
  69. Cheung Y, Hong W, Chan G, Wong S, Ha S. Left ventricular myocardial deformation and mechanical dyssynchrony in children with normal ventricular shortening fraction after anthracycline therapy. Heart. 2010;96:1137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..82). Impaired left ventricular myocardial deformation and mechanical dyssynchrony may exist in children after anthracycline therapy despite having normal left ventricular shortening fractions. ..
  70. Fathi A, Karp J. New agents in acute myeloid leukemia: beyond cytarabine and anthracyclines. Curr Oncol Rep. 2009;11:346-52 pubmed
    The standard therapeutic approaches for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continue to be based on anthracyclines and cytarabine. However, the prognosis for AML remains poor, especially for patients with high-risk disease...
  71. Cizmarikova M, Wagnerova M, Schonova L, Habalova V, Kohut A, Linkova A, et al. MDR1 (C3435T) polymorphism: relation to the risk of breast cancer and therapeutic outcome. Pharmacogenomics J. 2010;10:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..049, log-rank test) were observed in CC homozygotes. However, no significant association between hematologic toxicities and C3435T polymorphism was detectable. ..
  72. Kobayashi M, Matsui K, Iwamoto Y, Ebi N, Oizumi S, Takeda K, et al. Phase II study of sequential triplet chemotherapy, irinotecan and cisplatin followed by amrubicin, in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer: West Japan Thoracic Oncology Group Study 0301. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:1075-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequential triplet chemotherapy, irinotecan and cisplatin followed by amrubicin, is an effective and well-tolerated treatment in patients with extensive-stage SCLC. Further investigation of this treatment is warranted. ..
  73. Kaira K, Sunaga N, Tomizawa Y, Yanagitani N, Shimizu K, Imai H, et al. A phase II study of amrubicin, a synthetic 9-aminoanthracycline, in patients with previously treated lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2010;69:99-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Amrubicin 35 mg/m(2) seems to achieve similar efficacy with less toxicity than amrubicin 40 mg/m(2) in this patient population. These results warrant further evaluation in previously treated lung cancer. ..