Summary: An indandione that has been used as an anticoagulant. Phenindione has actions similar to WARFARIN, but it is now rarely employed because of its higher incidence of severe adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p234)

Top Publications

  1. Stephan D, Simonnet N, Weltin D, Habersetzer F, Welsch M, Imbs J. Cholestatic hepatitis caused by fluindione. Therapie. 2002;57:589-90 pubmed
  2. Galimard N, Vassilev K, Chevignard M, Perrigot M, Mazevet D. [Spontaneous muscular haematomas in hemiplegic patients receiving anticoagulation therapy]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2004;160:672-7 pubmed
    ..Ultrasound may be the first line investigation but in our experience, the results can be misleading and computed tomography (CT) or MRI are often required to confirm the diagnosis. ..
  3. Espana B, Couturier S, Prouillac C. Role of ABC transporters in trans-epithelial transport of vitamin K antagonists. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2017;38:20-32 pubmed publisher
    ..the intestinal transfer of the main coumarin derivatives (warfarin, acenocoumarol) and indanedione derivatives (phenindione, fluindione)...
  4. Lechowski L, Teillet L, Harboun M, Tortrat D, Forette B. [Determination of regimen fluindione needed for anticoagulation in the elderly]. Rev Med Interne. 2002;23:1022-6 pubmed
    ..In these very elderly patients, there was a relation between INR at the third day after a fixed dosage of fluindione and the daily maintenance dosage of fluindione necessary to obtain an INR value between 2 and 3. ..
  5. Ngo S, Benhamou Y, Armengol G, Sauvêtre G, Cailleux Talbot N, Massy N, et al. [Agranulocytosis related to fluindione: A case report]. Rev Med Interne. 2016;37:58-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This rare side effect is a reminder of the importance of biological monitoring in the first weeks following the introduction of fluindione and key diagnostic elements and therapeutic aspects of iatrogenic agranulocytosis. ..
  6. Jin M, Chen X. [Simultaneous determination of trace diphacinone and chlorophacinone in biological samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry]. Se Pu. 2010;28:197-203 pubmed
    ..9% and 11.2% for diphacinone and chlorophacinone, respectively. This method is simple and sensitive for the satisfactory determination of trace diphacinone and chlorophacinone residues in poisoned patients for the clinical diagnosis. ..
  7. Reynaud F, Giraud P, Cisterne J, Verdier D, Kouchakipour Z, Hermelin A, et al. [Acute immuno-allergic interstitial nephritis after treatment with fluindione. Seven cases]. Nephrol Ther. 2009;5:292-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, there are only three reports of single cases of acute renal failure related to fluindione published so far to date. This serious side effect of fluindione should be recognized. ..
  8. de Brito P, Gomez M, Besson M, Scotto B, Alison D. [Mesenteric hematoma: Unusual complication of a long term oral anticoagulation therapy]. Ann Chir. 2006;131:529-32 pubmed
    ..In our case report, patient's deterioration justified an emergency surgery corroborating medical imager findings. Authors review the rare cases previously reported. ..
  9. Meurin P, Renaud N, Weber H, Tabet J, Grosdemouge A, Bourmayan C, et al. [Treatment of left intraventricular thrombosis with low molecular weight heparin]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 2003;96:311-5 pubmed
    ..5%). There was no thrombocytopenia or haemorrhage. One transient ischaemic attack was noted. This preliminary work shows that LMWH are well tolerated and effective to make a thrombus disappear or to reduce its size. ..

More Information


  1. Garcia Darennes F, Darennes J, Freidel M, Breton P. [Protocol for adapting treatment with vitamin K antagonists before dental extraction]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2003;104:69-72 pubmed
    ..8 using hemostatic gauze suture and tranexamic acid in case of persistent bleeding. ..
  2. Cretel E, Cacoub P, Huong D, Gompel A, Amoura Z, Piette J. Massive ovarian haemorrhage complicating oral anticoagulation in the antiphospholipid syndrome: a report of three cases. Lupus. 1999;8:482-5 pubmed
    ..A systematic use of these progestins should probably be discussed in young women receiving long-term warfarin for APS. Ovarian haemorrhage must be considered when such patients develop acute abdominal pain. ..
  3. Vavilova T, Sirotkina O, Razorenov G, Razorenova T, Emanuel V, Gritsenko V, et al. [The influence of hereditary thrombophilic mechanisms on the degree of permanent intravascular coagulation in patients with artificial heart valves]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 2004;163:89-94 pubmed
    ..The laboratory detection of the genetic defects is of great practical importance for the determination of risk groups of formation of PIC-3 and the strategy of antithrombotic protection of patients with AHV. ..
  4. Schaefer C, Hannemann D, Meister R, Elefant E, Paulus W, Vial T, et al. Vitamin K antagonists and pregnancy outcome. A multi-centre prospective study. Thromb Haemost. 2006;95:949-57 pubmed
    ..women exposed to phenprocoumon (n = 280), acenocoumarol (n = 226), fluindione (n = 99), warfarin (n = 63) and phenindione (n = 2) to a non-exposed control group (n = 1,094)...
  5. Lacut K, Ayme Dietrich E, Gourhant L, Poulhazan E, Andro M, Becquemont L, et al. Impact of genetic factors (VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and EPHX1) on the anticoagulation response to fluindione. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;73:428-36 pubmed publisher
    ..CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and EPHX1 genotypes did not significantly influence the response to fluindione. VKORC1 genotype strongly affected anticoagulation induced by fluindione whereas CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and EPHX1 genotypes seemed less determining. ..
  6. Rattner B, Horak K, Warner S, Johnston J. Acute toxicity of diphacinone in Northern bobwhite: effects on survival and blood clotting. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73:1159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These clotting time assays and toxicity data will assist in the development of a pharmacodynamic model to predict toxicity, and also facilitate rodenticide hazard and risk assessments in avian species...
  7. Sellam J, Costedoat Chalumeau N, Amoura Z, Aymard G, Choquet S, Trad S, et al. Potentiation of fluindione or warfarin by dexamethasone in multiple myeloma and AL amyloidosis. Joint Bone Spine. 2007;74:446-52 pubmed
    ..High dose DXM can potentiate oral anticoagulants and elevate INR substantially. INR should therefore be monitored repeatedly during concomitant administration of these 2 drugs to allow individual adaptation of oral anticoagulant doses. ..
  8. Xu Y, Wijeratne E, Espinosa Artiles P, Gunatilaka A, Molnar I. Combinatorial mutasynthesis of scrambled beauvericins, cyclooligomer depsipeptide cell migration inhibitors from Beauveria bassiana. Chembiochem. 2009;10:345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of the introduced structural changes on the antiproliferative and cell migration inhibitory activities of these analogues were evaluated. ..
  9. Wickramasinghe L, Basu S, Bansal S. Long-term oral anticoagulant therapy in elderly patients. Age Ageing. 1988;17:388-96 pubmed
    ..Five patients who experienced six non-fatal haemorrhages (two major and four minor) showed poor overall anticoagulant control from the outset (P less than 0.01). The treatment failure rate was 4%. ..
  10. Mentre F, Pousset F, Comets E, Plaud B, Diquet B, Montalescot G, et al. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of fluindione in patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998;63:64-78 pubmed
    ..This first application of the indirect-response model to multiple oral anticoagulant doses in patients confirmed that both the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of fluindione show substantial interindividual variability. ..
  11. Primus T, Griffin D, Volz S, Johnston J. Reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatographic determination of chlorophacinone and diphacinone in steam-rolled oat baits and steam-rolled oat/wax baits. J AOAC Int. 1998;81:349-57 pubmed
    ..0 and 0.76 micrograms/g, respectively. Method limits of detection for chlorophacinone and diphacinone in wax baits were estimated to be 4.2 and 2.8 micrograms/g, respectively. ..
  12. Penot J, Fontenelle P, Dorleac D. [Asymptomatic acute cytolytic hepatitis due to fluindione and associated with resistance to treatment: a case report and review of the literature]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1998;91:267-70 pubmed
    ..Very severe immuno-allergic complications, especially hepatic, have been described with phenindione therapy...
  13. Lechat P, Lardoux H, Mallet A, Sanchez P, Derumeaux G, Lecompte T, et al. Anticoagulant (fluindione)-aspirin combination in patients with high-risk atrial fibrillation. A randomized trial (Fluindione, Fibrillation Auriculaire, Aspirin et Contraste Spontané; FFAACS). Cerebrovasc Dis. 2001;12:245-52 pubmed
    ..The effect on thromboembolism and the overall balance of benefit to risk could not be accurately assessed in this study due to the limited number of ischemic events. ..
  14. Janin S, Meneveau N, Mahemuti A, Descotes Genon V, Dutheil J, Chopard R, et al. Safety and efficacy of fondaparinux as an adjunctive treatment to thrombolysis in patients with high and intermediate risk pulmonary embolism. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2009;28:320-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the small sample size, our data suggest that fondaparinux procures adequate tolerability compared to standard current therapy in combination with thrombolysis in high to intermediate risk PE. ..
  15. Comets E, Pousset F, Mentre F, Diquet B, Ankri A, Mallet A, et al. Prediction of fluindione maintenance dosage hampered by large intraindividual variability. Ther Drug Monit. 2000;22:668-75 pubmed
    ..4 mg), but a large root mean squared error (8 mg) was found. The intraindividual variability in Cl*C50 between hospital and maintenance regimen was high (93%), which may explain the dispersion in the predicted maintenance dose. ..
  16. Hill A, Marshall J, Shaw D. Cerebrovascular disease: trial of long-term anticoagulant therapy. Br Med J. 1962;2:1003-6 pubmed
  17. Hassouna A, Allam H, Awad A, Hassaballah F. Standard versus low-level anticoagulation combined to low-dose dipyridamole after mitral valve replacement. Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;8:491-8 pubmed
    ..b>Phenindione has been the anticoagulant of choice...
  18. Tubert P, Begaud B, Haramburu F, Pere J. Spontaneous reporting: how many cases are required to trigger a warning?. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;32:407-8 pubmed
    ..An example is given which illustrates the method. ..
  19. Tous S, El Sayed A, el Harras S, Jun H. Availability of phenindione-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. Pharmazie. 1992;47:365-8 pubmed
    The inclusion complexation was occurred between beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and phenindione (1) in aqueous solution. The complex formation was proved by solubility, dissolution and permeation study...
  20. Jin M, Chen X, Ye M, Zhu Y. Analysis of indandione anticoagulant rodenticides in animal liver by eluent generator reagent free ion chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1213:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The coupling of IC to MS provided a new analytical tool to the analysts faced with the requirement of separating and analyzing indandione rodenticides in animal livers. ..
  21. McLintock L, Dykes A, Tait R, Walker I. Interaction between hormone replacement therapy preparations and oral anticoagulant therapy. BJOG. 2003;110:777-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, non-tibolone HRT preparations do not consistently alter anticoagulant control or dose requirements. ..
  22. Chan J, Vogel S, Wen J, Alany R. Potentiometric determination of ionisation constants for diphacinone and chlorophacinone in a dioxane-water cosolvent system. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009;50:86-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrated that the use of an organic cosolvent is effective in improving the solubility of compounds allowing potentiometric determination of ionisation constants that are otherwise difficult in aqueous solutions. ..
  23. Naisbitt D, Farrell J, Chamberlain P, Hopkins J, Berry N, Pirmohamed M, et al. Characterization of the T-cell response in a patient with phenindione hypersensitivity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;313:1058-65 pubmed
    The oral anticoagulant phenindione [2-phenyl-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione] is associated with hypersensitivity reactions in 1.5 to 3% of patients, the pathogenesis of which is unclear...
  24. Royer B, Ziegler F, Muret P, Davani S, Kantelip J. Acitretin-associated thrombotic stroke. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36:1879-82 pubmed
    ..Acitretin should be considered as a possible cause of thrombotic stroke; this possibility should be kept in mind when patients taking acitretin develop an unexplained thrombotic event. ..
  25. Anderson D, Brill Edwards P, Walker I. Warfarin-induced skin necrosis in 2 patients with protein S deficiency: successful reinstatement of warfarin therapy. Haemostasis. 1992;22:124-8 pubmed
    ..Both patients tolerated the reinstitution of warfarin without difficulty and they have now been followed for over 2 years on oral anticoagulants without complication. ..
  26. Leroyer C, Bressollette L, Oger E, Mansourati J, Cheze Le Rest C, Nonent M, et al. Early versus delayed introduction of oral vitamin K antagonists in combination with low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis. a randomized clinical trial. The ANTENOX Study Group. Haemostasis. 1998;28:70-7 pubmed
    ..In patients with early introduction of oral anticoagulant, hospitalization was significantly reduced. ..
  27. Fiessinger J, Paul J, Alhenc Gelas M, Veyssier C, Martin J, Aiach M. [Treatment of venous thrombosis with low molecular weight heparin and fluindione]. Presse Med. 1992;21:65-8 pubmed
    ..5 to 1 antiXa/ml units). The early administration of fluindione reduced the duration of heparin therapy to 5.75 days. Using a prescription guide on days 2 and 4 might improve the safety of the fluindione induction. ..
  28. Hassouna A, Allam H. Oral anticoagulation therapy during pregnancy in patients with mechanical mitral valves: a prospective study. Cardiovasc Surg. 2001;9:478-81 pubmed
    Reports on phenindione toxicity have limited its use as an oral anticoagulant. Our aim was to evaluate its risks in pregnant women. Thirty-one pregnancies in 29 women with mitral (+/-aortic) St...
  29. Comets E, Diquet B, Legrain S, Huisse M, Godon A, Bruhat C, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability of fluindione in octogenarians. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;91:777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacokinetic exposure is substantially increased in elderly patients, warranting a lower dose of fluindione. ..
  30. Bezier M, Perceau G, Reguiai Z, Remy Leroux V, Tchen T, Durlach A, et al. [Necrotic leg ulcers induced by vitamin K antagonists: five cases]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2011;138:657-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiopathological mechanisms accounting for the role of VKAs, including immunoallergic phenomena and, above all, microcirculatory thrombotic processes, are hypothetical and not universally accepted. ..
  31. Pautas E, Despres J, Peyron I, Golmard J, Grange J, Koenig N, et al. [Divisibility of warfarin and fluindione tablets tested in elderly patients and their family circle]. Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil. 2011;9:171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, split form of drugs should be prescribe with caution to elderly patients. ..
  32. Pitt W, Higashi M, Primus T. The effect of cooking on diphacinone residues related to human consumption of feral pig tissues. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2030-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The hazards to humans and pets from meat from feral pigs that consumed the rodenticide diphacinone are not reduced by cooking; consumption of pig meat obtained from areas with active rodent control programs should be avoided. ..
  33. Lechat P. Aspirin--anticoagulant combination in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation commentary on the FFAACS study results. Card Electrophysiol Rev. 2003;7:372-3 pubmed
    ..The question remains with respect to antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation if the risk of severe bleeding complications outweighs the benefit of avoiding ischemic stroke. ..
  34. Piquet P, Losay J, Doubine S. [Acenocoumarol (Sintrom) and fluinidione (Previscan) in pediatrics after cardiac surgical procedures]. Arch Pediatr. 2002;9:1137-44 pubmed
    ..14 and 0.05 (acenocoumarol) or 1.1 and 0.40 mg kg-1 day-1 (fluindione), before 12 months and after three years respectively. ..
  35. Gelot P, Maillard H, De Ybarlucea L, Bara C, Prophette B, Celerier P. [An atypical skin rash in a setting of antiphospholipid syndrome]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012;139:282-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical remission seen from the start of antiplatelet treatment could be due to the action of these drugs against the obstruction of small-calibre dermal vessels. ..
  36. Al Obaidi H, Ke P, Brocchini S, Buckton G. Characterization and stability of ternary solid dispersions with PVP and PHPMA. Int J Pharm. 2011;419:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The model actives griseofulvin (GF), progesterone (PG) and phenindione (PD) were selected because they exemplify a key property of many poorly soluble molecules of having at least ..
  37. Mount M, Kurth M, Jackson D. Production of antibodies and development of an immunoassay for the anticoagulant, diphacinone. J Immunoassay. 1988;9:69-81 pubmed
    ..Cross-reactivity study with chlorophacinone showed that the antisera possessed a high degree of diphacinone specificity. ..
  38. Pathak A, Leger P, Bagheri H, Senard J, Boccalon H, Montastruc J. Garlic interaction with fluindione: a case report. Therapie. 2003;58:380-1 pubmed
  39. Bossavy J, Sakariassen K, Thalamas C, Boneu B, Cadroy Y. Antithrombotic efficacy of the vitamin K antagonist fluindione in a human Ex vivo model of arterial thrombosis : effect of anticoagulation level and combination therapy with aspirin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19:2269-75 pubmed
    ..Aspirin enhances the antithrombotic effectiveness of fluindione, because combined treatment interrupts both TF- and collagen-induced thrombus formation. ..
  40. Berrady R, Khammar Z, Lamchachti L, Lahlou M, Rabhi S, Bono W. [Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava revealing primary antiphospholipid syndrome: a case report]. J Mal Vasc. 2010;35:47-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The scanner coupled with Doppler ultrasonography showed thrombosis of the inferior vena cava. On these radiological findings, an immunological work-up was requested, which showed the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. ..
  41. Whisson D, Salmon T. Effect of diphacinone on blood coagulation in Spermophilus beecheyi as a basis for determining optimal timing of field bait applications. Pest Manag Sci. 2002;58:736-8 pubmed
  42. Baldwin R, Quinn N, Davis D, Engeman R. Effectiveness of rodenticides for managing invasive roof rats and native deer mice in orchards. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21:5795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Our use of elevated bait stations proved effective at providing bait to target species and should substantially limit access to rodenticides by many non-target species. ..
  43. Passemard M, Koehrer P, Juniot A, Bron A, Creuzot Garcher C. Maintenance of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents for patients undergoing peribulbar anesthesia and vitreoretinal surgery. Retina. 2012;32:1868-73 pubmed
    ..However, retinal surgeons should be aware that severe bleeding complications are more frequent in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. ..
  44. Verstuyft C, Delavenne X, Rousseau A, Robert A, Tod M, Diquet B, et al. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model for predicting the impact of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms on fluindione and acenocoumarol during induction therapy. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2012;51:41-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our result suggests that it is important to take the CYP1A2 phenotype into account to improve individualization of fluindione therapy, in addition to genetic factors. ..
  45. Silver J, Noori Z. Pulmonary embolism following anticoagulation therapy. Int Disabil Stud. 1991;13:16-9 pubmed
    ..with traumatic spinal injury received a course of oral anticoagulant therapy with warfarin, heparin, or phenindione for 90 days following injury...
  46. Johnston J, Pitt W, Sugihara R, Eisemann J, Primus T, Holmes M, et al. Probabilistic risk assessment for snails, slugs, and endangered honeycreepers in diphacinone rodenticide baited areas on Hawaii, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:1557-67 pubmed
    ..Also, no acute toxicity was noted for snails and slugs that feed on diphacinone baits. ..
  47. Aymard G, Legrand M, Comets E, Mentre F, Diquet B. Rapid and simple micromethod for the quantification of fluindione in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998;707:169-73 pubmed
    ..1, 0.5 and 2.5 microg/ml at room temperature and exposition to light for 120 h, no degradation of fluindione occurred. This micromethod is simple (no extraction step), fast and currently is being used for drug monitoring. ..
  48. Gras Champel V, Ohlmann P, Polard E, Wiesel M, Imbs J, Andrejak M. Can colchicine potentiate the anticoagulant effect of fluindione?. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;61:555-6 pubmed
  49. Beauchamp C, Enache I, Haskour A, Martin L. [Acute interstitial nephritis of fluindione: about three cases]. Nephrol Ther. 2008;4:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The list of imputable drugs includes phenindione, a vitamin K antagonist. Fluindione which is also an indanedione derivative is another vitamin K antagonist...
  50. Rattner B, Horak K, Lazarus R, Goldade D, Johnston J. Toxicokinetics and coagulopathy threshold of the rodenticide diphacinone in eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2014;33:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Diphacinone exposure evokes toxicity in raptors within a matter of days; but once exposure is terminated, recovery of hemostasis occurs rapidly. ..
  51. Primus T, Primus T, Kohler D, Johnston J, Sugihara R, Pitt W. Determination of diphacinone residues in Hawaiian invertebrates. J Chromatogr Sci. 2006;44:1-5 pubmed
    ..Diphacinone residues in slug tissue ranges from 1.3 to 4.0 mg/kg for Deroceras laeve and < MLOD to 1.8 mg/kg for Limax maximus, respectively. The mean recoveries from slugs at 0.20 and 2.0 mg/kg are 91% +/- 15% and 86% +/- 5%. ..
  52. Raper A. Experiences in the control of long-term anticoagulant treatment. Bristol Med Chir J. 1966;81:69-73 pubmed
  53. Cam G, Kwetcheu A, Vigneau C, Siohan P, Queffeulou G, Gatault P, et al. Acute and chronic nephropathy induced by fluindione must be addressed. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:1554-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with pre-existing kidney disease were more prone to develop severe CKD with fluindione. In this large study, arguments are presented to incriminate fluindione in the induction of acute and chronic nephritis. ..
  54. Saligari E, Belle L, Berry C, Gonod M, Poiré V, Picard A, et al. [Evaluation of an education program of patients undergoing oral anticoagulation treatment]. Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris). 2003;52:297-301 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the therapeutic impact of an education program on patients undergoing oral anticoagulation treatment, within the hospital of Annecy (France)...
  55. Stone W, Okoniewski J, Stedelin J. Poisoning of wildlife with anticoagulant rodenticides in New York. J Wildl Dis. 1999;35:187-93 pubmed
    ..All of the deer originated from a rather unique situation on a barrier island off southern Long Island (New York). Restrictions on the use of brodifacoum appear warranted. ..
  56. Self T, Owens R, Sakaan S, Wallace J, Sands C, Howard Thompson A. Effect of diseases on response to vitamin K antagonists. Curr Med Res Opin. 2016;32:613-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to minimize risks with VKAs while ensuring efficacy, clinicians must be aware of the effect of disease states when prescribing these oral anticoagulants. ..
  57. Costedoat Chalumeau N, Amoura Z, Aymard G, Sevin O, Wechsler B, Cacoub P, et al. Potentiation of vitamin K antagonists by high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:631-5 pubmed
    ..The action of oral anticoagulants is potentiated by intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone. The INR should be monitored daily during concomitant administration of these medications. ..
  58. Couderq C, Drouineau J, Rosier M, Alvarez A, Gil R, Neau J. [Pathological laughter after the brainstem infarction]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2000;156:281-4 pubmed
    ..Different clinical forms of pathological laughter, the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinico-anatomical correlations of this rare phenomenon are discussed. ..
  59. Colombet I, Bura Rivière A, Chatila R, Chatellier G, Durieux P. Personalized versus non-personalized computerized decision support system to increase therapeutic quality control of oral anticoagulant therapy: an alternating time series analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2004;4:27 pubmed
    ..Both types of reminders appear to the physician at the moment of drug ordering. ..
  60. Belmouaz S, Desport E, Abou Ayache R, Thierry A, Mignot A, Bauwens M, et al. Acute immuno-allergic interstitial nephritis caused by fluindione. Clin Nephrol. 2006;66:455-8 pubmed
    ..Early recognition of this rare complication may prevent the development of severe chronic renal injury. ..
  61. Walter T, Lot M, Guillaud O, Vial T, Boillot O, Dumortier J. [Liver toxicity associated with oral anticoagulant treatment: report of two cases]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2007;31:615-6 pubmed
  62. Lena H, Desrues B, Quinquenel M, Gacouin A, Caulet Maugendre S, Briens E, et al. [Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage secondary to oral anticoagulant use]. Rev Mal Respir. 1995;12:496-8 pubmed
  63. Rattner B, Horak K, Lazarus R, Eisenreich K, Meteyer C, Volker S, et al. Assessment of toxicity and potential risk of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone using Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio). Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:832-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings can assist natural resource managers in weighing the costs and benefits of anticoagulant rodenticide use in pest control and eradication programs. ..
  64. Ansell J, Hollowell J, Pengo V, Martinez Brotons F, Caro J, Drouet L. Descriptive analysis of the process and quality of oral anticoagulation management in real-life practice in patients with chronic non-valvular atrial fibrillation: the international study of anticoagulation management (ISAM). J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2007;23:83-91 pubmed
    ..Physicians tend to under treat more than over treat. Finally, documentation of care is often inadequate. ..
  65. Chiche L, Thomas G, Canavese S, Branger S, Jean R, Durand J. Severe hemorrhagic syndrome due to similarity of drug names. Eur J Intern Med. 2008;19:135-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Such problems can be alleviated through actions by regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical manufacturers, health care professionals, and patients. ..
  66. Chtioui M, Cousin Testard F, Zimmermann U, Amar A, Saiag P, Mahe E. [Fluindione-induced acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis confirmed by patch testing]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2008;135:295-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Skin patch-testing, which is easily performed, can be extremely helpful in determining a causal relationship with medication. ..
  67. Merklen Djafri C, Mazurier I, Samama M, Alhenc Gelas M, Tortel M, Cribier B, et al. [Skin necrosis during long-term fluindione treatment revealing protein C deficiency]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012;139:199-203 pubmed publisher
    ..This late-onset skin necrosis, occurring many years after initiation of anticoagulant therapy, may be explained by a sudden worsening of pre-existing protein C deficiency due to infectious and iatrogenic factors. ..
  68. Oriot D, Wolf M, Wood C, Brun P, Sidi D, Devictor D, et al. [Severe thrombocytopenia induced by heparin in an infant with acute myocarditis]. Arch Fr Pediatr. 1990;47:357-9 pubmed replace standard heparin by low molecular weight heparin (Fraxiparin), associated with vitamin K antagonist (phenindione). On D12, a 3rd intra-cardiac thrombus required immediate discontinuation of Fraxiparin therapy...
  69. Chen S, Deng P, Bailey J, Swiderek K. A two-domain structure for the two subunits of NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase. Protein Sci. 1994;3:51-7 pubmed
    ..can be blocked by the prosthetic group FAD, substrates NAD(P)H and menadione, and inhibitors dicoumarol and phenindione. Interestingly, chrysin and Cibacron blue, 2 additional inhibitors, cannot protect the enzyme from proteolytic ..
  70. Mount M, Kass P. Diagnostic importance of vitamin K1 and its epoxide measured in serum of dogs exposed to an anticoagulant rodenticide. Am J Vet Res. 1989;50:1704-9 pubmed
    ..One-stage prothrombin time changes, during days 24 to 32, indicated 5 mg of vitamin K1/kg provided better protection than did 2.5 mg of vitamin K1/kg. Coagulopathy in the dogs was resolved by day 32. ..
  71. Braselton W, Neiger R, Poppenga R. Confirmation of indandione rodenticide toxicoses by mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1992;4:441-6 pubmed
    ..Positive confirmation of CP in both cases led to identification of the source of the toxicant and prevention of further animal exposures. ..
  72. Spiller H, Gallenstein G, Murphy M. Dermal absorption of a liquid diphacinone rodenticide causing coagulaopathy. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003;45:313-4 pubmed
    ..Factors increasing the dermal absorption of the diphacinone were: prolonged skin contact in a confined area and exposure to a concentrated solution. ..
  73. Daveluy A, Milpied B, Barbaud A, Lebrun Vignes B, Gouraud A, Laroche M, et al. Fluindione and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms: an unrecognised adverse effect?. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;68:101-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The seriousness of DRESS, as all immuno-allergic adverse effects, contraindicates fluindione reintroduction. Coumarinic derivatives are the alternatives in patients who need oral anticoagulant treatment. ..
  74. Desmard M, Hellmann R, Plantefeve G, Mentec H. [Severe overdose in vitamin K antagonist secondary to grapefruit juice absorption]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2009;28:897-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the case of a woman treated with VKA in whom massive absorption of grapefruit juice entailed an excessive VKA dosage and a severe haemorrhage. ..
  75. Cai M, Chen X, Jin M. An enhancement of europium-/gadolinium- diphacinone -DL-histidine- cetylpyridine bromide system for the determination of diphacinone in serum. J Fluoresc. 2011;21:1349-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The luminescence mechanism was discussed in detail. In the fluorescence system of the europium-gadolinium-DPN-DL-histidine-CPB, the CPB not only acted as the surfactant but also acted as the energy donor. ..
  76. Grosset A, Allen J, Rodgers G. Anticoagulation with anisindione in patients who are intolerant of warfarin. Am J Hematol. 1994;46:138-40 pubmed
    ..We used an indanedione drug, anisindione, in two patients who were intolerant of warfarin but who needed long-term oral anticoagulation. The use of this alternative oral anticoagulant is reviewed. ..
  77. Lechat P, Lardoux H, Mallet A, Sanchez P, Derumeaux G, Lecompte T, et al. [Study of combined anticoagulant (fluindione)-aspirin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation at high risk for thromboembolic complications. A randomized trial (FFAACS)]. Therapie. 2000;55:681-9 pubmed
    ..Such a combination increased the incidence rate of bleeding complications, which therefore greatly reduces its potential overall benefit. ..
  78. Vogel T, Coriol V, Kaltenbach G, Kiesmann M, Berthel M. [Prospective study of oral anticoagulation control in 110 very elderly hospitalized patients and of risk factors for poor control]. Presse Med. 2008;37:1723-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Only 31% of tests showed INR in the target range of 2 to 3, a rate lower than in other cohorts. These results may be explained by the high rate of comorbidities in this very old study population. ..