Summary: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.

Top Publications

  1. Bär C, Zabel R, Liu S, Stark M, Schaffrath R. A versatile partner of eukaryotic protein complexes that is involved in multiple biological processes: Kti11/Dph3. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1221-33 pubmed publisher
    ..It encodes a C-terminal Kti11 truncation that almost entirely abolishes Elongator interaction without affecting association with Kti13, another Kti11 partner protein. ..
  2. Molina G, Vogt A, Bakan A, Dai W, Queiroz de Oliveira P, Znosko W, et al. Zebrafish chemical screening reveals an inhibitor of Dusp6 that expands cardiac cell lineages. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:680-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the power of in vivo zebrafish chemical screens to identify new compounds targeting Dusp6, a component of the FGF signaling pathway that has eluded traditional high-throughput in vitro screens...
  3. Kakadiya R, Dong H, Lee P, Kapuriya N, Zhang X, Chou T, et al. Potent antitumor bifunctional DNA alkylating agents, synthesis and biological activities of 3a-aza-cyclopenta[a]indenes. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:5614-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The current studies suggested that these agents are promising candidates for preclinical studies. ..
  4. Katsir L, Schilmiller A, Staswick P, He S, Howe G. COI1 is a critical component of a receptor for jasmonate and the bacterial virulence factor coronatine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that COI1 is a critical component of the JA receptor and that COR exerts its virulence effects by functioning as a potent agonist of this receptor system. ..
  5. Zeng W, He S. A prominent role of the flagellin receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING2 in mediating stomatal response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:1188-98 pubmed publisher
  6. Ishiga Y, Uppalapati S, Ishiga T, Elavarthi S, Martin B, Bender C. The phytotoxin coronatine induces light-dependent reactive oxygen species in tomato seedlings. New Phytol. 2009;181:147-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results demonstrate a role for COR-induced effects on photosynthetic machinery and ROS in modulating necrotic cell death during bacterial speck disease of tomato. ..
  7. Demianski A, Chung K, Kunkel B. Analysis of Arabidopsis JAZ gene expression during Pseudomonas syringae pathogenesis. Mol Plant Pathol. 2012;13:46-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, JAZ10 is a negative regulator of both JA signalling and disease symptom development...
  8. Yan J, Zhang C, Gu M, Bai Z, Zhang W, Qi T, et al. The Arabidopsis CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 protein is a jasmonate receptor. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2220-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that COI1 directly binds to JA-Ile and COR and serves as a receptor for jasmonate. ..
  9. Wangdi T, Uppalapati S, Nagaraj S, Ryu C, Bender C, Mysore K. A virus-induced gene silencing screen identifies a role for Thylakoid Formation1 in Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato symptom development in tomato and Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:281-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results show that the virus-induced gene silencing-based forward genetic screen has the potential to identify new players in COR signaling and disease-associated necrotic cell death. ..

More Information


  1. Zhang J, Zhu D, Sheng R, Wu H, Hu Y, Wang F, et al. BZYX, a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, significantly improved chemicals-induced learning and memory impairments on rodents and protected PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;613:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is hopeful that BZYX becomes a potential candidate for use in the intervention for neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  2. Uppalapati S, Ishiga Y, Ryu C, Ishiga T, Wang K, Noël L, et al. SGT1 contributes to coronatine signaling and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato disease symptom development in tomato and Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 2011;189:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..SGT1 is therefore a component of the COR/JA-mediated signal transduction pathway. ..
  3. Sheard L, Tan X, Mao H, Withers J, Ben Nissan G, Hinds T, et al. Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor. Nature. 2010;468:400-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs...
  4. Uppalapati S, Ishiga Y, Wangdi T, Urbanczyk Wochniak E, Ishiga T, Mysore K, et al. Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato on tomato seedlings: phenotypic and gene expression analyses of the virulence function of coronatine. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The seedling assay can be used in high-throughput screens for the identification of molecular targets for COR and for the identification of genes involved in pathogenesis. ..
  5. Hardeland R, Poeggeler B, Srinivasan V, Trakht I, Pandi Perumal S, Cardinali D. Melatonergic drugs in clinical practice. Arzneimittelforschung. 2008;58:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..g., on reproductive functions. According to current data, both compounds seem to be safe during short-term treatment ..
  6. Zhang W, He S, Assmann S. The plant innate immunity response in stomatal guard cells invokes G-protein-dependent ion channel regulation. Plant J. 2008;56:984-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These new findings provide insights into the largely elusive signaling process underlying PTI-associated guard cell responses. ..
  7. Ishiga Y, Ishiga T, Wangdi T, Mysore K, Uppalapati S. NTRC and chloroplast-generated reactive oxygen species regulate Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato disease development in tomato and Arabidopsis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2012;25:294-306 pubmed publisher
  8. Melotto M, Mecey C, Niu Y, Chung H, Katsir L, Yao J, et al. A critical role of two positively charged amino acids in the Jas motif of Arabidopsis JAZ proteins in mediating coronatine- and jasmonoyl isoleucine-dependent interactions with the COI1 F-box protein. Plant J. 2008;55:979-88 pubmed publisher
  9. Botet J, Rodríguez Mateos M, Ballesta J, Revuelta J, Remacha M. A chemical genomic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a role for diphthamidation of translation elongation factor 2 in inhibition of protein synthesis by sordarin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:1623-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results underscore the importance of the powerful genomic tools developed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to more comprehensively understanding the cellular mechanisms involved in the response to therapeutic agents. ..
  10. Uppalapati S, Ishiga Y, Wangdi T, Kunkel B, Anand A, Mysore K, et al. The phytotoxin coronatine contributes to pathogen fitness and is required for suppression of salicylic acid accumulation in tomato inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2007;20:955-65 pubmed publisher
  11. Voets M, Antes I, Scherer C, Muller Vieira U, Biemel K, Marchais Oberwinkler S, et al. Synthesis and evaluation of heteroaryl-substituted dihydronaphthalenes and indenes: potent and selective inhibitors of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) for the treatment of congestive heart failure and myocardial fibrosis. J Med Chem. 2006;49:2222-31 pubmed
    In this study, the synthesis and biological evaluation of heteroaryl-substituted dihydronaphthalenes and indenes (1-16) is described...
  12. Erman M, Seiden D, Zammit G, Sainati S, Zhang J. An efficacy, safety, and dose-response study of Ramelteon in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Sleep Med. 2006;7:17-24 pubmed
    ..Ramelteon demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in LPS and a statistically significant increase in TST, with no apparent next-day residual effects, in patients with chronic primary insomnia. ..
  13. Uppalapati S, Ayoubi P, Weng H, Palmer D, Mitchell R, Jones W, et al. The phytotoxin coronatine and methyl jasmonate impact multiple phytohormone pathways in tomato. Plant J. 2005;42:201-17 pubmed
  14. Di Stefano A, Sozio P, Cacciatore I, Cocco A, Giorgioni G, Costa B, et al. Preparation and pharmacological characterization of trans-2-amino-5(6)-fluoro-6(5)-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indenes as D2-like dopamine receptor agonists. J Med Chem. 2005;48:2646-54 pubmed
    The present work reports the synthesis of trans-2-amino-5(6)-fluoro-6(5)-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indenes (4a-f, 5a-f) as a continuation of our studies to better understand the significance of the halo substituent in the trans-1-..
  15. Wood C, Lee K, Vaisberg A, Kingston D, Neto C, Hammond G. A bioactive spirolactone iridoid and triterpenoids from Himatanthus sucuuba. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001;49:1477-8 pubmed
  16. Karim A, Tolbert D, Cao C. Disposition kinetics and tolerance of escalating single doses of ramelteon, a high-affinity MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptor agonist indicated for treatment of insomnia. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;46:140-8 pubmed
    ..Digit Symbol Substitution Test and visual analog scale alertness scores were similar across all dose groups and did not differ from placebo. All adverse events were mild or moderate and resolved before study completion. ..
  17. France C, Weltman R, Koek W, Cruz C, McMahon L. Acute and chronic effects of ramelteon in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): dependence liability studies. Behav Neurosci. 2006;120:535-41 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that ramelteon is not likely to have benzodiazepine-like abuse or dependence liability. ..
  18. Johnson M, Suess P, Griffiths R. Ramelteon: a novel hypnotic lacking abuse liability and sedative adverse effects. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:1149-57 pubmed
  19. Brooks D, Hernández Guzmán G, Kloek A, Alarcon Chaidez F, Sreedharan A, Rangaswamy V, et al. Identification and characterization of a well-defined series of coronatine biosynthetic mutants of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2004;17:162-74 pubmed
    ..thaliana is caused by the absence of the intact COR toxin. This is the first study to use biochemically and genetically defined COR mutants to address the role of COR in pathogenesis. ..
  20. Roth T, Stubbs C, Walsh J. Ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2-receptor agonist, reduces latency to persistent sleep in a model of transient insomnia related to a novel sleep environment. Sleep. 2005;28:303-7 pubmed
    ..No dose-related differences in latency to persistent sleep were observed, and both doses were well tolerated. ..
  21. Kolanos R, Siripurapu U, Pullagurla M, Riaz M, Setola V, Roth B, et al. Binding of isotryptamines and indenes at h5-HT6 serotonin receptors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005;15:1987-91 pubmed
    ..The affinity of 3-benzyl-N(1)-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)indole (5, K(i)=32nM) and 1-benzyl-3-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)indene (11, K(i)=3nM) indicates that the indolic nitrogen atom is not essential for binding. ..
  22. Zammit G, Erman M, Wang Weigand S, Sainati S, Zhang J, Roth T. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of ramelteon in subjects with chronic insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3:495-504 pubmed
    ..No numerical differences were observed between the 2 doses of ramelteon. ..
  23. Spahn C, Gomez Lorenzo M, Grassucci R, Jørgensen R, Andersen G, Beckmann R, et al. Domain movements of elongation factor eEF2 and the eukaryotic 80S ribosome facilitate tRNA translocation. EMBO J. 2004;23:1008-19 pubmed
    ..A model is suggested, according to which the RSR is part of a mechanism for moving the tRNAs during the translocation reaction. ..
  24. Staswick P, Tiryaki I. The oxylipin signal jasmonic acid is activated by an enzyme that conjugates it to isoleucine in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2004;16:2117-27 pubmed
    ..Plant hormone activation by conjugation to amino acids and the enzymes involved in their formation were previously unknown. ..
  25. Bender C, Alarcon Chaidez F, Gross D. Pseudomonas syringae phytotoxins: mode of action, regulation, and biosynthesis by peptide and polyketide synthetases. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1999;63:266-92 pubmed
    ..Genetic reprogramming of peptide and polyketide synthetases has been successful, and portions of the coronatine and syringomycin gene clusters could be valuable resources in developing new antimicrobial agents. ..
  26. Marchand C, Antony S, Kohn K, Cushman M, Ioanoviciu A, Staker B, et al. A novel norindenoisoquinoline structure reveals a common interfacial inhibitor paradigm for ternary trapping of the topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006;5:287-95 pubmed
    ..Stabilization of such conformational states results in uncompetitive inhibition and exemplifies the relevance of screening for ligands and drugs that stabilize ("trap") these macromolecular complexes. ..
  27. Zhao Y, Thilmony R, Bender C, Schaller A, He S, Howe G. Virulence systems of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato promote bacterial speck disease in tomato by targeting the jasmonate signaling pathway. Plant J. 2003;36:485-99 pubmed
  28. Yukuhiro N, Kimura H, Nishikawa H, Ohkawa S, Yoshikubo S, Miyamoto M. Effects of ramelteon (TAK-375) on nocturnal sleep in freely moving monkeys. Brain Res. 2004;1027:59-66 pubmed
    ..The EEG power spectra of zolpidem were qualitatively different from that of naturally occurring physiological sleep. Results of the present study support the investigation of ramelteon as a sleep-promoting agent in humans. ..
  29. Antony S, Agama K, Miao Z, Takagi K, Wright M, Robles A, et al. Novel indenoisoquinolines NSC 725776 and NSC 724998 produce persistent topoisomerase I cleavage complexes and overcome multidrug resistance. Cancer Res. 2007;67:10397-405 pubmed
    ..These gamma-H2AX foci were detectable at pharmacologically relevant doses for up to 24 h and thus could be used as biomarkers for clinical trials (phase 0). ..
  30. Nagarajan M, Morrell A, Ioanoviciu A, Antony S, Kohlhagen G, Agama K, et al. Synthesis and evaluation of indenoisoquinoline topoisomerase I inhibitors substituted with nitrogen heterocycles. J Med Chem. 2006;49:6283-9 pubmed
  31. Laurie Berry N, Joardar V, Street I, Kunkel B. The Arabidopsis thaliana JASMONATE INSENSITIVE 1 gene is required for suppression of salicylic acid-dependent defenses during infection by Pseudomonas syringae. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006;19:789-800 pubmed
    ..Thus, P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 appears to utilize COR to manipulate JIN1-dependent jasmonate signaling both to suppress SA-mediated defenses and to promote symptom development. ..
  32. Roth T, Seiden D, Sainati S, Wang Weigand S, Zhang J, Zee P. Effects of ramelteon on patient-reported sleep latency in older adults with chronic insomnia. Sleep Med. 2006;7:312-8 pubmed
    ..In older adults with chronic insomnia, ramelteon significantly reduced patient reports of sleep latency over five weeks of treatment with no significant rebound insomnia or withdrawal effects. ..
  33. Kloek A, Verbsky M, Sharma S, Schoelz J, Vogel J, Klessig D, et al. Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae conferred by an Arabidopsis thaliana coronatine-insensitive (coi1) mutation occurs through two distinct mechanisms. Plant J. 2001;26:509-22 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that the P. syringae phytotoxin coronatine acts to promote virulence by inhibiting host defense responses and by promoting lesion formation. ..
  34. Antony S, Jayaraman M, Laco G, Kohlhagen G, Kohn K, Cushman M, et al. Differential induction of topoisomerase I-DNA cleavage complexes by the indenoisoquinoline MJ-III-65 (NSC 706744) and camptothecin: base sequence analysis and activity against camptothecin-resistant topoisomerases I. Cancer Res. 2003;63:7428-35 pubmed
    ..This study shows the specific molecular interactions of MJ-III-65 with top1 and demonstrates that MJ-III-65 is a potentially useful top1 inhibitor that enhances and traps top1 cleavage sites not sensitive to CPTs. ..
  35. Miyamoto M, Nishikawa H, Doken Y, Hirai K, Uchikawa O, Ohkawa S. The sleep-promoting action of ramelteon (TAK-375) in freely moving cats. Sleep. 2004;27:1319-25 pubmed
    ..Based on its unique mechanism of action, ramelteon should be studied further to evaluate its potential for the treatment of sleep disorders. ..
  36. Castillo D, Arevalo J, Herrera F, Ruiz C, Rojas R, Rengifo E, et al. Spirolactone iridoids might be responsible for the antileishmanial activity of a Peruvian traditional remedy made with Himatanthus sucuuba (Apocynaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;112:410-4 pubmed
    ..9 and 1 microM, respectively). These findings validate the traditional use of Himatanthus sucuuba in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (Uta) in Peru. ..
  37. Pandi Perumal S, Srinivasan V, Poeggeler B, Hardeland R, Cardinali D. Drug Insight: the use of melatonergic agonists for the treatment of insomnia-focus on ramelteon. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007;3:221-8 pubmed
    ..Although ramelteon's metabolism and pharmacokinetics differ from those of melatonin, its safety seems to be sufficient for short-term application. Its long-term effects remain to be determined. ..
  38. Melotto M, Underwood W, Koczan J, Nomura K, He S. Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion. Cell. 2006;126:969-80 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that supports a model in which stomata, as part of an integral innate immune system, act as a barrier against bacterial infection. ..
  39. Huffman J, Padgett L. Recent developments in the medicinal chemistry of cannabimimetic indoles, pyrroles and indenes. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12:1395-411 pubmed
    ..On the basis of a proposed pharmacophore for the cannabimimetic indoles, a series of pyrroles and indenes were developed, some of which are potent cannabinoids. SAR for several series of pyrroles have been developed...
  40. Hirai K, Kita M, Ohta H, Nishikawa H, Fujiwara Y, Ohkawa S, et al. Ramelteon (TAK-375) accelerates reentrainment of circadian rhythm after a phase advance of the light-dark cycle in rats. J Biol Rhythms. 2005;20:27-37 pubmed
  41. Staker B, Feese M, Cushman M, Pommier Y, Zembower D, Stewart L, et al. Structures of three classes of anticancer agents bound to the human topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complex. J Med Chem. 2005;48:2336-45 pubmed
    ..These new X-ray structures explain how very different molecules can stabilize top1-DNA covalent complexes and will aid the rational design of completely novel structural classes of anticancer drugs. ..
  42. Miyamoto M. Effect of ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist, on motor performance in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2006;402:201-4 pubmed
    ..o.), treatment with melatonin and N-acetyl-5-HT exacerbated the impairment by diazepam. Ramelteon had no significant effect on the diazepam-induced impairment of motor coordination. ..
  43. Kato K, Hirai K, Nishiyama K, Uchikawa O, Fukatsu K, Ohkawa S, et al. Neurochemical properties of ramelteon (TAK-375), a selective MT1/MT2 receptor agonist. Neuropharmacology. 2005;48:301-10 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that ramelteon is a potent and highly selective agonist of MT1/MT2 melatonin receptors. ..
  44. Wilson G, Caruso M, Schelkopf S, Sottos N, White S, Moore J. Adhesion promotion via noncovalent interactions in self-healing polymers. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2011;3:3072-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved healing efficiency was observed for samples containing the DCPD/DNE capsules under conditions in which the monomers were efficiently polymerized. ..
  45. Scholz R, Gisslen L, Schuster B, Casu M, Chasse T, Heinemeyer U, et al. Resonant Raman spectra of diindenoperylene thin films. J Chem Phys. 2011;134:014504 pubmed publisher
    ..This procedure gives Raman cross sections in good agreement with the observed relative intensities, both in the fully resonant and in the preresonant case. ..
  46. Kim S, Shin S, Lenhardt J, Braun T, Sain J, Valdez C, et al. Deterministic control over high-Z doping of polydicyclopentadiene-based aerogel coatings. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013;5:8111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the versatility of the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)-based copolymerization approach in terms of functionalization and doping of low density polymeric aerogels and their coatings. ..
  47. Chen M, Sun N, Liu Y. Environmentally benign synthesis of indeno[1,2-b]quinolines via an intramolecular Povarov reaction. Org Lett. 2013;15:5574-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This method offers several advantages such as no requirement for an oxidant, high efficiency, and a wide reaction scope. ..
  48. Rao V, Kaswan P, Parang K, Kumar A. Indium triflate catalyzed microwave-assisted alkenylation of methoxyphenols: synthesis of indenes and chromenes. Org Biomol Chem. 2015;13:11072-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Exclusive formation of either indenes or chromenes was observed depending on the position of the methoxy group on phenol...
  49. Narang V, Fraga C, Kumar N, Shen J, Throm S, Stewart C, et al. Dexamethasone increases expression and activity of multidrug resistance transporters at the rat blood-brain barrier. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C440-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that adjuvant therapy with corticosteroids such as dexamethasone in the treatment of brain tumors may increase the expression of MDR transporters at the blood-brain barrier through pathways involving GR and PXR...
  50. Monreal M, Lopez Jimenez L. Pulmonary embolism in patients over 90 years of age. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2010;16:432-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there seems to be more reason to be concerned about fatal pulmonary embolism than about bleeding in elderly patients presenting with pulmonary embolism. ..
  51. Fink T, Glas M, Wolf A, Kleber A, Reus E, Wolff M, et al. Melatonin receptors mediate improvements of survival in a model of polymicrobial sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2014;42:e22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Melatonin receptors mediate improvements of survival after polymicrobial sepsis in rats and mice; this effect appears to be independent from major alterations of cytokine release. ..
  52. Irshaidat T. Toward Exploring Novel Organic Materials: MP4-DFT Properties of 4-Amino-3-Iminoindene. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..The N-H/BH₂ substitution was found to have significant influence on the electronic structure of the skeleton. Similarities in the two tautomers and the boron derivative to properties of known molecular materials have been found. ..
  53. Jayanth T, Zhang L, Johnson T, Malinakova H. Sequential Cu(I)/Pd(0)-catalyzed multicomponent coupling and annulation protocol for the synthesis of indenoisoquinolines. Org Lett. 2009;11:815-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Protocols requiring minimal purifications were developed, providing new methods for the construction of combinatorial libraries. ..
  54. Wiemann P, Guo C, Palmer J, Sekonyela R, Wang C, Keller N. Prototype of an intertwined secondary-metabolite supercluster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:17065-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This blended design confounds predictions from established secondary-metabolite cluster search algorithms and provides an expanded view of natural product evolution. ..
  55. Yan X, Chai Y, Yuan Z, Wang X, Jiang J, Lei F, et al. Brazilein inhibits neuronal inflammation induced by cerebral ischemia and oxygen-glucose deprivation through targeting NOD2 expression. Chin J Nat Med. 2016;14:354-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, brazilein could attenuate NOD2 and TNF? expression in cerebral ischemia and NOD2 may be one possible target of brazilein for its immune suppressive effect in neuro-inflammation. ..
  56. Kadayat T, Banskota S, Gurung P, Bist G, Thapa Magar T, Shrestha A, et al. Discovery and structure-activity relationship studies of 2-benzylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one and benzofuran-3(2H)-one derivatives as a novel class of potential therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;137:575-597 pubmed publisher
  57. Abdrakhmanova G, Blough B, Nesloney C, Navarro H, Damaj M, Carroll F. In vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel negative allosteric modulator of neuronal nAChRs. Neuropharmacology. 2010;59:511-7 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that HDMP is a novel NAM of neuronal nAChRs with potent inhibitory activity at ?7 nAChR subtype at concentrations ? 1?M that are not effective for ?4?2 and ?3?4 nAChRs. ..
  58. Markwald R, Lee Chiong T, Burke T, Snider J, Wright K. Effects of the melatonin MT-1/MT-2 agonist ramelteon on daytime body temperature and sleep. Sleep. 2010;33:825-31 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that ramelteon may have promise for the treatment of insomnia associated with circadian misalignment due to circadian sleep disorders. ..
  59. Liu P, Su F, Wen T, Sung H, Williams I, Jia G. Selective and efficient cycloisomerization of alkynols catalyzed by a new ruthenium complex with a tetradentate nitrogen-phosphorus mixed ligand. Chemistry. 2010;16:7889-97 pubmed publisher
  60. Pi S, Yang X, Huang X, Liang Y, Yang G, Zhang X, et al. Palladium-catalyzed cyclocarbonylation of arynes with methyl allyl carbonates: selective synthesis of 1H-inden-1-ones. J Org Chem. 2010;75:3484-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is noteworthy that the selectivity of this new route is depended on both substrates and ligands. ..
  61. Sheridan H, Walsh J, Cogan C, Jordan M, McCabe T, Passante E, et al. Diastereoisomers of 2-benzyl-2, 3-dihydro-2-(1H-inden-2-yl)-1H-inden-1-ol: potential anti-inflammatory agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:5927-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These molecules demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro and may represent a new class of anti-inflammatory agent. ..
  62. Richardson G, Wang Weigand S. Effects of long-term exposure to ramelteon, a melatonin receptor agonist, on endocrine function in adults with chronic insomnia. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:103-11 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no consistent changes in other endocrine measures. ..
  63. Devi V, Shankar P. Ramelteon: a melatonin receptor agonist for the treatment of insomnia. J Postgrad Med. 2008;54:45-8 pubmed
    ..Although the effects of ramelteon use > 5 weeks are unknown, the available data confirms its safety and efficacy for short-term use. Clinical use and future research should uncover more information about ramelteon's properties. ..