nortriptyline

Summary

Summary: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.

Top Publications

  1. Krymchantowski A, Jevoux C, Moreira P. An open pilot study assessing the benefits of quetiapine for the prevention of migraine refractory to the combination of atenolol, nortriptyline, and flunarizine. Pain Med. 2010;11:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Quetiapine (QTP) in the preventive treatment of refractory migraine, defined as previous unresponsiveness to the combination of atenolol, nortriptyline, and flunarizine.
  2. Perroud N, Uher R, Marusic A, Rietschel M, Mors O, Henigsberg N, et al. Suicidal ideation during treatment of depression with escitalopram and nortriptyline in genome-based therapeutic drugs for depression (GENDEP): a clinical trial. BMC Med. 2009;7:60 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with moderate to severe unipolar depression were allocated to flexible dosage of escitalopram or nortriptyline for 12 weeks. The suicidality items of three standard measures were integrated in a suicidal ideation score...
  3. Petersen A, Wortwein G, Gruber S, El Khoury A, Mathe A. Nortriptyline mediates behavioral effects without affecting hippocampal cytogenesis in a genetic rat depression model. Neurosci Lett. 2009;451:148-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline exerts behavioral effects in the Porsolt forced swim test without affecting hippocampal cell proliferation in ..
  4. Haggsträm F, Chatkin J, Sussenbach Vaz E, Cesari D, Fam C, Fritscher C. A controlled trial of nortriptyline, sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation: preliminary results. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2006;19:205-9 pubmed
    ..There are studies showing the efficacy of bupropion and nortriptyline compared to placebo, but there is just one published comparison between these drugs, unfortunately with low ..
  5. Hall S, Humfleet G, Reus V, MUNOZ R, Cullen J. Extended nortriptyline and psychological treatment for cigarette smoking. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:2100-7 pubmed
    ..of > or =10 cigarettes/day were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions in a two-by-two (nortriptyline versus placebo by brief versus extended treatment) design...
  6. Melero A, Garrigues T, Alos M, Kostka K, Lehr C, Schaefer U. Nortriptyline for smoking cessation: release and human skin diffusion from patches. Int J Pharm. 2009;378:101-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this work was to develop a simple and inexpensive transdermal formulation containing Nortriptyline Hydrochloride (NTH) for smoking cessation support therapy...
  7. Prochazka A, Kick S, Steinbrunn C, Miyoshi T, Fryer G. A randomized trial of nortriptyline combined with transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:2229-33 pubmed
    ..Tricyclic antidepressants improve cessation rates. We hypothesized that addition of nortriptyline hydrochloride to transdermal nicotine would enhance cessation rates...
  8. Joyce P, Mulder R, Luty S, McKenzie J, Miller A, Rogers G, et al. Age-dependent antidepressant pharmacogenomics: polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter and G protein beta3 subunit as predictors of response to fluoxetine and nortriptyline. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003;6:339-46 pubmed
    In 169 depressed patients randomized to treatment with either fluoxetine or nortriptyline, we examined whether polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter and the G protein beta3 subunit influenced response to these antidepressants...
  9. Prochazka A, Weaver M, Keller R, Fryer G, Licari P, Lofaso D. A randomized trial of nortriptyline for smoking cessation. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:2035-9 pubmed
    ..One class of drugs that may improve cessation is the tricyclics. To add nortriptyline hydrochloride to a behavioral smoking cessation program to enhance cessation rates and reduce withdrawal ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Domingues R, Silva A, Domingues S, Aquino C, Kuster G. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of low doses of propranolol, nortriptyline, and the combination of propranolol and nortriptyline for the preventive treatment of migraine. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2009;67:973-7 pubmed
    ..In this study three therapeutic regimens were compared: (a) propranolol, at a dose of 40 mg per day, (b) nortriptyline, at a dose of 20 mg per day, and (c) the combination of these two drugs in these dosages...
  2. Uher R, Maier W, Hauser J, Marusic A, Schmael C, Mors O, et al. Differential efficacy of escitalopram and nortriptyline on dimensional measures of depression. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194:252-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the hypothesis that escitalopram and nortriptyline differ in their effects on observed mood, cognitive and neurovegetative symptoms of depression...
  3. Merino V, Micó Albiñana T, Nácher A, Díez Sales O, Herráez M, Merino Sanjuán M. Enhancement of nortriptyline penetration through human epidermis: influence of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008;60:415-20 pubmed publisher
    ..and iontophoresis have been tested in-vitro to study their ability to increase transdermal absorption of nortriptyline hydrochloride (20 mg mL(-1))...
  4. Lanza di Scalea T, Hanusa B, Wisner K. Sexual function in postpartum women treated for depression: results from a randomized trial of nortriptyline versus sertraline. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:423-8 pubmed
    ..The primary aim of this article is to describe sexual concerns in postpartum women with DSM-IV diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) before and during treatment with antidepressants in an 8-week double-blind randomized trial...
  5. Talaei A, Siavash M, Majidi H, Chehrei A. Vitamin B12 may be more effective than nortriptyline in improving painful diabetic neuropathy. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 5:71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this randomized, single-blind clinical trial we compared the efficacy of parenteral vitamin B(12) and nortriptyline, for symptomatic improvement of pain, paresthesia, burning, freezing, stabbing and electrical sensation...
  6. Melero A, Garrigues T, Almudever P, Villodre A, Lehr C, Schafer U. Nortriptyline hydrochloride skin absorption: development of a transdermal patch. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2008;69:588-96 pubmed publisher
    The influence of propylen glycol (PG), ethanol, and oleic acid (OA) on nortriptyline hydrochloride (NTH) penetration through human epidermis was studied in vitro at two different pH values (5.5 and 7.4)...
  7. Flöck A, Zobel A, Bauriedel G, Tuleta I, Hammerstingl C, Hofels S, et al. Antiplatelet effects of antidepressant treatment: a randomized comparison between escitalopram and nortriptyline. Thromb Res. 2010;126:e83-7 pubmed publisher
    ..3 months of treatment with antidepressants, and (iii) sought to assess different effects of escitalopram and nortriptyline on platelet aggregation...
  8. Howell B, Chauhan A. Uptake of amitriptyline and nortriptyline with liposomes, proteins, and serum: implications for drug detoxification. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2008;319:81-93 pubmed
    Liposomes composed of DOPG and DMPC were studied for their ability to sequester amitriptyline and nortriptyline under physiological conditions...
  9. Dalen P, Dahl M, Bernal Ruiz M, Nordin J, Bertilsson L. 10-Hydroxylation of nortriptyline in white persons with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13 functional CYP2D6 genes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998;63:444-52 pubmed
    To investigate the disposition and effects of nortriptyline and its major metabolite 10-hydroxy-nortriptyline line in panels of white subjects with different CYP2D6 genotypes, including those with duplicated and multiduplicated CYP2D6*2 ..
  10. Chandra K, Shafiq N, Pandhi P, Gupta S, Malhotra S. Gabapentin versus nortriptyline in post-herpetic neuralgia patients: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial--the GONIP Trial. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;44:358-63 pubmed
    Gabapentin and nortriptyline have not been compared in a randomized trial in post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN)...
  11. Rajewska Rager A, Skibinska M, Szczepankiewicz A, Kapelski P, Dmitrzak Weglarz M, Leszczynska Rodziewicz A, et al. [Association between polymorphisms of Val66Met in the BDNF gene and the response to escitalopram and nortriptyline treatment in the light of the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of depression]. Psychiatr Pol. 2008;42:915-23 pubmed
    ..The second group was treated with the noradrenergic drug--nortriptyline (n=39) with a dose range of 75-150 mg/day. The DNA was extracted from blood cells by the salting out method...
  12. Heymann R, Helfenstein M, Feldman D. A double-blind, randomized, controlled study of amitriptyline, nortriptyline and placebo in patients with fibromyalgia. An analysis of outcome measures. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001;19:697-702 pubmed
    To study the efficacy and tolerability of amitriptyline and nortriptyline in a Brazilian population with fibromyalgia and to evaluate the instruments used to measure the efficacy of the treatment...
  13. Uher R, Dernovsek M, Mors O, Hauser J, Souery D, Zobel A, et al. Melancholic, atypical and anxious depression subtypes and outcome of treatment with escitalopram and nortriptyline. J Affect Disord. 2011;132:112-20 pubmed publisher
    ..of outcome of treatment with flexible dosage of the SSRI escitalopram or the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline. The primary outcome measure was the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)...
  14. Hansson A, Rimondini R, Heilig M, Mathe A, Sommer W. Dissociation of antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram and nortriptyline on behaviour and hippocampal BDNF expression in female rats. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25:1378-87 pubmed publisher
    ..in antidepressant action in a genetic rat model of depression after chronic oral treatment with escitalopram, nortriptyline or placebo...
  15. Wagena E, Knipschild P, Zeegers M. Should nortriptyline be used as a first-line aid to help smokers quit? Results from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction. 2005;100:317-26 pubmed
    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of nortriptyline for smoking cessation compared to placebo and bupropion sustained release...
  16. Laine K, Tybring G, Hartter S, Andersson K, Svensson J, Widen J, et al. Inhibition of cytochrome P4502D6 activity with paroxetine normalizes the ultrarapid metabolizer phenotype as measured by nortriptyline pharmacokinetics and the debrisoquin test. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;70:327-35 pubmed
    ..Five ultrarapid metabolizers with a CYP2D6 gene duplication or triplication were treated with 25 mg nortriptyline twice a day for 3 consecutive weeks, alone during the first week and concomitantly with the CYP2D6 inhibitor ..
  17. Murphy G, Pollock B, Kirshner M, Pascoe N, Cheuk W, Mulsant B, et al. CYP2D6 genotyping with oligonucleotide microarrays and nortriptyline concentrations in geriatric depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;25:737-43 pubmed
    ..The CYP2D6 gene encodes debrisoquine hydroxylase, which metabolizes the antidepressant nortriptyline and other psychotropic medications...
  18. Aveyard P, Johnson C, Fillingham S, Parsons A, Murphy M. Nortriptyline plus nicotine replacement versus placebo plus nicotine replacement for smoking cessation: pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;336:1223-7 pubmed publisher
    To test the efficacy of nortriptyline plus nicotine replacement therapy compared with placebo plus nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial...
  19. Steimer W, Zöpf K, von Amelunxen S, Pfeiffer H, Bachofer J, Popp J, et al. Allele-specific change of concentration and functional gene dose for the prediction of steady-state serum concentrations of amitriptyline and nortriptyline in CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 extensive and intermediate metabolizers. Clin Chem. 2004;50:1623-33 pubmed
    ..Eighteen CYP2C19 heterozygotes (*1/*2) had higher AT (P = 0.033) and lower nortriptyline (NT; P = 0.059) concentrations than 30 homozygotes (*1/*1). For CYP2D6, we calculated two new indices, i.e...
  20. da Costa C, Younes R, Lourenço M. Stopping smoking: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing nortriptyline to placebo. Chest. 2002;122:403-8 pubmed
    ..This study evaluates the efficacy of nortriptyline in an antismoking program...
  21. Zhang W, Wang H, Wang X, Narayanan M, Stavrovskaya I, Kristal B, et al. Nortriptyline protects mitochondria and reduces cerebral ischemia/hypoxia injury. Stroke. 2008;39:455-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Nortriptyline, an antidepressant, was identified as a strong inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition by our screening of a library of 1040 drugs...
  22. Khoromi S, Cui L, Nackers L, Max M. Morphine, nortriptyline and their combination vs. placebo in patients with chronic lumbar root pain. Pain. 2007;130:66-75 pubmed
    ..We compared the efficacy of morphine (15-90 mg), nortriptyline (25-100 mg), their combination, and a benztropine "active placebo" (0...
  23. Kvist E, Al Shurbaji A, Dahl M, Nordin C, Alvan G, Stahle L. Quantitative pharmacogenetics of nortriptyline: a novel approach. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2001;40:869-77 pubmed
    To quantitatively model nortriptyline clearance as a function of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 genotype and to estimate the contribution of genotype to the interindividual variability in steady-state plasma concentration and metabolic ..
  24. Uher R, Huezo Diaz P, Perroud N, Smith R, Rietschel M, Mors O, et al. Genetic predictors of response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project. Pharmacogenomics J. 2009;9:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with moderate-to-severe depression, treated with escitalopram (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or nortriptyline (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) for 12 weeks in an open-label part-randomized multicenter study...
  25. Uher R, Farmer A, Henigsberg N, Rietschel M, Mors O, Maier W, et al. Adverse reactions to antidepressants. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;195:202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..participants with depression in a part-randomised multicentre open-label study comparing escitalopram and nortriptyline. There was good agreement between self-report and psychiatrists' ratings...
  26. Uher R, Perroud N, Ng M, Hauser J, Henigsberg N, Maier W, et al. Genome-wide pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response in the GENDEP project. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:555-64 pubmed publisher
    ..for 706 unrelated participants of European ancestry treated for major depression with escitalopram (N=394) or nortriptyline (N=312) over a 12-week period in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project, a ..
  27. Franssen E, Kunst P, Bet P, Strack van Schijndel R, van Loenen A, Wilhelm A. Toxicokinetics of nortriptyline and amitriptyline: two case reports. Ther Drug Monit. 2003;25:248-51 pubmed
    Two cases are presented of intentional intoxications with the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) nortriptyline (NT) and amitriptyline (AT). The peak plasma concentrations were 2290 microg/L and 2900 microg/L, respectively...
  28. Huezo Diaz P, Uher R, Smith R, Rietschel M, Henigsberg N, Marusic A, et al. Moderation of antidepressant response by the serotonin transporter gene. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;195:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..test the hypothesis that the 5-HTTLPR differently influences response to escitalopram (an SSRI) compared with nortriptyline (a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor)...
  29. Mercado N, To Y, Ito K, Barnes P. Nortriptyline reverses corticosteroid insensitivity by inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-?. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;337:465-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline has been identified in high-throughput screens as an agent that increases corticosteroid responsiveness...
  30. Wisner K, Hanusa B, Perel J, Peindl K, Piontek C, Sit D, et al. Postpartum depression: a randomized trial of sertraline versus nortriptyline. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;26:353-60 pubmed
    ..The design was a double-blind, 8-week comparative trial of nortriptyline (NTP) versus sertraline (SERT) with a 16-week continuation phase...
  31. Otsubo T, Akimoto Y, Yamada H, Koda R, Aoyama H, Tanaka K, et al. A comparative study of the efficacy and safety profiles between fluvoxamine and nortriptyline in Japanese patients with major depression. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2005;38:30-5 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety profiles between fluvoxamine and nortriptyline in Japanese patients with major depression.
  32. Watson C, Vernich L, Chipman M, Reed K. Nortriptyline versus amitriptyline in postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized trial. Neurology. 1998;51:1166-71 pubmed
    ..Our hypothesis was that nortriptyline (NT), a noradrenergic metabolite of AT, may be more effective...
  33. Roberts R, Mulder R, Joyce P, Luty S, Kennedy M. No evidence of increased adverse drug reactions in cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 poor metabolizers treated with fluoxetine or nortriptyline. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004;19:17-23 pubmed
    The polymorphic enzyme cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 is involved in the metabolism of many antidepressants, including nortriptyline and fluoxetine...
  34. Hsu S, Huang C, Chen J, Cheng H, Chang H, Jiann B, et al. Effect of nortriptyline on intracellular Ca2+ handling and proliferation in human osteosarcoma cells. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004;95:124-30 pubmed
    The effect of the antidepressant nortriptyline, on bone cells is unknown...
  35. Uher R, Carver S, Power R, Mors O, Maier W, Rietschel M, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and efficacy of antidepressants in major depressive disorder. Psychol Med. 2012;42:2027-35 pubmed publisher
    ..the effect of concomitant medication with NSAIDs on the efficacy of escitalopram, a SRI antidepressant, and nortriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, among 811 subjects with MDD treated for up to 12 weeks in the GENDEP study...
  36. Fink M. What we learn about continuation treatments from the collaborative electroconvulsive therapy studies. J ECT. 2007;23:215-8 pubmed
  37. Rutherford K, Mazandu G, Mulder N. A systems-level analysis of drug-target-disease associations for drug repositioning. Brief Funct Genomics. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..set of drugs for potential repositioning werebenzodiazepines for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders; nortriptyline for the treatment of melanoma, glioma and other cancers; and vitamin B6 in prevention of spontaneous abortions ..
  38. Hall S, Humfleet G, Reus V, MUNOZ R, Hartz D, Maude Griffin R. Psychological intervention and antidepressant treatment in smoking cessation. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:930-6 pubmed
    Sustained-release bupropion hydrochloride and nortriptyline hydrochloride have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of cigarette smoking...
  39. Papakostas G, Petersen T, Iosifescu D, Roffi P, Alpert J, Rosenbaum J, et al. Axis III disorders in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2003;118:183-8 pubmed
    ..can predict clinical response in patients with treatment-resistant MDD (TRD) treated with open-label nortriptyline (NT). Ninety-two patients with TRD entered a 6-week open trial of NT...
  40. Yeragani V, Pesce V, Jayaraman A, Roose S. Major depression with ischemic heart disease: effects of paroxetine and nortriptyline on long-term heart rate variability measures. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;52:418-29 pubmed
    ..major depression and ischemic heart disease (mean age 59-60 years) before and after 6 weeks of paroxetine or nortriptyline treatment. Spectral measures showed decreases in awake and sleeping total power (TP: 0.0-0...
  41. Barone P. Treatment of depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18 Suppl 1:11-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showed the superiority of nortriptyline and desipramine versus placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
  42. Robinson R, Schultz S, Castillo C, Kopel T, Kosier J, Newman R, et al. Nortriptyline versus fluoxetine in the treatment of depression and in short-term recovery after stroke: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:351-9 pubmed
    This study compared nortriptyline and fluoxetine with placebo in the treatment of depression and in recovery from physical and cognitive impairments after stroke...
  43. Bardai A, Amin A, Blom M, Bezzina C, Berdowski J, Langendijk P, et al. Sudden cardiac arrest associated with use of a non-cardiac drug that reduces cardiac excitability: evidence from bench, bedside, and community. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:1506-16 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Nortriptyline, which blocks the SCN5A-encoded cardiac sodium channel, may exemplify such drugs...
  44. Ayres A, Santos W, Junqueira Ayres D, Costa G, Ramos F, Castellanos L, et al. Monoaminergic neurotransmission is mediating the antidepressant-like effects of Passiflora edulis Sims fo. edulis. Neurosci Lett. 2017;660:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Nortriptyline and fluoxetine reduced the immobility time and similar results were observed for AE, AcOEt and BuOH but not ..
  45. de Toledo R, Santos M, Suffredini H, Homem de Mello P, Honorio K, Mazo L. DFT and electrochemical studies on nortriptyline oxidation sites. J Mol Model. 2009;15:945-52 pubmed publisher
    A study on the possible sites of oxidation and epoxidation of nortriptyline was performed using electrochemical and quantum chemical methods; these sites are involved in the biological responses (for example, hepatotoxicity) of ..
  46. Dianat S, Zarei M, Hassanian Moghaddam H, Rashidi Ranjbar N, Rahimian R, Rasouli M. Tricyclic antidepressants intoxication in Tehran, Iran: epidemiology and associated factors. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011;30:283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..4%) were intentional (p = 0.01). Amitriptyline was the most frequent agent followed by Nortriptyline. There was no significant difference between TCA and non-TCA intoxications regarding the mortality (1...
  47. Frishman W, Ky T, Ismail A. Tobacco smoking, nicotine, and nicotine and non-nicotine replacement therapies. Heart Dis. 2001;3:365-77 pubmed
    ..Nicotine replacement and nonnicotine modalities have been used alone and in combination to help in smoking cessation. These treatment modalities appear to be safe in patients with known stable coronary artery disease. ..
  48. Reynolds C, Frank E, Perel J, Imber S, Cornes C, Miller M, et al. Nortriptyline and interpersonal psychotherapy as maintenance therapies for recurrent major depression: a randomized controlled trial in patients older than 59 years. JAMA. 1999;281:39-45 pubmed
    ..To determine the efficacy of maintenance nortriptyline hydrochloride and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in preventing recurrence of major depressive episodes in ..
  49. Sundaramurthy V, Barsacchi R, Samusik N, Marsico G, Gilleron J, Kalaidzidis I, et al. Integration of chemical and RNAi multiparametric profiles identifies triggers of intracellular mycobacterial killing. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;13:129-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, selective pharmacological modulation of host trafficking pathways can be applied to intracellular pathogens beyond mycobacteria. ..
  50. Quaak M, van Schayck C, Postma D, Wagena E, Van Schooten F. Genetic variants in the serotonin transporter influence the efficacy of bupropion and nortriptyline in smoking cessation. Addiction. 2012;107:178-87 pubmed publisher
    ..e. bupropion and nortriptyline)...
  51. Gritti F, Guiochon G. Effect of the pH and the ionic strength on overloaded band profiles of weak bases onto neutral and charged surface hybrid stationary phases in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1282:113-26 pubmed publisher
    ..At W(S)pH>7.0, the Linear-bi-Langmuir model describes best the weak adsorption of the protonated base molecules onto the C18 chains and their strong adsorption onto the residual silanols and neutral amine groups. ..
  52. Kawai A, Kurita M, Nishino S, Hirata E, Sato T, Okubo Y. Need for medication to complement catecholamines in smoking cessation of hardcore smokers. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017;13:2419-2424 pubmed publisher
    Many smokers find it difficult to stop smoking without assistance. The antidepressants bupropion and nortriptyline can aid smoking cessation...
  53. Dunlop B, Cole S, Nemeroff C, Mayberg H, Craighead W. Differential change on depressive symptom factors with antidepressant medication and cognitive behavior therapy for major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2018;229:111-119 pubmed publisher
    ..for Depression (GENDEP) trial identified three factors that were differentially associated with outcome to nortriptyline and escitalopram...