Summary: A family of tricyclic hydrocarbons whose members include many of the commonly used tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC).

Top Publications

  1. Shepard R, Cao J, Starling J, Dantzig A. Modulation of P-glycoprotein but not MRP1- or BCRP-mediated drug resistance by LY335979. Int J Cancer. 2003;103:121-5 pubmed
    ..These results further demonstrate that LY335979 is highly specific for Pgp and does not modulate MRP1- or BCRP-mediated resistance and can be used in combination with mitoxantrone and vinorelbine in tumor cells...
  2. Sandler A, Gordon M, de Alwis D, Pouliquen I, Green L, Marder P, et al. A Phase I trial of a potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor, zosuquidar trihydrochloride (LY335979), administered intravenously in combination with doxorubicin in patients with advanced malignancy. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:3265-72 pubmed
    ..The higher doses of zosuquidar were associated with maximal P-glycoprotein inhibition in natural killer cells. Zosuquidar can be safely coadministered with doxorubicin using a 48 h i.v. dosing schedule. ..
  3. Dantzig A, Shepard R, Law K, Tabas L, Pratt S, Gillespie J, et al. Selectivity of the multidrug resistance modulator, LY335979, for P-glycoprotein and effect on cytochrome P-450 activities. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;290:854-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, LY335979 is an extremely potent Pgp, and not MRP1 or MRP2, modulator and has a significantly lower affinity for CYP3A than for Pgp...
  4. Gerrard G, Payne E, Baker R, Jones D, Potter M, Prentice H, et al. Clinical effects and P-glycoprotein inhibition in patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with zosuquidar trihydrochloride, daunorubicin and cytarabine. Haematologica. 2004;89:782-90 pubmed
    ..01). The modulator Z.3HCL is a specific inhibitor of P-gp efflux and can be given safely to patients with AML in combination with induction doses of conventional cytotoxic drugs. ..
  5. Morschhauser F, Zinzani P, Burgess M, Sloots L, Bouafia F, Dumontet C. Phase I/II trial of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, Zosuquidar.3HCl trihydrochloride (LY335979), given orally in combination with the CHOP regimen in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48:708-15 pubmed
    ..Zosuquidar.3HCL did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and had moderate effects on the pharmacokinetics of vincristine. Zosuquidar.3HCL can be safely administered with CHOP therapy using a 24-h schedule. ..
  6. Tang R, Faussat A, Perrot J, Marjanovic Z, Cohen S, Storme T, et al. Zosuquidar restores drug sensitivity in P-glycoprotein expressing acute myeloid leukemia (AML). BMC Cancer. 2008;8:51 pubmed publisher
    ..These in vitro studies suggest that zosuquidar may be an effective adjunct to cytotoxic chemotherapy for AML patients whose blasts express P-gp, especially for older patients. ..
  7. Langlais P, Mair R. Protective effects of the glutamate antagonist MK-801 on pyrithiamine-induced lesions and amino acid changes in rat brain. J Neurosci. 1990;10:1664-74 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that NMDA receptors are involved the pathogenesis of PTD-induced brain lesions and that nuclei of the intralaminar and posterior nuclear groups are most vulnerable to PTD effects. ..
  8. Fink K, Gothert M, Schlicker E. Veratridine and other depolarizing agents counteract the inhibitory effect of Mg2+ ions on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced noradrenaline release in vitro. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1990;342:53-60 pubmed
    ..Under this condition, noradrenaline release can be stimulated by NMDA receptor activation even in the presence of physiological Mg2+ concentrations. ..
  9. Mohamed G, Nour El Dien F, Khalil S, Mohamed N. Spectrophotometric determination of trazodone, amineptine and amitriptyline hydrochlorides through ion-pair formation with molybdenum and thiocyanate. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2006;65:1221-6 pubmed
    ..12-0.399 and 0.095-0.485 for TZH, APH and ATPH, respectively. The method is applicable for the assay of the investigated drugs in different dosage forms and the results are in good agreement with those obtained by the official method. ..

More Information


  1. Costello R. Reversing the multidrug resistance in acute leukemia: until the leukemia initiating cell?. Leuk Res. 2009;33:749 pubmed publisher
    ..The evaluation of novel drug resistance modulators should be performed both in the whole leukemic cell population and in the leukemia initiating cell compartment, that is responsible for "mature" leukemia cells replenishment. ..
  2. Guedes A, Bentes A, Machado Pinto J, Carvalho M. [Acne induced by amineptine]. An Bras Dermatol. 2009;84:71-4 pubmed
    ..Keratoacanthoma-like lesions were also present, and the small ones were successfully treated with topical imiquimod. The case is significant since the disease is quite rare. ..
  3. Steinfels G, Tam S, Cook L. Electrophysiological effects of selective sigma-receptor agonists, antagonists, and the selective phencyclidine receptor agonist MK-801 on midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1989;2:201-8 pubmed
    ..However, the relative potencies do not correspond to their relative binding affinities, suggesting that non-PCP-receptor properties may mediate this effect. ..
  4. Galligan J, North R. MK-801 blocks nicotinic depolarizations of guinea pig myenteric neurons. Neurosci Lett. 1990;108:105-9 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that MK-801 can act as a non-competitive antagonist of nicotinic responses in myenteric neurons. ..
  5. Barnett C, Huff B, Kobierski M, LeTourneau M, Wilson T. Stereochemistry of C-6 nucleophilic displacements on 1,1-difluorocyclopropyldibenzosuberanyl substrates. An improved synthesis of multidrug resistance modulator LY335979 trihydrochloride. J Org Chem. 2004;69:7653-60 pubmed
    ..Reduction of pyrazinium salt 11 with lithium borohydride/TFA provided anti-2 unaccompanied by its syn isomer. A practical and expeditious approach to 1 was derived from these new results. ..
  6. Teft W, Mansell S, Kim R. Endoxifen, the active metabolite of tamoxifen, is a substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (multidrug resistance 1). Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39:558-62 pubmed publisher
  7. Hou J, Qu F, Wu C, Ren Q, Zhang J. Quantitative determination and pharmacokinetic study of the novel anti-Parkinson's disease candidate drug FLZ in rat brain by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;66:232-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that FLZ had poor penetration to the brain due to the P-gp transport system. ..
  8. Fuchs H, Runge F, Held H. Excretion of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin in rats is primarily by biliary excretion and P-gp-mediated efflux. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012;45:533-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The primarily non-renal route of excretion is likely to be of benefit to patients with type 2 diabetes, who have a high prevalence of renal insufficiency. ..
  9. Criswell H, Mueller R, Breese G. Long-term D1-dopamine receptor sensitization in neonatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats is blocked by an NMDA antagonist. Brain Res. 1990;512:284-90 pubmed
  10. Letteron P, Sutton A, Mansouri A, Fromenty B, Pessayre D. Inhibition of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein: another mechanism for drug-induced steatosis in mice. Hepatology. 2003;38:133-40 pubmed
    ..Drugs with these dual effects may be more steatogenic than drugs acting only on beta-oxidation or only MTP. ..
  11. Ruff P, Vorobiof D, Jordaan J, Demetriou G, Moodley S, Nosworthy A, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2 study of docetaxel compared to docetaxel plus zosuquidar (LY335979) in women with metastatic or locally recurrent breast cancer who have received one prior chemotherapy regimen. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009;64:763-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3HCl plus docetaxel is safe. The analysis of efficacy data is complex, but it can be concluded that there is no difference in progression-free survival, overall survival, or response rate in the study as a whole. ..
  12. Pérez Victoria J, Cortés Selva F, Parodi Talice A, Bavchvarov B, Pérez Victoria F, Muñoz Martínez F, et al. Combination of suboptimal doses of inhibitors targeting different domains of LtrMDR1 efficiently overcomes resistance of Leishmania spp. to Miltefosine by inhibiting drug efflux. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:3102-10 pubmed
  13. Fang W, Ji S, Jiang N, Wang W, Zhao G, Zhang S, et al. Naphthol radical couplings determine structural features and enantiomeric excess of dalesconols in Daldinia eschscholzii. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1039 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed (-)-enantiomeric excess is found to depend on the dominance of particular conformers of naphthol dimer intermediates, which are ligands of laccase. ..
  14. Borst O, Walker B, Münzer P, Russo A, Schmid E, Faggio C, et al. Skepinone-L, a novel potent and highly selective inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, effectively impairs platelet activation and thrombus formation. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;31:914-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study discloses a powerful inhibiting effect of p38 MAPK-blocker Skepinone-L on platelet activation and thrombus formation. ..
  15. van der Sandt I, Vos C, Nabulsi L, Blom Roosemalen M, Voorwinden H, de Boer A, et al. Assessment of active transport of HIV protease inhibitors in various cell lines and the in vitro blood--brain barrier. AIDS. 2001;15:483-91 pubmed
    ..The HIV protease inhibitors were not able to inhibit Pgp-mediated efflux when given simultaneously, suggesting that simultaneous administration of these drugs will not increase the concentration of antiretroviral drugs in the brain. ..
  16. Jeong H, Kim J, Lee H, Ha D, Song K, Bae K, et al. Leaf and stem of Vitis amurensis and its active components protect against amyloid ? protein (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity. Arch Pharm Res. 2010;33:1655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..amurensis is due to its neuroprotective effect against A? (25-35)-induced neurotoxicity and that the leaf and stem of V. amurensis have possible therapeutic roles for preventing the progression of Alzheimer's disease. ..
  17. Infed N, Smits S, Dittrich T, Braun M, Driessen A, Hanekop N, et al. Analysis of the inhibition potential of zosuquidar derivatives on selected bacterial and fungal ABC transporters. Mol Membr Biol. 2013;30:217-27 pubmed publisher
  18. Kanokmedhakul S, Kanokmedhakul K, Nambuddee K, Kongsaeree P. New bioactive prenylflavonoids and dibenzocycloheptene derivative from roots of Dendrolobium lanceolatum. J Nat Prod. 2004;67:968-72 pubmed
    ..2, 1.6, and 0.6 microg/mL, respectively, while 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity against the NCI-H187 cell line with an IC50 value of 8.1 microg/ mL. ..
  19. Sircar R, Rappaport M, Nichtenhauser R, Zukin S. The novel anticonvulsant MK-801: a potent and specific ligand of the brain phencyclidine/sigma-receptor. Brain Res. 1987;435:235-40 pubmed
    ..These findings support the concept that the anticonvulsant and anti-NMDA effects of MK-801 result from its being the most potent known ligand of PCP/sigma-receptors. ..
  20. Bourguignon J, Gerard A, Mathieu J, Simons J, Franchimont P. Pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from hypothalamic explants is restrained by blockade of N-methyl-D,L-aspartate receptors. Endocrinology. 1989;125:1090-6 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the physiological mechanism of pulsatile GnRH secretion in the hypothalamus may involve endogenous neuroexcitatory factors acting through NMDA-sensitive receptors. ..
  21. Karssen A, Meijer O, van der Sandt I, de Boer A, De Lange E, de Kloet E. The role of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein in brain penetration of prednisolone. J Endocrinol. 2002;175:251-60 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the ensuing imbalance in activation of the two types of brain corticosteroid receptors may have consequences for cognitive performance and mood. ..
  22. Oh W, Cho K, Hien T, Kim T, Kim H, Dao T, et al. Amurensin G, a potent natural SIRT1 inhibitor, rescues doxorubicin responsiveness via down-regulation of multidrug resistance 1. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;78:855-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SIRT1 is a potential therapeutic target of MDR1-mediated chemoresistance and that it may be possible to develop amurensin G as a useful agent for chemoresistance reversal. ..
  23. Zhu S, McGeer E, McGeer P. Effect of MK-801, kynurenate, glycine, dextrorphan and 4-acetylpyridine on striatal toxicity of quinolinate. Brain Res. 1989;481:356-60 pubmed
    ..Glycine appeared to potentiate the effect of high doses of quinolinic acid on ChAT and the other pretreatments tested (dextrorphan, dextromethorphan, 4-acetylpyridine) had no significant effect. ..
  24. Liljefors T, Bøgesø K. Conformational analysis and structural comparisons of (1R,3S)-(+)- and (1S,3R)-(-)-tefludazine, (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-octoclothepin, and (+)-dexclamol in relation to dopamine receptor antagonism and amine-uptake inhibition. J Med Chem. 1988;31:306-12 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the deduced biologically active conformation of (S)-(+)-octoclothepin with (+)-dexclamol is also discussed on the basis of earlier derived superimposition studies with (+)-dexclamol. ..
  25. Sun H, Bungay P, Elmquist W. Effect of capillary efflux transport inhibition on the determination of probe recovery during in vivo microdialysis in the brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;297:991-1000 pubmed
  26. Quaglio G, Schifano F, Lugoboni F. Venlafaxine dependence in a patient with a history of alcohol and amineptine misuse. Addiction. 2008;103:1572-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Physicians should be aware that patients with a history of drug and alcohol abuse might develop venlafaxine dependence. ..
  27. Kim H, Kim M, Lee S, Lee J, Bae J, Kim D, et al. Amurensin G, a novel SIRT1 inhibitor, sensitizes TRAIL-resistant human leukemic K562 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;84:402-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, amurensin G, a potent new SIRT1 inhibitor, would be used as a sensitizer of TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant leukemic cells. ..
  28. Wardley Smith B, Wann K. The effects of non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists on rats exposed to hyperbaric pressure. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989;165:107-12 pubmed
    ..Possible explanations for this lack of effect include (1) interactions with NMDA receptor channels are pressure dependent; (2) other actions of these antagonists override their effects on the NMDA receptor channel. ..
  29. Ahlemeyer B, Krieglstein J. Testing drug effects against hypoxic damage of cultured neurons during long-term recovery. Life Sci. 1989;45:835-42 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that cultured neurons exposed to hypoxia and to long-term recovery could be suitable for studying post-hypoxic neuronal damage as well as neuroprotective drug effects. ..
  30. Giordano M, Ford L, Brauckmann J, Norman A, Sanberg P. MK801 prevents quinolinic acid-induced behavioral deficits and neurotoxicity in the striatum. Brain Res Bull. 1990;24:313-9 pubmed
  31. Hackeloer K, Schnakenburg G, Waldvogel S. Novel domino oxidative coupling: C-C bond formation sequence to highly functionalized dibenzo[a,c]cycloheptenes. Org Lett. 2011;13:916-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A variety of different moieties R(1) and R(2) are tolerated. ..
  32. Lancet J, Baer M, Duran G, List A, Fielding R, Marcelletti J, et al. A phase I trial of continuous infusion of the multidrug resistance inhibitor zosuquidar with daunorubicin and cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Res. 2009;33:1055-61 pubmed publisher
    ..gt; 90% P-gp inhibition was achieved within 2h at a plasma threshold of 132 ng/ml zosuquidar. The recommended phase II dose of zosuquidar is 700 mg/day. ..
  33. Fischer S, Wentsch H, Mayer Wrangowski S, Zimmermann M, Bauer S, Storch K, et al. Dibenzosuberones as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors with low ATP competitiveness and outstanding whole blood activity. J Med Chem. 2013;56:241-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined with their outstanding selectivity and low ATP competitiveness, these inhibitors are very interesting candidates for use in biological systems and in therapy. ..
  34. Willetts J, Balster R. Effects of competitive and noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists in rats trained to discriminate NMDA from saline. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989;251:627-33 pubmed
    ..The results provide further evidence for differences in the behavioral profiles of competitive and noncompetitive NMDA antagonists. ..
  35. Bleier B, Singleton A, Nocera A, Kocharyan A, Petkova V, Han X. P-glycoprotein regulates Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B-stimulated interleukin-5 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin secretion in organotypic mucosal explants. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2016;6:169-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This overexpression directly contributes to the relative hypersecretion of IL-5 and TSLP. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for Th2 skewing in CRSwNP. ..
  36. Carlsson M, Carlsson A. Interactions between glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems within the basal ganglia--implications for schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Trends Neurosci. 1990;13:272-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, it is suggested that glutamatergic antagonists may be valuable supplements in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. ..
  37. Hermann D, Kilic E, Spudich A, Krämer S, Wunderli Allenspach H, Bassetti C. Role of drug efflux carriers in the healthy and diseased brain. Ann Neurol. 2006;60:489-98 pubmed
    ..We predict that strategies aiming at circumventing drug efflux may greatly facilitate progress in neurological therapies...
  38. Krauskopf A, Eriksson O, Craigen W, Forte M, Bernardi P. Properties of the permeability transition in VDAC1(-/-) mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:590-5 pubmed
    ..The labeled protein could be separated from all VDAC isoforms. While these results do not allow to exclude that VDAC is part of the PTP, they suggest that VDAC is not the target for PTP inhibition by Ro 68-3400. ..
  39. Vezzani A, Serafini R, Stasi M, Caccia S, Conti I, Tridico R, et al. Kinetics of MK-801 and its effect on quinolinic acid-induced seizures and neurotoxicity in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989;249:278-83 pubmed
    ..At 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, MK-801 significantly lowered by 71 to 77% the number of seizures and by 80% the total time spent in seizures (P less than .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  40. Osa Y, Kobayashi S, Sato Y, Suzuki Y, Takino K, Takeuchi T, et al. Structural properties of dibenzosuberanylpiperazine derivatives for efficient reversal of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium chabaudi. J Med Chem. 2003;46:1948-56 pubmed
    ..These results may lead to the development of an approach to developing clinically applicable chemosensitizers for drug-resistant malaria...
  41. Salles J, Claro E, Garcia A, Picatoste F, Badia A. Differential effects of chronic treatment with mianserin and protryptiline on rat brain cortical alpha 1-adrenoceptors. Brain Res. 1989;498:366-70 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the effects of antidepressant drugs on rat brain cortical alpha 1-adrenoceptors may depend on the characteristics of the drug used. ..
  42. Childs A, Evans R, Watkins J. The pharmacological selectivity of three NMDA antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;145:81-6 pubmed
    ..The observations support the use of these antagonists as tools to identify sites of excitatory amino acid-mediated transmission. ..
  43. Kiang Y, Nagapudi K, Liu J, Staples R, Jona J. Crystal structure study and investigation of solid-state cyclization for AMG 222, a channel hydrate. Int J Pharm. 2013;441:299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Material produced using a modified procedure using a humidified nitrogen purge had lower amorphous content and lower levels of cyclic degradation when compared to the GMP batch. ..
  44. Paine M, Leung L, Watkins P. New insights into drug absorption: studies with sirolimus. Ther Drug Monit. 2004;26:463-7 pubmed
    ..This new insight into the intestinal elimination of sirolimus, which was not identified using traditional drug metabolism/transport screening methods, may represent another source for the limited absorption of sirolimus. ..
  45. Lee S, Kim M, Kim D, Kang C, Kim S. Amurensin G enhances the susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated cytotoxicity of cancer stem-like cells of HCT-15 cells. Cancer Sci. 2013;104:1632-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Amurensin G may be effective in eliminating colon CSCs and be applicable to potentiate the sensitivity of colon CSCs to TRAIL. ..
  46. Quarum M, Parker J, Keana J, Weber E. (+)-[3H]MK-801 binding sites in postmortem human brain. J Neurochem. 1990;54:1163-8 pubmed
    ..However, all compounds tested showed greater potency at the high-affinity site in cortex. The results indicate that (+)-[3H]MK-801 binding in human postmortem brain tissue shows pharmacological and regional specificity. ..
  47. Ferkany J, Borosky S, Clissold D, Pontecorvo M. Dextromethorphan inhibits NMDA-induced convulsions. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;151:151-4 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with the interpretation that dextromethorphan elicits some of its pharmacological responses via an interaction with receptors for excitatory amino acids. ..
  48. Jackson A, Sanger D. Is the discriminative stimulus produced by phencyclidine due to an interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors?. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1988;96:87-92 pubmed
    ..These findings are discussed in the light of the hypothesis that the behavioural effects of PCP are mediated via a reduction of neurotransmission at the NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptors. ..
  49. Davies S, Martin D, Millar J, Aram J, Church J, Lodge D. Differences in results from in vivo and in vitro studies on the use-dependency of N-methylaspartate antagonism by MK-801 and other phencyclidine receptor ligands. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;145:141-51 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of action of PCP receptor ligands is discussed in the light of these results. ..
  50. Mohamed G, El Dien F, Mohamed N. Utility of 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane charge transfer reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of trazodone, amineptine and amitriptyline hydrochlorides. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2007;68:1244-9 pubmed
    ..5, 98.7-102.9 and 93-101.9 for TZH, APH and ATPH, respectively. The method is applicable for the assay of the investigated drugs in different dosage forms and the results are in good agreement with those obtained by the official method. ..
  51. Verberne A, Costa M, Lewis S, Louis W, Beart P. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801, attenuates the Bezold-Jarisch reflex in the anaesthetized rat. Neuropharmacology. 1987;26:1243-6 pubmed
    ..v.) but not by saline. The data suggests that activation of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex by 5-HT involves a glutamatergic synapse presumably located within the brainstem vagal reflex arc. ..
  52. Rao T, Kim H, Lehmann J, Martin L, Wood P. Selective activation of dopaminergic pathways in the mesocortex by compounds that act at the phencyclidine (PCP) binding site: tentative evidence for PCP recognition sites not coupled to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Neuropharmacology. 1990;29:225-30 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that dopaminergic neurons in the mesocortex are positively modulated by PCP receptors but tentatively suggest that those recognition sites for PCP are not coupled to NMDA receptors. ..
  53. Conway J, Birnbaum A, MARINO S, Cloyd J, Remmel R. A sensitive capillary GC-MS method for analysis of topiramate from plasma obtained from single-dose studies. Biomed Chromatogr. 2012;26:1071-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3% and the precision (%CV) ranged from 1.0 to 5.3% for both curves at all concentrations. The %CV for quality controls was <7.6%. The assay is both accurate and precise and will be used to complete future pharmacokinetic studies. ..