Summary: A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.

Top Publications

  1. Lim F, Hou Y, Chen Y, Oh J, Lee I, Bugni T, et al. Genome-based cluster deletion reveals an endocrocin biosynthetic pathway in Aspergillus fumigatus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:4117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss a model of the enc cluster as one evolutionary origin of fungal anthraquinones derived from a nonreducing polyketide synthase and a discrete metallo-?-lactamase-type thioesterase. ..
  2. Tsou H, Chen H, Chang C, Yang W, Tang C. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 is mediated in TNF-?-induced CCL2 expression in human synovial fibroblasts. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:3509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the interaction between TNF-? and TNFR1 increases CCL2 expression in human synovial fibroblasts via the ASK1, JNK/p38, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathway. ..
  3. Mani B, O Dowd J, Kumar L, Brueggemann L, Ross M, Byron K. Vascular KCNQ (Kv7) potassium channels as common signaling intermediates and therapeutic targets in cerebral vasospasm. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2013;61:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we identify Kv7 channels as common targets of vasoconstrictor spasmogens and as candidates for therapeutic intervention for cerebral vasospasm...
  4. Heys J, Hasselmo M. Neuromodulation of I(h) in layer II medial entorhinal cortex stellate cells: a voltage-clamp study. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9066-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from this study provide key insights into a potential mechanism that could be underlying changes seen in grid field spacing during distinct behavioral contexts...
  5. Brueggemann L, Kakad P, Love R, Solway J, DOWELL M, Cribbs L, et al. Kv7 potassium channels in airway smooth muscle cells: signal transduction intermediates and pharmacological targets for bronchodilator therapy. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L120-32 pubmed publisher
  6. Xu W, Wu Y, Bi Y, Tan L, Gan Y, Wang K. Activation of voltage-gated KCNQ/Kv7 channels by anticonvulsant retigabine attenuates mechanical allodynia of inflammatory temporomandibular joint in rats. Mol Pain. 2010;6:49 pubmed publisher
  7. Mukae M, Ihara T, Tabara M, Jyo A. Anthracene-DNA conjugates as building blocks of designed DNA structures constructed by photochemical reactions. Org Biomol Chem. 2009;7:1349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..the photochemical ligation of anthracene-ODN (oligodeoxyribonucleotide) conjugates through cycloaddition of anthracenes. Anthracene-DNA conjugates were synthesized by linking the 5'- or 3'-end of ODNs to the anthracene group...
  8. Zhao Z, San M, Duprey J, Arrand J, Vyle J, Tucker J. Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms within a sequence of a gene associated with prostate cancer using a fluorophore-tagged DNA probe. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:129-32 pubmed publisher
  9. Ding G, Zhang A, Huang S, Pan X, Chen R. SP600125, an inhibitor of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, blocks expression of angiotensin II-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human mesangial cells. World J Pediatr. 2010;6:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the JNK/AP-1 pathway is involved in the expression of MCP-1 and TGF-beta, and in extracellular matrix production. JNK is an important therapeutic target for glomerulonephritis and glomerulosclerosis. ..

More Information


  1. Park J, Park M, Byun C, Jo I. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 phosphorylates endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine 116 and regulates nitric oxide production. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, all these observed effects were not manifested when JNK1 probes were used. Overall, this study indicates that JNK2 is a physiological kinase responsible for eNOS-Ser(116) phosphorylation and regulates NO production...
  2. Wang M, Atayar C, Rosati S, Bosga Bouwer A, Kluin P, Visser L. JNK is constitutively active in mantle cell lymphoma: cell cycle deregulation and polyploidy by JNK inhibitor SP600125. J Pathol. 2009;218:95-103 pubmed publisher
    ..JNK inhibition leads to cell cycle deregulation and endoreduplication, mimicking the tetraploid state seen in a subset of MCL cases. Thus, our data also provide an experimental model to study polyploid MCL cells...
  3. Leao R, Tan H, Fisahn A. Kv7/KCNQ channels control action potential phasing of pyramidal neurons during hippocampal gamma oscillations in vitro. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13353-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We further validate these results in a compartmental model of a pyramidal neuron. Our work suggests that I(M) modulates gamma oscillations by regulating the phasing of action potential firing in pyramidal neurons. ..
  4. Li D, Wang L, Deng R, Tang J, Shen Y, Guo J, et al. The pivotal role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-mediated Beclin 1 expression during anticancer agents-induced autophagy in cancer cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:886-98 pubmed publisher
    ..JNK-mediated Beclin 1 expression was also observed in topotecan-induced autophagy. These data suggest that activation of JNK pathway can mediate Beclin 1 expression, which plays a key role in autophagic cell death in cancer cells. ..
  5. Nierth A, Kobitski A, Nienhaus G, Jäschke A. Anthracene-BODIPY dyads as fluorescent sensors for biocatalytic Diels-Alder reactions. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:2646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Variations in the quantum yields of the different probes correlate well with the degree of conjugation between anthracene and the phenylacetylenyl bridge. ..
  6. McCallum L, Pierce S, England S, Greenwood I, Tribe R. The contribution of Kv7 channels to pregnant mouse and human myometrial contractility. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, activation of the encoded channels represents a novel mechanism for treatment of preterm labour...
  7. Carrozzino F, Pugnale P, Feraille E, Montesano R. Inhibition of basal p38 or JNK activity enhances epithelial barrier function through differential modulation of claudin expression. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C775-87 pubmed publisher
  8. Jepps T, Greenwood I, Moffatt J, Sanders K, Ohya S. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv7 K+ channel in murine gastrointestinal smooth muscles. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Drugs that selectively block K(v)7.4/7.5 might be promising therapeutics for the treatment of motility disorders such as constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome...
  9. Guo R, Zhang M, Liu W, Zhao C, Cui Y, Wang C, et al. NMDA receptors are involved in upstream of the spinal JNK activation in morphine antinociceptive tolerance. Neurosci Lett. 2009;467:95-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Kim S, Kim C, Kim M. Flavonoids inhibit high glucose-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1 via the p38 MAPK pathway in human vein endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;415:602-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that hesperidin, naringin, and resveratrol reduced the HG-induced ICAM-1 expression via the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, contributing to the inhibition of monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. ..
  11. Arslan P, Jyo A, Ihara T. Reversible circularization of an anthracene-modified DNA conjugate through bimolecular triplex formation and its analytical application. Org Biomol Chem. 2010;8:4843-8 pubmed publisher
    We prepared an oligodeoxyribonucleotide conjugate (5-3ant(2)18) carrying two anthracenes, each of which was tethered to both ends of the conjugate through hexamethylene linker chains...
  12. Rode F, Svalø J, Sheykhzade M, Rønn L. Functional effects of the KCNQ modulators retigabine and XE991 in the rat urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;638:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study demonstrates an efficacious KCNQ dependent effect of retigabine and XE991 on rat bladder contractility...
  13. Ray R, Jin S, Bavaria M, Johnson L. Regulation of JNK activity in the apoptotic response of intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;300:G761-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that MKP1 activity determines the duration of JNK1/2 and p38 activation and, thereby, apoptosis in response to TNF + CPT. ..
  14. Kim J, Lee J, Margolis R, Fotedar R. SP600125 suppresses Cdk1 and induces endoreplication directly from G2 phase, independent of JNK inhibition. Oncogene. 2010;29:1702-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, endoreplication from G2 phase is independent of p53 control. ..
  15. Chang Y, Wu X. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 in transforming growth factor beta(1)-induced expression of connective tissue growth factor and scar formation in the cornea. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:727-36 pubmed
    ..Analysis by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the mRNA levels of the genes for CTGF, fibronectin and collagen Ialpha(1) in wound and corneal scar formation were reduced by SP600125 pre-treatment. ..
  16. Butts C, Xi J, Brannigan G, Saad A, Venkatachalan S, Pearce R, et al. Identification of a fluorescent general anesthetic, 1-aminoanthracene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, 1-AMA provides an unprecedented opportunity for studying general anesthetic distribution in vivo at the cellular and subcellular levels. ..
  17. Kopp A, Buechler C, Bala M, Neumeier M, Scholmerich J, Schaffler A. Toll-like receptor ligands cause proinflammatory and prodiabetic activation of adipocytes via phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase but not interferon regulatory factor-3. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1097-108 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR-ligand-induced proinflammatory and prodiabetic activation of adipocytes might couple visceral adipose tissue dysfunction with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  18. Kim J, Kim T, Kang H, Ro J, Kim H, Yoon S. SP600125, an inhibitor of Jnk pathway, reduces viability of relatively resistant cancer cells to doxorubicin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;387:450-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results may contribute to the development of chemotherapeutic treatments for patients with DOX-resistant tumors. ..
  19. Subedi A, Park P. Autocrine and paracrine modulation of microRNA-155 expression by globular adiponectin in RAW 264.7 macrophages: involvement of MAPK/NF-?B pathway. Cytokine. 2013;64:638-41 pubmed publisher
    ..7 macrophages. We further showed that this effect was modulated by and MAPK/NF-?B dependent mechanisms. These results suggest that miR-155 would be a novel promising target mediating adiponectin-induced various biological responses...
  20. Preet S, Bharati S, Panjeta A, Tewari R, Rishi P. Effect of nisin and doxorubicin on DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis--a possible adjunct therapy. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:8301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point towards the possible use of nisin as an adjunct to doxorubicin may help in developing alternate strategies to combat currently developing drug resistance in cancer cells. ..
  21. Cains S, Blomeley C, Bracci E. Serotonin inhibits low-threshold spike interneurons in the striatum. J Physiol. 2012;590:2241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that serotonin strongly inhibits striatal LTSIs acting through postsynaptic 5-HT(2C) receptors and increasing an M type current. ..
  22. Chen H, Zhou X, Shi Y, Yang J. Roles of p38 MAPK and JNK in TGF-?1-induced human alveolar epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Arch Med Res. 2013;44:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-?1 induces A549 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to undergo EMT partially via p38 MAPK and JNK activation and supports the concept of EMT in lung epithelial cells. ..
  23. Wang J, Xu Z, Liang W, He J, Cui Y, Liu H, et al. Effects of c-Jun N-terminal kinase on Activin A/Smads signaling in PC12 cell suffered from oxygen-glucose deprivation. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016;62:81-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, JNK, as a critical site for neural apoptosis and negative regulator for Act A/Smads signaling, was presumed to be a molecular therapeutic target for ischemia. ..
  24. Zhang P, Liu X, Huang G, Bai C, Zhang Z, Li H. Barbaloin pretreatment attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via activation of AMPK. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1215-1220 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together our study has identified a novel function of BAR and provided a molecular basis for BAR potential applications in the treatment of MI/R injury and other ischemic disorders. ..
  25. Hancock R, Nikolayenko I. Do nonbonded H--H interactions in phenanthrene stabilize it relative to anthracene? A possible resolution to this question and its implications for ligands such as 2,2'-bipyridyl. J Phys Chem A. 2012;116:8572-83 pubmed publisher
    ..34 kJ mol(-1). The effect that the latter energy has on the thermodynamic stability of complexes of metal ions with bpy in aqueous solution is discussed. ..
  26. Wang F, Wen J, Huang L, Huang J, Ouyang J. A highly sensitive "switch-on" fluorescent probe for protein quantification and visualization based on aggregation-induced emission. Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:7395-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It offers a rapid, economic and effective way for the assay of complete serum proteins and disease-marker proteins. ..
  27. Zhao S, Jia H, Nulaji G, Gao H, Wang F, Wang C. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Fe3+-montmorillonite surface under visible light: Degradation kinetics, mechanism, and toxicity assessments. Chemosphere. 2017;184:1346-1354 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the present study provides useful information to understand the fate and photo-transformation of PAHs in contaminated soils. ..
  28. Lei L, Yuan X, Wang S, Zhang F, Han Y, Ning Q, et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are involved in the upregulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide of rat trigeminal ganglion after organ culture. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:53-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the elevated CGRP expression after rat TG organ culture can be regulated via MAPK pathways. The findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms and experimental evidence for therapeutic targets of migraine. ..
  29. Mohammadi M, Guan J, Khodagholi F, Yans A, Khalaj S, Gholami M, et al. Reduction of autophagy markers mediated protective effects of JNK inhibitor and bucladesine on memory deficit induced by Aβ in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016;389:501-10 pubmed publisher
  30. Payamyar P, Sakamoto J, Schlüter A. Approaching two-dimensional polymers with macroscopic sizes. Chimia (Aarau). 2013;67:283-5 pubmed
    ..Formation of covalent net-points upon anthracene dimerization has an influence on the mechanical coherence of the resulting sheets which could be investigated qualitatively and quantitatively by means of AFM nano-indentation. ..
  31. Kogushi Nishi H, Jinnin M, Kobayashi Y, Muchemwa F, Hirano A, Makino T, et al. Role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase isoforms in the cellular activity of melanoma cell lines. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2013;38:890-6 pubmed publisher
    ..JNK1 and JNK2 respectively mediate cell migration and cell proliferation. Further understanding of the specific roles of JNK isoforms in the pathogenesis of MM may lead to the development of therapies targeting specific isoforms. ..
  32. McCann M, Curran R, Ben Shoshan M, McKee V, Tahir A, Devereux M, et al. Silver(I) complexes of 9-anthracenecarboxylic acid and imidazoles: synthesis, structure and antimicrobial activity. Dalton Trans. 2012;41:6516-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The insect, Galleria mellonella, can survive high doses of the Ag(i) complexes administered in vivo, and a number of the complexes offer significant protection to larvae infected with a lethal dose of pathogenic Candida albicans cells. ..
  33. Hu H, Zhou P, Chen F, Li M, Nan F, Gao Z. Discovery of a retigabine derivative that inhibits KCNQ2 potassium channels. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34:1359-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The retigabine derivative HN38 is a potent KCNQ2 inhibitor, which differs from XE991 in its influence on the channel kinetics. Our study provides a new strategy for the design and development of potent KCNQ2 channel inhibitors. ..
  34. Xu H, Jiao P, Kang B, Deng J, Zhang Y. Walkable dual emissions. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2199 pubmed publisher
  35. Tauler M, Vila J, Nieto J, Grifoll M. Key high molecular weight PAH-degrading bacteria in a soil consortium enriched using a sand-in-liquid microcosm system. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:3321-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall environmental relevance of these phylotypes was confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial community shift in the creosote-polluted soil during a lab-scale biostimulation. ..
  36. Nazeam J, Gad H, El Hefnawy H, Singab A. Chromatographic separation and detection methods of Aloe arborescens Miller constituents: A systematic review. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1058:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the review is targeted to provide evidence reported in the relevant literature on qualitative and quantitative research to assist scientists in isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds in A. arborescens. ..
  37. Jiang X, Yang X, Han Y, Lu S. Transcription factor AP1 binds the functional region of the promoter and regulates gene expression of human PPARdelta in LoVo cell. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:3619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, inhibition of the AP1 binding site led to decreased PPAR? mRNA. Our study demonstrated that AP1 is the transcriptional factor that contributes to PPAR? expression in LoVo cells. ..
  38. Alberto M, Iuga C, Quartarolo A, Russo N. Bisanthracene bis(dicarboxylic imide)s as potential photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy: a theoretical investigation. J Chem Inf Model. 2013;53:2334-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Results show that only M4 is able to support the type I reaction, and one of its brominated and iodinated derivatives can produce cytotoxic singlet oxygen (type II reaction). ..
  39. Wang S, Yin J, Ge M, Dai Z, Li Y, Si J, et al. Transforming growth-beta 1 contributes to isoflurane postconditioning against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;78:280-290 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the present results provided valid evidence to demonstrate that TGF-β1 contributes to isoflurane postconditioning against cerebral I/R injury by inhibiting the JNK signaling pathway. ..
  40. Akutsu M, Ogura N, Ito K, Kawashima M, Kishida T, Kondoh T. Effects of interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? on macrophage inflammatory protein-3? production in synovial fibroblast-like cells from human temporomandibular joints. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013;42:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the production of MIP-3? from stimulation with IL-1? or TNF-? is one factor associated with the inflammatory progression of the internal derangement of the TMJ. ..
  41. Diao X, Li W, Yu J, Wang X, Zhang X, Yang Y, et al. Carrier-free, water dispersible and highly luminescent dye nanoparticles for targeted cell imaging. Nanoscale. 2012;4:5373-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy may be straightforwardly extended to other organic dyes to achieve water dispersible NPs for cell imaging and drug delivery. ..
  42. Nishijima M, Kato H, Fukuhara G, Yang C, Mori T, Maruyama T, et al. Photochirogenesis with mutant human serum albumins: enantiodifferentiating photocyclodimerization of 2-anthracenecarboxylate. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013;49:7433-5 pubmed publisher
  43. Saleh L, Plieth C. A9C sensitive Cl?-accumulation in A. thaliana root cells during salt stress is controlled by internal and external calcium. Plant Signal Behav. 2013;8:e24259 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that several transporter species are involved here, including electroneutral cation-chloride-cotransporters, and a part of chloride possibly enters the cells through cation channels after salt application. ..
  44. Copley G, Moore T, Moore A, Gust D. Analog applications of photochemical switches. Adv Mater. 2013;25:456-61 pubmed
    ..However, ensembles of such molecules can also act as analog devices. Here, examples of a molecular photonic signal transducer and two mimics of photosynthetic photoregulatory processes are discussed. ..
  45. Ganeshpandian M, Loganathan R, Suresh E, Riyasdeen A, Akbarsha M, Palaniandavar M. New ruthenium(II) arene complexes of anthracenyl-appended diazacycloalkanes: effect of ligand intercalation and hydrophobicity on DNA and protein binding and cleavage and cytotoxicity. Dalton Trans. 2014;43:1203-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The comet assay has been employed to determine the extent of DNA fragmentation in cancer cells. ..
  46. Huang X, Zhang H, Yang X, Dong X, Xie X, Yin H, et al. Activation of a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated autophagy pathway attenuates the anticancer activity of gemcitabine in human bladder cancer cells. Anticancer Drugs. 2017;28:596-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, JNK-mediated autophagy was activated, which protects the cells against apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of autophagy could be exploited to enhance the anticancer efficacy of GEM for treating bladder cancer. ..
  47. Nalin F, Sander L, Wilson W, Wise S. Gas chromatographic retention behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-substituted PAHs on two stationary phases of different selectivity. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2018;410:1123-1137 pubmed publisher
    ..methylfluorenes, methylanthracenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylfluoranthenes, methylpyrenes, methylbenz[a]anthracenes, methylbenzo[c]phenanthrenes, methylchrysenes, methyltriphenylenes, methylbenzo[a]pyrenes, methylperylenes, and ..
  48. Kaiser S, Radl S, Manhart J, Ayalur Karunakaran S, Griesser T, Moser A, et al. Switching "on" and "off" the adhesion in stimuli-responsive elastomers. Soft Matter. 2018;14:2547-2559 pubmed publisher
    ..adhesives with switchable bonding properties by using the reversible nature of the [4?s+4?s] cycloaddition of anthracenes. Photo-responsive hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber with photo-responsive pendant anthracene ..
  49. Almeataq M, Yi H, Al Faifi S, Alghamdi A, Iraqi A, Scarratt N, et al. Anthracene-based donor-acceptor low band gap polymers for application in solar cells. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013;49:2252-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The photophysical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of the polymers in bulk heterojunction solar cells using PC(71)BM as an acceptor are discussed. ..
  50. Park M, You H, Lee H, Kang J, Oh S, Kim S, et al. Transglutaminase-2 induces N-cadherin expression in TGF-?1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition via c-Jun-N-terminal kinase activation by protein phosphatase 2A down-regulation. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:1692-705 pubmed publisher
  51. Jemaà M, Galluzzi L, Kepp O, Castedo M, Rello Varona S, Vitale I, et al. Transgenerational cell fate profiling: a method for the graphical presentation of complex cell cycle alterations. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:183-90 pubmed publisher
  52. Yan Y, Zhang C, Zheng J, Yao J, Zhao Y. Optical modulation based on direct photon-plasmon coupling in organic/metal nanowire heterojunctions. Adv Mater. 2012;24:5681-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are essential for incorporating plasmonic waveguides as practical components into hybrid high-capacity photonic circuits. ..
  53. Duan L, Tsuboi T, Qiu Y, Li Y, Zhang G. Tandem organic light-emitting diodes with KBH4 doped 9,10-bis(3-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl) anthracene connected to the charge generation layer. Opt Express. 2012;20:14564-72 pubmed publisher
    ..For the tandem white OLED with a fluorescent blue unit and a phosphorescent yellow unit, we've achieved a high current efficiency of 75 cd/A, which can be further improved to 120 cd/A by attaching a diffuser layer. ..