Summary: A class of natural cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by certain subspecies of STREPTOMYCES. They include two structurally unrelated components, STREPTOGRAMIN GROUP A and STREPTOGRAMIN GROUP B, which generally act synergistically to inhibit bacterial growth.

Top Publications

  1. Malbruny B, Werno A, Murdoch D, Leclercq R, Cattoir V. Cross-resistance to lincosamides, streptogramins A, and pleuromutilins due to the lsa(C) gene in Streptococcus agalactiae UCN70. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:1470-4 pubmed publisher
    ..agalactiae UCN70, isolated from a vaginal swab obtained in New Zealand, is resistant to lincosamides and streptogramins A (LS(A) phenotype) and also to tiamulin (a pleuromutilin)...
  2. Stepanovic S, Martel A, Dakic I, Decostere A, Vukovic D, Ranin L, et al. Resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, and linezolid among members of the Staphylococcus sciuri group. Microb Drug Resist. 2006;12:115-20 pubmed
    ..characterize the resistance profiles of the Staphylococcus sciuri group members to macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins (MLS antibiotics), and linezolid upon analysis of large series of isolates that included 162 S...
  3. Starikova E, Prianichnikov N, Zdobnov E, Govorun V. [Bioinformatics analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes and prophages colocalized in human gut metagenomes]. Biomed Khim. 2017;63:508-512 pubmed publisher
    ..The abovementioned genes confer resistance to antimicrobial peptides, pleuromutilin, lincomycins, streptogramins and multidrug resistance. Three (0...
  4. Metelev M, Osterman I, Ghilarov D, Khabibullina N, Yakimov A, Shabalin K, et al. Klebsazolicin inhibits 70S ribosome by obstructing the peptide exit tunnel. Nat Chem Biol. 2017;13:1129-1136 pubmed publisher
    ..Engineered KLB fragments were observed to retain in vitro activity, and thus have the potential to serve as a starting point for the development of new bioactive compounds...
  5. Mukhtar T, Wright G. Streptogramins, oxazolidinones, and other inhibitors of bacterial protein synthesis. Chem Rev. 2005;105:529-42 pubmed
  6. Mukhtar T, Koteva K, Wright G. Chimeric streptogramin-tyrocidine antibiotics that overcome streptogramin resistance. Chem Biol. 2005;12:229-35 pubmed
    ..Clinical resistance to the type B streptogramins can occur via enzymatic degradation catalyzed by the lyase Vgb or by target modification through the action of ..
  7. Sasirekha B, Usha M, Amruta J, Ankit S, Brinda N, Divya R. Incidence of constitutive and inducible clindamycin resistance among hospital-associated Staphylococcus aureus. 3 Biotech. 2014;4:85-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical laboratories should perform D test routinely to guide the clinicians about the inducible clindamycin resistance and to prevent misuse of antibiotics. ..
  8. Strauss C, Hu Y, Coates A, Perreten V. A Novel erm(44) Gene Variant from a Human Staphylococcus saprophyticus Isolate Confers Resistance to Macrolides and Lincosamides but Not Streptogramins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61: pubmed publisher
    ..aureus The erm(44)v gene resides on a 19,400-bp genomic island which contains phage-associated proteins and is integrated into the chromosome of S. saprophyticus. ..
  9. Bouchami O, Achour W, Ben Hassen A. Prevalence and mechanisms of macrolide resistance among Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from neutropenic patients in Tunisia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13:103-6 pubmed
    ..Gene distribution was related to the methicillin resistance pattern. The vga gene was present in combination with erm(A) in three isolates. ..

More Information


  1. Johnston N, Mukhtar T, Wright G. Streptogramin antibiotics: mode of action and resistance. Curr Drug Targets. 2002;3:335-44 pubmed
    ..The streptogramins consist of mixtures of two structurally distinct compounds, type A and type B, which are separately ..
  2. Kelly L, Smith D, Snary E, Johnson J, Harris A, Wooldridge M, et al. Animal growth promoters: to ban or not to ban? A risk assessment approach. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004;24:205-12 pubmed
    ..Counter-intuitively, the benefits of a ban on virginiamycin were highest for intermediate values of R(0), and lower for extremely high or low values of R(0). ..
  3. Roberts M. Resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin, ketolide, and oxazolidinone antibiotics. Mol Biotechnol. 2004;28:47-62 pubmed
  4. Ammar A, Attia A, Abd El Hamid M, El Shorbagy I, Abd El Kader S. Genetic basis of resistance waves among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from milk and meat products in Egypt. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016;62:7-15 pubmed
    ..Besides, the remaining 12 isolates showed MS phenotype (resistant to macrolides and type B streptogramins only) with a variety of erm(A), mph(C), msr(A) or a combination of these genes including erm(C)...
  5. Perrin Guyomard A, Soumet C, Leclercq R, Doucet Populaire F, Sanders P. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated from pasteurized milk and characterization of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance genes. J Food Prot. 2005;68:347-52 pubmed
    ..No gene transfer could be demonstrated between the two erm(C) staphylococcal isolates and recipient strains of Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 or Staphylococcus aureus 80CR5. ..
  6. Bolukaoto J, Monyama C, Chukwu M, Lekala S, Nchabeleng M, Maloba M, et al. Antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from pregnant women in Garankuwa, South Africa. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:364 pubmed publisher
    ..However it identified the challenges of resistance to macrolides and lincosamides used as alternative drugs for individuals allergic to penicillin. More GBS treatment options for penicillin allergic patients need to be researched on. ..
  7. Pereira J, Rabelo M, Lima J, Neto A, Lopes A, Maciel M. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramin of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp. of a university hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis. 2016;20:276-81 pubmed publisher
    ..which also affects the lincosamides and type B streptogramins characterizing the so-called MLSB resistance, whose expression can be constitutive (cMLSB) or inducible (iMLSB)..
  8. Mitta B, Weber C, Rimann M, Fussenegger M. Design and in vivo characterization of self-inactivating human and non-human lentiviral expression vectors engineered for streptogramin-adjustable transgene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:e106 pubmed
    ..Powerful transduction systems equipped with adjustable transcription modulation options are expected to greatly advance sophisticated molecular interventions in clinically and/or biotechnologically relevant primary cells and cell lines. ..
  9. Dupuis M, Leclercq R. Activity of a new oral streptogramin, XRP2868, against gram-positive cocci harboring various mechanisms of resistance to streptogramins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:237-42 pubmed
    ..As with the other streptogramins, there was a reduction in the bactericidal effect of XRPR2868 when the staphylococcal strains acquired a ..
  10. Szczuka E, Makowska N, Bosacka K, Słotwińska A, Kaznowski A. Molecular basis of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins in Staphylococcus hominis strains isolated from clinical specimens. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2016;61:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies indicated that resistance to MLSB in S. hominis is mostly based on the ribosomal target modification mechanism mediated by erm genes, mainly the erm(C), and enzymatic drug inactivation mediated by lnu(A). ..
  11. Xie Y, Ma J, Qin X, Li Q, Ju J. Identification and utilization of two important transporters: SgvT1 and SgvT2, for griseoviridin and viridogrisein biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseoviridis. Microb Cell Fact. 2017;16:177 pubmed publisher
  12. Gonzalez Nicolini V, Fussenegger M. Adenovirus-mediated transduction of auto- and dual-regulated transgene expression in mammalian cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;434:221-37 pubmed publisher
  13. Peeters L, Argudín M, Azadikhah S, Butaye P. Antimicrobial resistance and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from pigs farms. Vet Microbiol. 2015;180:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The recovery of CA-MRSA from livestock indicates that one should remain vigilant to the evolution of LA-MRSA in pigs. ..
  14. He T, Shen Y, Schwarz S, Cai J, Lv Y, Li J, et al. Genetic environment of the transferable oxazolidinone/phenicol resistance gene optrA in Enterococcus faecalis isolates of human and animal origin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;71:1466-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism underlying the integration of optrA into the chromosomal DNA requires further investigation. ..
  15. Jones R, Deshpande L. Are Enterococcus faecalis strains with vat(E) in poultry a reservoir for human streptogramin resistance? vat(E) occurrence in human enterococcal bloodstream infections in North America (SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 2002). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:360-1 pubmed
  16. Ohki R, Tateno K, Takizawa T, Aiso T, Murata M. Transcriptional termination control of a novel ABC transporter gene involved in antibiotic resistance in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5946-54 pubmed
    ..No stabilization of vmlR mRNA occurred under the induced conditions...
  17. Szekeres E, Baricz A, Chiriac C, Farkas A, Opriş O, Soran M, et al. Abundance of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial community composition in wastewater effluents from different Romanian hospitals. Environ Pollut. 2017;225:304-315 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this study quantified for the first time the abundance of antibiotics and ARGs in wastewater effluents from different Romanian hospitals. ..
  18. Miklasińska M, Kępa M, Wojtyczka R, Idzik D, Zdebik A, Orlewska K, et al. Antibacterial Activity of Protocatechuic Acid Ethyl Ester on Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Strains Alone and in Combination with Antistaphylococcal Drugs. Molecules. 2015;20:13536-49 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus clinical strains and triggers a synergistic antimicrobial effect with clindamycin and to the lesser extent with erythromycin and vancomycin. ..
  19. Marosevic D, Kaevska M, Jaglic Z. Resistance to the tetracyclines and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin group of antibiotics and its genetic linkage - a review. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017;24:338-344 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge on different tetracycline and MLS resistance genes that can be linked together on transposable elements. ..
  20. Gonzalez Nicolini V, Sanchez Bustamante C, Hartenbach S, Fussenegger M. Adenoviral vector platform for transduction of constitutive and regulated tricistronic or triple-transcript transgene expression in mammalian cells and microtissues. J Gene Med. 2006;8:1208-22 pubmed
  21. Mensa J, García Vázquez E, Vila J. [Macrolides, ketolides and streptogramins]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2003;21:200-7; quiz 208, 219 pubmed
    Macrolides, ketolides and streptogramins are three families of antibiotics with different chemical structures, sharing the same mechanism of action. All three bind to distinct bases of the peptidyl transferase center of ARNr 23S...
  22. Aktas Z, Aridogan A, Kayacan C, Aydin D. Resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin antibiotics in staphylococci isolated in Istanbul, Turkey. J Microbiol. 2007;45:286-90 pubmed
    ..5% of the isolates, while 37.5% contained both erm(A) and erm(C). erm(C)-associated macrolide resistance was the most prevalent in CNS, while erm(C) and erm(A, C) was the most prevalent in S. aureus. ..
  23. Andes D, Craig W. Pharmacodynamics of a new streptogramin, XRP 2868, in murine thigh and lung infection models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:243-9 pubmed
    ..Mean 24-h AUC/MICs +/- standard deviations (SDs) for S. pneumoniae and S. aureus isolates were 14 +/- 10 and 31 +/- 16, respectively. Beta-lactam and macrolide resistance did not alter the magnitude of AUC/MIC required for efficacy. ..
  24. Szczuka E, Jabłońska L, Kaznowski A. Coagulase-negative staphylococci: pathogenesis, occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes and in vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on biofilm-growing bacteria. J Med Microbiol. 2016;65:1405-1413 pubmed publisher
    ..capitis, S. auricularis, S. lugdunensis, S. cohnii and S. caprae is multi-factorial, involving the ability of these bacteria to adhere to human epithelial cells, form biofilms and invade and destroy human cells. ..
  25. Matsuoka M, Sasaki T. Inactivation of macrolides by producers and pathogens. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2004;4:217-40 pubmed
    ..In this chapter, the genes and the mechanisms involved in the inactivation of MLS antibiotics by antibiotic-producing bacteria are reviewed. ..
  26. Kaczmarek A, Budzyńska A, Gospodarek E. [Occurrence of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in clinical specimens in 2003-2004]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2006;58:103-11 pubmed
    ..6% MRSA MLS(B)-). They mainly came from patients of the outpatient clinic (2,4% MSSA MLS(B)+ and 19.9% MSSA MLS(B)-) and patients treated at the neurosurgical ward (20.6% MRSA MLS(B)+ and 12.1% MRSA MLS(B)-). ..
  27. Wang M, Sun J, Zhong W, Xiong W, Zeng Z, Sun Y. Presence and distribution of Macrolides-Lincosamide-Streptogramin resistance genes and potential indicator ARGs in the university ponds in Guangzhou, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:22937-22946 pubmed
    ..The fairly low abundance of all the tested resistance genes in soil samples and the moderate levels in other samples suggests that the university ponds kept a good state and did not have a significant impact on their surroundings. ..
  28. Raut S, Bajracharya K, Adhikari J, Pant S, Adhikari B. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Palpa, Western Nepal. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10:187 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibiotic resistance profiles from this study can optimize the treatment of multi-drug resistant S. aureus. ..
  29. Roberts M. Update on macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, ketolide, and oxazolidinone resistance genes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;282:147-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These mobile elements may play a role in the continued spread of the MLSKO resistance genes into new species, genera, and ecosystems. ..
  30. Larosa S, Tomecki K. Antibiotics: what's new?. Cutis. 2004;73:10-4 pubmed
    ..The pharmacologic profiles of 3 newer classes of these antibiotics are reviewed briefly, and the role of these agents in treating skin and skin structure infections is discussed. ..
  31. Hammerum A, Flannagan S, Clewell D, Jensen L. Indication of transposition of a mobile DNA element containing the vat(D) and erm(B) genes in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45:3223-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the vat(D) and erm(B) probes hybridized to fragments of different sizes in the donor and transconjugants, which indicated a transposition event...
  32. Bradshaw C, Jensen J, Waites K. New Horizons in Mycoplasma genitalium Treatment. J Infect Dis. 2017;216:S412-S419 pubmed publisher urgent need for new therapies and renewed interest in other classes such as aminocyclitols, phenicols, and streptogramins as treatment alternatives...
  33. Lim J, Kwon A, Kim S, Chong Y, Lee K, Choi E. Prevalence of resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin antibiotics in Gram-positive cocci isolated in a Korean hospital. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;49:489-95 pubmed
    ..The resistance was due mainly to the presence of erm(A) in S. aureus (82.5%), erm(B) in enterococci (55%) and erm(C) in CNS (47.2%). ..
  34. Chmielarczyk A, Pomorska Wesołowska M, Szczypta A, Romaniszyn D, Pobiega M, Wójkowska Mach J. Molecular analysis of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from different types of infections from patients hospitalized in 12 regional, non-teaching hospitals in southern Poland. J Hosp Infect. 2017;95:259-267 pubmed publisher
  35. Reynolds E, Ross J, Cove J. Msr(A) and related macrolide/streptogramin resistance determinants: incomplete transporters?. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2003;22:228-36 pubmed
    The gene msr(A) confers inducible resistance to 14-membered-ring macrolides and type B streptogramins (MS(B) resistance) in staphylococci...
  36. Muhtarova A, Gergova R, Mitov I. Distribution of macrolide resistance mechanisms in Bulgarian clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes during the years of 2013-2016. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2017;10:238-242 pubmed publisher
    ..55%, which determined high-level inducible or constitutive resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins (iMLSB or cMLSB). The highest MIC value (>256mg/L) was detected in association with erm(B) (p<0.05)...
  37. Adriaenssens N, Coenen S, Versporten A, Muller A, Minalu G, Faes C, et al. European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC): outpatient macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin (MLS) use in Europe (1997-2009). J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66 Suppl 6:vi37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed differences between European countries in the levels of MLS use and the extreme seasonal variations in their use suggest that this subgroup of antibiotics is still prescribed inappropriately in many countries. ..
  38. Guérin F, Isnard C, Bucquet F, Fines Guyon M, Giard J, Burrus V, et al. Novel chromosome-encoded erm(47) determinant responsible for constitutive MLSB resistance in Helcococcus kunzii. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;71:3046-3049 pubmed
    ..This is the first description of a novel MLSB resistance determinant, named erm(47). The prevalence of this gene among Gram-positive cocci must be further investigated to determine its clinical significance. ..
  39. Le Bouter A, Leclercq R, Cattoir V. Molecular basis of resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramins in Staphylococcus saprophyticus clinical isolates. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;37:118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..0%) with an L phenotype. All isolates were susceptible to the combination of streptogramins A and B. The resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), msr(A) and lnu(A) were detected alone in 0, 0, 5 (15...
  40. Martin P, Bao Y, Boyer E, Winterberg K, McDowell L, Schmid M, et al. Novel locus required for expression of high-level macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:5810-3 pubmed
    ..Conditional loss of function or expression of ssa in the yycF1 mutant is proposed to result in the observed hypersensitivity to MLS(B) antibiotics. ..
  41. Wendlandt S, Kadlec K, Feßler A, Schwarz S. Identification of ABC transporter genes conferring combined pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance in bovine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Vet Microbiol. 2015;177:353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is also the first identification of the sal(A) gene in a S. sciuri from a case of bovine mastitis. Moreover, the sal(A) gene was shown to also confer pleuromutilin resistance. ..
  42. Jalava J, Marttila H. Application of molecular genetic methods in macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin resistance diagnostics and in detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. APMIS. 2004;112:838-55 pubmed
    ..This review presents the genetic background of drug resistance and introduces some methods for genotypic susceptibility testing...
  43. Christensen E, Joho K, Matthews K. Secondary transfer and expression of vanA in Enterococcus faecium derived from a commensal vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium multi-component food isolate. Microb Drug Resist. 2011;17:369-76 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in transfer efficiency resulted from secondary conjugation using the native vancomycin- and streptogramin-susceptible salad strain as the donor. ..
  44. Wan T, Hung W, Tsai J, Lin Y, Lee H, Hsueh P, et al. Novel Structure of Enterococcus faecium-Originated ermB-Positive Tn1546-Like Element in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:6108-14 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus have occurred in clonal complex 5 (CC5) MRSA, but not in MSSA. This is the first report that MSSA harbors an Enterococcus faecium-originated ermB-positive Tn1546-like element located on a plasmid. ..
  45. Link N, Weber W, Fussenegger M. A novel generic dipstick-based technology for rapid and precise detection of tetracycline, streptogramin and macrolide antibiotics in food samples. J Biotechnol. 2007;128:668-80 pubmed
    ..from their cognate operators (tetO, PIR, ETR) upon binding of specific classes of antibiotics (tetracycline, streptogramins, macrolides) we have designed an easy-to-handle dipstick-based assay for detection of antibiotic levels in ..
  46. Tsui W, Yim G, Wang H, McClure J, Surette M, Davies J. Dual effects of MLS antibiotics: transcriptional modulation and interactions on the ribosome. Chem Biol. 2004;11:1307-16 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional patterns detected with promoter-lux clones provide a novel approach to antibiotic discovery and mode-of-action studies. ..
  47. Weber W, Marty R, Keller B, Rimann M, Kramer B, Fussenegger M. Versatile macrolide-responsive mammalian expression vectors for multiregulated multigene metabolic engineering. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2002;80:691-705 pubmed
  48. Foik I, Tuszynska I, Feder M, Purta E, Stefaniak F, Bujnicki J. Novel inhibitors of the rRNA ErmC' methyltransferase to block resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramine B antibiotics. Eur J Med Chem. 2018;146:60-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a basis for the development of inhibitors against the Erm-family of enzymes. ..
  49. Ju F, Li B, Ma L, Wang Y, Huang D, Zhang T. Antibiotic resistance genes and human bacterial pathogens: Co-occurrence, removal, and enrichment in municipal sewage sludge digesters. Water Res. 2016;91:1-10 pubmed publisher
  50. Pankuch G, Lin G, Clark C, Appelbaum P. Time-kill activity of the streptogramin NXL 103 against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:1787-91 pubmed publisher
    ..After the exposure of one strain of each species to NXL 103 for 10 daily subcultures, the MICs remained within ± 1 dilution. ..
  51. Bouchami O, Achour W, Ben Hassen A. Prevalence of resistance phenotypes and genotypes to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin antibiotics in Gram-positive cocci isolated in Tunisian Bone Marrow Transplant Center. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2011;59:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The resistance was due mainly to the presence of ermB in E. faecium (80%), ermC in S. epidermidis (53%) and mefA in S. mitis (65%). ..
  52. Elseviers M, Ferech M, Vander Stichele R, Goossens H. Antibiotic use in ambulatory care in Europe (ESAC data 1997-2002): trends, regional differences and seasonal fluctuations. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007;16:115-23 pubmed
  53. Simjee S, White D, Meng J, Wagner D, Qaiyumi S, Zhao S, et al. Prevalence of streptogramin resistance genes among Enterococcus isolates recovered from retail meats in the Greater Washington DC area. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;50:877-82 pubmed