Summary: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.

Top Publications

  1. Hammond K, Whitfield T. The developing lamprey ear closely resembles the zebrafish otic vesicle: otx1 expression can account for all major patterning differences. Development. 2006;133:1347-57 pubmed
  2. Ocampo J, Mondragon R, Roa Espitia A, Chiquete Felix N, Salgado Z, Mújica A. Actin, myosin, cytokeratins and spectrin are components of the guinea pig sperm nuclear matrix. Tissue Cell. 2005;37:293-308 pubmed
    ..The actin role was supported by the decondensing effect that citochalasin D and gelsolin had on sperm nuclei. ..
  3. Tsujioka M, Yoshida K, Inouye K. Talin B is required for force transmission in morphogenesis of Dictyostelium. EMBO J. 2004;23:2216-25 pubmed
    ..We conclude that talin B is involved in force transmission between the cytoskeleton and cell exterior. ..
  4. Tokuraku K, Kurogi R, Toya R, Uyeda T. Novel mode of cooperative binding between myosin and Mg2+ -actin filaments in the presence of low concentrations of ATP. J Mol Biol. 2009;386:149-62 pubmed publisher
  5. Schmitz S, Schaap I, Kleinjung J, Harder S, Grainger M, Calder L, et al. Malaria parasite actin polymerization and filament structure. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:36577-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural differences reported here may be a consequence of weaker inter- and intra-strand contacts, and may be critical for differences in filament dynamics and for regulation of parasite motility. ..
  6. Dent E, Kalil K. Axon branching requires interactions between dynamic microtubules and actin filaments. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9757-69 pubmed
    ..However, these treatments do cause undirected axon outgrowth. These results suggest that interactions between dynamic microtubules and actin filaments are required for axon branching and directed axon outgrowth. ..
  7. Oda T, Namba K, Maeda Y. Position and orientation of phalloidin in F-actin determined by X-ray fiber diffraction analysis. Biophys J. 2005;88:2727-36 pubmed
    ..The method of analysis developed in this study is applicable for the determination of binding positions of other drugs, such as jasplakinolide and dolastatin 11. ..
  8. Capani F, Deerinck T, Ellisman M, Bushong E, Bobik M, Martone M. Phalloidin-eosin followed by photo-oxidation: a novel method for localizing F-actin at the light and electron microscopic levels. J Histochem Cytochem. 2001;49:1351-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the fluorescent phalloidin is an excellent tool for the study of actin networks at high resolution. ..
  9. Pendleton A, Pope B, Weeds A, Koffer A. Latrunculin B or ATP depletion induces cofilin-dependent translocation of actin into nuclei of mast cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14394-400 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the presence of actin in the nucleus may be required for certain stress-induced responses and that cofilin is essential for the nuclear import of actin. ..

More Information


  1. An M, Wijesinghe D, Andreev O, Reshetnyak Y, Engelman D. pH-(low)-insertion-peptide (pHLIP) translocation of membrane impermeable phalloidin toxin inhibits cancer cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20246-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a lead for antitumor agents that would selectively destroy cells in acidic tumors. Such a targeted approach may reduce both the doses needed for cancer chemotherapy and the side effects in tissues with a normal pH. ..
  2. Bubb M, Senderowicz A, Sausville E, Duncan K, Korn E. Jasplakinolide, a cytotoxic natural product, induces actin polymerization and competitively inhibits the binding of phalloidin to F-actin. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:14869-71 pubmed
    ..These results imply that jasplakinolide may exert its cytotoxic effect in vivo by inducing actin polymerization and/or stabilizing pre-existing actin filaments. ..
  3. Wehland J, Osborn M, Weber K. Phalloidin-induced actin polymerization in the cytoplasm of cultured cells interferes with cell locomotion and growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:5613-7 pubmed
  4. Bubb M, Spector I, Beyer B, Fosen K. Effects of jasplakinolide on the kinetics of actin polymerization. An explanation for certain in vivo observations. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:5163-70 pubmed
  5. Zanotti G, Falcigno L, Saviano M, D Auria G, Bruno B, Campanile T, et al. Solid state and solution conformation of [Ala7]-phalloidin: a synthetic phallotoxin analogue. Chemistry. 2001;7:1479-85 pubmed
    ..NMR techniques have been used to extract interproton distances as restraints in subsequent molecular dynamics calculations. Finally, a direct comparison between structures in solution and in the solid state is presented...
  6. Berven L, Frew I, Crouch M. Nitric oxide donors selectively potentiate thrombin-stimulated p70(S6k) activity and morphological changes in Swiss 3T3 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;266:352-60 pubmed
    ..We conclude that NO donors modulate the morphological changes associated with cellular motility in response to thrombin stimulation through selective enhancement of p70(S6k) activity. ..
  7. Sept D, Xu J, Pollard T, McCammon J. Annealing accounts for the length of actin filaments formed by spontaneous polymerization. Biophys J. 1999;77:2911-9 pubmed
  8. Small J, Rottner K, Hahne P, Anderson K. Visualising the actin cytoskeleton. Microsc Res Tech. 1999;47:3-17 pubmed
    ..Included also is a comparison of cooled CCD technology, confocal and 2-photon fluorescence microscopy of living and fixed cells, as well as a critique of current procedures for electron microscopy. ..
  9. Westphal M, Jungbluth A, Heidecker M, Muhlbauer B, Heizer C, Schwartz J, et al. Microfilament dynamics during cell movement and chemotaxis monitored using a GFP-actin fusion protein. Curr Biol. 1997;7:176-83 pubmed
    ..Other clusters of GFP-actin might represent stores of monomeric actin in the form of complexes with actin-sequestering proteins. ..
  10. Bonnet M, Basson P. The toxicology of Amanita phalloides. Homeopathy. 2002;91:249-54 pubmed
    ..The organism is a fungus, its structure, distribution and toxic components are described. Symptoms of human poisoning by Am. phalloides are described, following the order of Homeopathic Repertories. ..
  11. Chacón M, Navarro A, Cuesto G, del Pino I, Scott R, Morales M, et al. Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth. Development. 2012;139:3200-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a novel mechanism through which FAK controls filopodia formation and actin nucleation during axonal development. ..
  12. Larsen E, Ueyama T, Brannock P, Shirai Y, Saito N, Larsson C, et al. A role for PKC-epsilon in Fc gammaR-mediated phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 cells. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:939-44 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a role for PKC- epsilon in Fc gammaR-mediated phagocytosis that is independent of its effects on actin assembly. ..
  13. Topp S, Upadhya G, Strasberg S. Leukocyte adhesion to cold-preserved rat endothelial cells: role of actin disassembly and ICAM-1. Liver Transpl. 2003;9:1286-94 pubmed
    ..Leukocyte adhesion to cold-preserved SEC requires both increased ICAM-1 and actin disassembly. Agents that inhibit actin disassembly can significantly decrease leukocyte adhesion regardless of increased ICAM-1 expression. ..
  14. Baldea I, Olteanu D, Bolfa P, Tabaran F, Ion R, Filip G. Melanogenesis and DNA damage following photodynamic therapy in melanoma with two meso-substituted porphyrins. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2016;161:402-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are encouraging for a possible use of PDT, as an adjuvant therapy in lightly pigmented melanomas. ..
  15. Xiong T, Liu J, Dai G, Hou Y, Tan B, Zhang Y, et al. The progressive changes of filamentous actin cytoskeleton in the hippocampal neurons after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res. 2015;118:55-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The progressive changes of F-actin in the degenerating neurons reported in this study may help to elucidate a cytoskeletal mechanism that may link to the delayed cell loss that occurs during epileptogenesis. ..
  16. Brasnu E, Brignole Baudouin F, Riancho L, Warnet J, Baudouin C. Comparative study on the cytotoxic effects of benzalkonium chloride on the Wong-Kilbourne derivative of Chang conjunctival and IOBA-NHC cell lines. Mol Vis. 2008;14:394-402 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we compared in these two cell types the toxic effects of the preservative, benzalkonium chloride (BAC); its toxicity has been often reported on conjunctival in vivo and in vitro models...
  17. Zhang D, Zhu X, Sun F, Zhang K, Niu S, Huang X. The roles of actin cytoskeleton and actin-associated protein Crn1p in trap formation of Arthrobotrys oligospora. Res Microbiol. 2017;168:655-663 pubmed publisher
    ..It further suggested the manners in which Crn1p influences the development of three-dimensional networks in A. oligospora. ..
  18. Yu Y, Jackson S, Garrill A. Two distinct distributions of F-actin are present in the hyphal apex of the oomycete Achlya bisexualis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45:275-80 pubmed
    ..The methylglyoxal-formaldehyde combination fixative gave more stained hyphae, brighter staining and more complete staining of F-actin compared to formaldehyde alone...
  19. Stack C, Lucero A, Shuster C. Calcium-responsive contractility during fertilization in sea urchin eggs. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1042-52 pubmed
  20. Kutyrev I, Biserova N, Olennikov D, Korneva J, Mazur O. Prostaglandins E2 and D2-regulators of host immunity in the model parasite Diphyllobothrium dendriticum: An immunocytochemical and biochemical study. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2017;212:33-45 pubmed publisher
  21. Ploppa A, George T, Unertl K, Nohé B, Durieux M. ImageStream cytometry extends the analysis of phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2011;71:362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ImageStream cytometry provides the spatial resolution to determine the number of bacteria ingested and the sub-cellular localization and trafficking patterns that enables a more complete evaluation of the phagocytic process. ..
  22. Khatayevich D, Gungormus M, Yazici H, So C, Cetinel S, Ma H, et al. Biofunctionalization of materials for implants using engineered peptides. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:4634-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here indicate that control over the extent of cell-material interactions can be achieved by relatively simple and biocompatible surface modification procedures using inorganic binding peptides as linker molecules. ..
  23. Zhang X, Aoyama T, Yasuda T, Oike M, Ito A, Tajino J, et al. Effect of microfabricated microgroove-surface devices on the morphology of mesenchymal stem cells. Biomed Microdevices. 2015;17:116 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the use of zigzag microgroove surfaces microfabricated by injection-compression molding demonstrated the property of MSCs to alter their shapes to fit the surface. ..
  24. Gallo G, Yee H, Letourneau P. Actin turnover is required to prevent axon retraction driven by endogenous actomyosin contractility. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:1219-28 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate that axon extension depends on an interaction between endogenous myosin-driven contractility and F-actin turnover, and that guidance cues that cause axon retraction inhibit F-actin turnover. ..
  25. Yau T, Kuchel R, Koh J, Szekely D, Mirtschin P, Kuchel P. Cytoskeletal rearrangements in human red blood cells induced by snake venoms: light microscopy of shapes and NMR studies of membrane function. Cell Biol Int. 2012;36:87-97 pubmed publisher
  26. David M, Gabriel M, Kopecká M. Cytoskeletal structures, ultrastructural characteristics and the capsule of the basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus laurentii. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2007;92:29-36 pubmed
    ..A lamellar cell wall and a rough outer surface of the cells were detected. Cytoskeletal structures found in C. laurentii are similar to those in Cryptococcus neoformans, which is a serious human pathogen. ..
  27. Yamaoka N, Suetomo Y, Yoshihisa T, Sonobe S. Motion analysis and ultrastructural study of a colonial diatom, Bacillaria paxillifer. Microscopy (Oxf). 2016;65:211-21 pubmed publisher
    ..From these and other observations, we suggest that B. paxillifer also uses actin bundles and propose a putative myosin as a molecular motor in the gliding of unicellular diatoms. ..
  28. Rysev N, Nevzorov I, Avrova S, Karpicheva O, Redwood C, Levitsky D, et al. Gly126Arg substitution causes anomalous behaviour of ?-skeletal and ?-smooth tropomyosins during the ATPase cycle. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014;543:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The Gly126Arg mutation uncouples a correlation between the position of TM and the number of the switched on actin monomers in the filaments. ..
  29. Lin H, Li H, Cho H, Bian S, Roh H, Lee M, et al. Air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of human bronchial epithelial cell monolayers as an in vitro model for airway drug transport studies. J Pharm Sci. 2007;96:341-50 pubmed
  30. Taura A, Kojima K, Ito J, Ohmori H. Recovery of hair cell function after damage induced by gentamicin in organ culture of rat vestibular maculae. Brain Res. 2006;1098:33-48 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this functional recovery of transduction activity was not owing to the proliferation of hair cells but was likely the self-repair of the hair bundle. ..
  31. Miguel J, Maxwell A, Hsieh J, Harnisch L, Al Alam D, Polk D, et al. Epidermal growth factor suppresses intestinal epithelial cell shedding through a MAPK-dependent pathway. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:90-96 pubmed publisher
    ..EGFR signaling might be a therapeutic target for disorders featuring excessive cell turnover, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. ..
  32. Samwer M, Dehne H, Spira F, Kollmar M, Gerlich D, Urlaub H, et al. The nuclear F-actin interactome of Xenopus oocytes reveals an actin-bundling kinesin that is essential for meiotic cytokinesis. EMBO J. 2013;32:1886-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are consistent with the notion that NabKin/KIF14 directly link microtubules with F-actin and that such link is essential for cytokinesis. ..
  33. Liang X, Bhattacharya S, Bajaj G, Guha G, Wang Z, Jang H, et al. Delayed cutaneous wound healing and aberrant expression of hair follicle stem cell markers in mice selectively lacking Ctip2 in epidermis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29999 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Ctip2 in a non-cell autonomous manner regulated granulation tissue formation and tissue contraction during wound closure. ..
  34. Kanzawa N, Hoshino Y, Chiba M, Hoshino D, Kobayashi H, Kamasawa N, et al. Change in the actin cytoskeleton during seismonastic movement of Mimosa pudica. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006;47:531-9 pubmed
    ..We thus propose that the phosphorylation status of actin at tyrosine residues affects the dynamic reorganization of actin filaments and causes seismonastic movement...
  35. Pluskalová M, Peslova G, Grebenová D, Halada P, Hrkal Z. Photodynamic treatment (ALA-PDT) suppresses the expression of the oncogenic Bcr-Abl kinase and affects the cytoskeleton organization in K562 cells. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2006;83:205-12 pubmed
    ..Cofilin was indeed dephosphorylated and could thus be activated and operate as an actin-depolymerizing factor. We propose the scheme of molecular response of K562 cells to ALA-PDT. ..
  36. Glyn M, Ward B. Changes in the actin cytoskeleton of cardiac capillary endothelial cells during ischaemia and reperfusion: the effect of phalloidin on cell shape. J Vasc Res. 2002;39:72-82 pubmed
    ..We conclude that endothelial cell shape change on reperfusion can be modified by agents which target the contractile proteins. ..
  37. Petrov A, Podvyaznaya I. Muscle architecture during the course of development of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 (Trematoda, Diplostomidae) from cercariae to metacercariae. J Helminthol. 2016;90:321-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Muscle systems of other cercarial organs showed more gradual changes. The adaptive importance of developmental changes in musculature is discussed. ..
  38. Eickhoff R, Bicker G. Developmental expression of cell recognition molecules in the mushroom body and antennal lobe of the locust Locusta migratoria. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:2021-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study serves as an initial step toward functional analyses of Sema 1a and Fas I expression during locust mushroom body formation...
  39. Sakaba T, Neher E. Involvement of actin polymerization in vesicle recruitment at the calyx of Held synapse. J Neurosci. 2003;23:837-46 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that intact actin polymerization is involved in vesicle recruitment. ..
  40. Meier Abt F, Faulstich H, Hagenbuch B. Identification of phalloidin uptake systems of rat and human liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1664:64-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that rat Oatp1b2 as well as human OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are responsible for phalloidin uptake into rat and human hepatocytes. ..
  41. Campos M, Amaral J, Becerra S, Fariss R. A novel imaging technique for experimental choroidal neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:5163-70 pubmed
    ..CNV complexes are labeled at an earlier stage and more reproducibly than with FITC-dextran perfusion, providing a more accurate preclinical evaluation of antiangiogenic molecules. ..
  42. Wissel H, Schulz C, Rudiger M, Krüll M, Stevens P, Wauer R. Chlamydia pneumoniae affect surfactant trafficking and secretion due to changes of type II cell cytoskeleton. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003;29:303-13 pubmed
    ..We postulate that Cpn infection of type II cells causes changes of the cytoskeleton, and that these effects are associated with alterations in intracellular transport and secretion of surfactant. ..
  43. Pidgeon G, Kandouz M, Meram A, Honn K. Mechanisms controlling cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis after 12-lipoxygenase inhibition in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2002;62:2721-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, inhibition of 12-LOX is a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of prostate cancer. ..
  44. Lambrechts A, Jonckheere V, Peleman C, Polet D, De Vos W, Vandekerckhove J, et al. Profilin-I-ligand interactions influence various aspects of neuronal differentiation. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1570-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data show the importance of the interaction of profilin I with actin, proline-rich proteins and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. ..
  45. Capani F, Ellisman M, Martone M. Filamentous actin is concentrated in specific subpopulations of neuronal and glial structures in rat central nervous system. Brain Res. 2001;923:1-11 pubmed
    ..Perycites apposed to the blood vessels also showed very consistent labeling. Our results suggest that selected structures in the adult CNS in addition to dendritic spines are enriched in F-actin. ..
  46. Wang X, Tang P, Guo F, Zhang M, Chen Y, Yan Y, et al. RhoA regulates Activin B-induced stress fiber formation and migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell through distinct signaling. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:3011-3018 pubmed publisher
    ..RhoA regulates Activin B-induced cell migration independent of ROCK. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of BMSCs migration will help optimize therapeutic strategy to target BMSCs at injured tissues. ..
  47. Busch A, Hess S. The Cytoskeleton Architecture of Algivorous Protoplast Feeders (Viridiraptoridae, Rhizaria) Indicates Actin-Guided Perforation of Prey Cell Walls. Protist. 2017;168:12-31 pubmed publisher
  48. Neupane B, Jin T, Mellor L, Loboa E, Ligler F, Wang G. Continuous-Wave Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscope for Imaging Actin Cytoskeleton in Fixed and Live Cells. Sensors (Basel). 2015;15:24178-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, CW-STED may disclose new information for biological systems with a proper characteristic length scale. The challenges of using CW-STED microscopy to study cell structures are discussed. ..
  49. Kim H, Gallant C, Leavis P, Gunst S, Morgan K. Cytoskeletal remodeling in differentiated vascular smooth muscle is actin isoform dependent and stimulus dependent. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C768-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that net isoform- and agonist-dependent increases in actin polymerization regulate vascular contractility. ..
  50. Karpicheva O, Simonyan A, Kuleva N, Redwood C, Borovikov Y. Myopathy-causing Q147P TPM2 mutation shifts tropomyosin strands further towards the open position and increases the proportion of strong-binding cross-bridges during the ATPase cycle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1864:260-267 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are likely to underlie the contractile abnormalities caused by this mutation. ..
  51. Umeki N, Hirose K, Uyeda T. Cofilin-induced cooperative conformational changes of actin subunits revealed using cofilin-actin fusion protein. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20406 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and low ionic strength, suggesting that the structural difference between the actin moiety in the fusion protein and control actin is pH-sensitive. ..
  52. Mwenifumbo S, Li M, Chen J, Beye A, Soboyejo W. Cell/surface interactions on laser micro-textured titanium-coated silicon surfaces. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2007;18:9-23 pubmed
    ..The implications of the observed cell/surface interactions are discussed for possible applications of silicon in implantable biomedical systems. ..
  53. Staines K, Javaheri B, Hohenstein P, Fleming R, Ikpegbu E, Unger E, et al. Hypomorphic conditional deletion of E11/Podoplanin reveals a role in osteocyte dendrite elongation. J Cell Physiol. 2017;232:3006-3019 pubmed publisher
    ..As the osteocyte dendritic network is known to play vital roles in regulating bone modeling/remodeling, this highlights an essential role for Pdpn in bone homeostasis. ..