okadaic acid

Summary

Summary: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)

Top Publications

  1. Dominguez H, Paz B, Daranas A, Norte M, Franco J, Fernández J. Dinoflagellate polyether within the yessotoxin, pectenotoxin and okadaic acid toxin groups: characterization, analysis and human health implications. Toxicon. 2010;56:191-217 pubmed publisher
    ..worldwide and three chemically different groups of toxins have been historically associated with DSP syndrome: okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs) and yessotoxins (YTXs)...
  2. Rubiolo J, López Alonso H, Vega F, Vieytes M, Botana L. Okadaic acid and dinophysis toxin 2 have differential toxicological effects in hepatic cell lines inducing cell cycle arrest, at G0/G1 or G2/M with aberrant mitosis depending on the cell line. Arch Toxicol. 2011;85:1541-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid is one of the toxins responsible for the human intoxication known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, which appears after the consumption of contaminated shellfish...
  3. Kilcoyne J, Fux E. Strategies for the elimination of matrix effects in the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the lipophilic toxins okadaic acid and azaspiracid-1 in molluscan shellfish. J Chromatogr A. 2010;1217:7123-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Matrix interferences for the analysis of okadaic acid (OA) and azaspiracid 1 (AZA1) were assessed using acidic methods on electrospray triple stage quadrupole (TSQ) ..
  4. Zimmer E, Kalinine E, Haas C, Torrez V, Souza D, Muller A, et al. Pretreatment with memantine prevents Alzheimer-like alterations induced by intrahippocampal okadaic acid administration in rats. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2012;9:1182-90 pubmed
    Cerebral okadaic acid (OA) administration induces Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like phenotype in rats...
  5. Lim Y, Yoon S, Choi J, Kim S, Lee H, Choe H, et al. Maintained activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta despite of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in okadaic acid-induced neurodegenerative model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;395:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we addressed this paradoxical condition of AD in rat neurons treated with okadaic acid (OA) which inhibits protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) and induces tau hyperphosphorylation and cell death...
  6. Smienk H, Calvo D, Razquin P, Domínguez E, Mata L. Single laboratory validation of a ready-to-use phosphatase inhibition assay for detection of okadaic acid toxins. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:339-52 pubmed publisher
    A phosphatase inhibition assay for detection of okadaic acid (OA) toxins in shellfish, OkaTest, was single laboratory validated according to international recognized guidelines (AOAC, EURACHEM)...
  7. Fujiki H, Suganuma M. Tumor promoters--microcystin-LR, nodularin and TNF-? and human cancer development. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2011;11:4-18 pubmed
    Microcystin-LR and nodularin, along with okadaic acid, are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A)...
  8. Ciminiello P, Dell Aversano C, Fattorusso E, Forino M, Tartaglione L, Boschetti L, et al. Complex toxin profile of Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Adriatic sea revealed by LC-MS. Toxicon. 2010;55:280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of azaspiracids, never reported from the Adriatic sea, as well as of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins and OA esters) and domoic acid, long known as contaminants of Adriatic mussels, was also ..
  9. Rossignoli A, Blanco J. Subcellular distribution of okadaic acid in the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis: first evidences of lipoprotein binding to okadaic acid. Toxicon. 2010;55:221-6 pubmed publisher
    The subcellular distribution of okadaic acid, the main diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin, in the cells of the digestive gland of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied...

More Information

Publications96

  1. Sassolas A, Catanante G, Hayat A, Marty J. Development of an efficient protein phosphatase-based colorimetric test for okadaic acid detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;702:262-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA), responsible for gastrointestinal problems, inhibits protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)...
  2. Yin Y, Liu H, Cong X, Liu Z, Wang Q, Wang J, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine attenuates okadaic acid induced tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory impairment in rats. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;19:735-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of PP2A through hippocampal injection of okadaic acid (OA) induces tau hyperphosphorylation and memory impairment of rats...
  3. Cañete E, Campàs M, de la Iglesia P, Diogène J. NG108-15 cell-based and protein phosphatase inhibition assays as alternative semiquantitative tools for the screening of lipophilic toxins in mussels. Okadaic acid detection. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation of the SPE protocol by LC-MS/MS showed okadaic acid (OA) recovery above 90% and negligible effects of mussel matrix on the SPE performance...
  4. Chang H, Jennings P, Stewart J, Verrills N, Jones K. Essential role of protein phosphatase 2A in metaphase II arrest and activation of mouse eggs shown by okadaic acid, dominant negative protein phosphatase 2A, and FTY720. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14705-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that PP2A inhibition using okadaic acid induced events normally observed at fertilization: degradation of the APC/C substrates cyclin B1 and securin ..
  5. Harwood F, Shu L, Houghton P. mTORC1 signaling can regulate growth factor activation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases through protein phosphatase 2A. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:2575-85 pubmed
    ..inhibition of p44/42 (Thr(202)) phosphorylation by IGF-I was reversed by low concentrations of okadaic acid, suggesting involvement of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)...
  6. Franchini A, Casarini L, Malagoli D, Ottaviani E. Expression of the genes siamois, engrailed-2, bmp4 and myf5 during Xenopus development in presence of the marine toxins okadaic acid and palytoxin. Chemosphere. 2009;77:308-12 pubmed publisher
    The present investigation examines the effects of the marine toxins, okadaic acid (OA) and palytoxin (PTX), on some genes involved in the neural and muscular specification and patterning of Xenopus laevis...
  7. Torgersen T, Lindegarth S, Ungfors A, Sandvik M. Profiles and levels of fatty acid esters of okadaic acid group toxins and pectenotoxins during toxin depuration. Part I: brown crab (Cancer pagurus). Toxicon. 2008;52:407-17 pubmed publisher
    ..to be caused by the consumption of brown crab (Cancer pagurus) contaminated predominantly by esters of okadaic acid (OA) after feeding on toxic blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)...
  8. Valdiglesias V, Laffon B, Pasaro E, Cemeli E, Anderson D, Mendez J. Induction of oxidative DNA damage by the marine toxin okadaic acid depends on human cell type. Toxicon. 2011;57:882-8 pubmed publisher
    The marine toxin okadaic acid (OA) is the main representative of diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. Its ingestion induces nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal ache...
  9. Silva M, Barreiro A, Rodriguez P, Otero P, Azevedo J, Alfonso A, et al. New invertebrate vectors for PST, spirolides and okadaic acid in the North Atlantic. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:1936-60 pubmed publisher
    ..were surveyed between 2009 and 2010 for three distinct biotoxin groups [saxitoxin (PST), spirolide (SPX) and okadaic acid (OA)], in 14 benthic species of mollusks and echinoderms...
  10. Trainer V, Moore L, Bill B, Adams N, Harrington N, Borchert J, et al. Diarrhetic shellfish toxins and other lipophilic toxins of human health concern in Washington State. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:1815-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 ?g okadaic acid (OA) + dinophysistoxins (DTXs)/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget ..
  11. Yoon S, Choi J, Ham J, Choe H, Lee H, Kim D. zVLL-CHO at low concentrations acts as a calpain inhibitor to protect neurons against okadaic acid-induced neurodegeneration. Neurosci Lett. 2012;509:33-8 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitors, H-KTEEISEVN-stat-VAEF-OH (VAEF) and H-EVNstatineVAEF-NH2 (GL-189) as well as zVLL-CHO on OA (okadaic acid)-induced neurodegeneration...
  12. Gerssen A, Mulder P, van Rhijn H, de Boer J. Mass spectrometric analysis of the marine lipophilic biotoxins pectenotoxin-2 and okadaic acid by four different types of mass spectrometers. J Mass Spectrom. 2008;43:1140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ToF (Q-ToF) and ion trap (IT)] for the detection of the marine lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and okadaic acid (OA) were investigated...
  13. Elgarch A, Vale P, Rifai S, Fassouane A. Detection of diarrheic shellfish poisoning and azaspiracid toxins in Moroccan mussels: comparison of the LC-MS method with the commercial immunoassay kit. Mar Drugs. 2008;6:587-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The LC-MS method was found to be able to detect a high level of okadaic acid (OA), low level of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), and surprisingly, traces of azaspiracids 2 (AZA2) in mussels...
  14. Malagoli D, Casarini L, Ottaviani E. Effects of the marine toxins okadaic acid and palytoxin on mussel phagocytosis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;24:180-6 pubmed
    The present study analyzes the effects of the marine toxins okadaic acid (OA) and palytoxin (PTX) on the phagocytic activity of immunocytes from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis...
  15. Reboreda A, Lago J, Chapela M, Vieites J, Botana L, Alfonso A, et al. Decrease of marine toxin content in bivalves by industrial processes. Toxicon. 2010;55:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of freezing on the levels of PSP is very dependent on the matrix studied. DSP toxins are not significantly reduced with none of these methods. ..
  16. Martin L, Magnaudeix A, Wilson C, Yardin C, Terro F. The new indirubin derivative inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3, 6-BIDECO and 6-BIMYEO, prevent tau phosphorylation and apoptosis induced by the inhibition of protein phosphatase-2A by okadaic acid in cultured neurons. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:1802-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used the PP2A inhibition by okadaic acid (OKA) in primary cultured cortical neurons as an in vitro model of increased tau phosphorylation and apoptosis...
  17. Rossignoli A, Fernandez D, Regueiro J, Marino C, Blanco J. Esterification of okadaic acid in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Toxicon. 2011;57:712-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid and other toxins of the diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) group are transformed mainly to their acyl-derivatives in bivalves...
  18. Konoki K, Saito K, Matsuura H, Sugiyama N, Cho Y, Yotsu Yamashita M, et al. Binding of diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins to okadaic acid binding proteins purified from the sponge Halichondria okadai. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:7607-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning. This article examines the biochemical interactions of the two toxins with novel okadaic acid binding proteins (OABPs) 2.1 and 2...
  19. Jayaraj R, Gupta N, Rao P. Multiple signal transduction pathways in okadaic acid induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Toxicology. 2009;256:118-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA) is the major component of diarrhetic shell fish poisoning toxins and a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A. We investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in OA induced cell death in HeLa cells...
  20. Wu J, Guo J, Tang W, Yang C, Freel C, Chen C, et al. PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of phosphoproteins at mitotic exit is controlled by inhibitor-1 and PP1 phosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:644-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Cdc2 both phosphorylates multiple mitotic substrates and inhibits their PP1-mediated dephosphorylation. ..
  21. Aune T, Espenes A, Aasen J, Quilliam M, Hess P, Larsen S. Study of possible combined toxic effects of azaspiracid-1 and okadaic acid in mice via the oral route. Toxicon. 2012;60:895-906 pubmed publisher
    Toxins from the okadaic acid (OA) and azaspiracid (AZA) group cause considerable negative health effects in consumers when present in shellfish above certain levels...
  22. Fernández Sánchez M, Cabrera García D, Ferrero Gutiérrez A, Pérez Gómez A, Cruz P, Daranas A, et al. Comparative toxicological study of the novel protein phosphatase inhibitor 19-Epi-okadaic acid in primary cultures of rat cerebellar cells. Toxicol Sci. 2013;132:409-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OKA) and analogues are frequent contaminants of coastal waters and seafood...
  23. Paz B, Daranas A, Cruz P, Franco J, Norte M, Fernández J. Identification of 19-epi-okadaic acid, a new diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin, by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Mar Drugs. 2008;6:489-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (1) (OA) and its congeners are mainly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) syndrome. The presence of several OA derivatives have already been confirmed in Prorocentrum and Dinophysis spp...
  24. Opsahl J, Hjørnevik L, Bull V, Fismen L, Frøyset A, Gromyko D, et al. Increased interaction between DJ-1 and the Mi-2/ nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase complex during cellular stress. Proteomics. 2010;10:1494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..in endogenous DJ-1 protein-protein interaction in apoptotic cells exposed to the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. By combining cellular stable isotopic labelling of amino acids in cell culture, sub-cellular fractionation, co-..
  25. Huhn J, Jeffrey P, Larsen K, Rundberget T, Rise F, Cox N, et al. A structural basis for the reduced toxicity of dinophysistoxin-2. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1782-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) are algal toxins that can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning...
  26. Chen Y, Wang C, Hu M, Pan J, Chen J, Duan P, et al. Effects of ginkgolide A on okadaic acid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in N2a cells. Planta Med. 2012;78:1337-41 pubmed publisher
    ..the activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway may be the mechanism for ginkgolide A to prevent the intracellular accumulation of p-Tau induced by okadaic acid and to protect the cells from Tau hyperphosphorylation-related toxicity.
  27. Prassopoulou E, Katikou P, Georgantelis D, Kyritsakis A. Detection of okadaic acid and related esters in mussels during diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) episodes in Greece using the mouse bioassay, the PP2A inhibition assay and HPLC with fluorimetric detection. Toxicon. 2009;53:214-27 pubmed publisher
    ..functional and biological techniques was taken for the detection and quantification of the marine toxin okadaic acid (OA) in mussels from Thermaikos and Saronikos Gulfs, Greece, during DSP episodes that occurred in 2006-2007...
  28. Prego Faraldo M, Valdiglesias V, Mendez J, Eirín López J. Okadaic acid meet and greet: an insight into detection methods, response strategies and genotoxic effects in marine invertebrates. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:2829-45 pubmed publisher
    ..One such biotoxin, Okadaic Acid (OA), is produced by marine dinoflagellates and subsequently accumulated within the tissues of filtering marine ..
  29. Prado Alvarez M, Florez Barros F, Sexto Iglesias A, Mendez J, Fernandez Tajes J. Effects of okadaic acid on haemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis: a comparison between field and laboratory studies. Mar Environ Res. 2012;81:90-3 pubmed publisher
    ..contaminated with Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins, were studied with the aim to correlate the okadaic acid (OA) body burden and the percentage of damaged haemocytes by quantifying annexin V positive cells by flow ..
  30. Torgersen T, Miles C, Rundberget T, Wilkins A. New esters of okadaic acid in seawater and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:9628-35 pubmed publisher
    Marine algal toxins of the okadaic acid (OA) group can occur as diol esters and sulfated diol esters in algae and as fatty acid esters in shellfish...
  31. Edelstein J, Rockwell P. Okadaic acid induces Akt hyperphosphorylation and an oxidative stress-mediated cell death in serum starved SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells that are augmented by rapamycin. Neurosci Lett. 2012;531:74-9 pubmed publisher
    ..endothelial growth factor receptor VEGFR2 was enhanced by treatments with the phosphatase PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA)...
  32. Souid Mensi G, Moukha S, Mobio T, Maaroufi K, Creppy E. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of okadaic acid are cell-line dependent. Toxicon. 2008;51:1338-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced mainly by dinoflagellates causing diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans...
  33. del Barrio L, Martín de Saavedra M, Romero A, Parada E, Egea J, Avila J, et al. Neurotoxicity induced by okadaic acid in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y line can be differentially prevented by ?7 and ?2* nicotinic stimulation. Toxicol Sci. 2011;123:193-205 pubmed publisher
    ..death that reproduces the characteristic tau (?) hyperphosphorylation of Alzheime?s disease is the use of okadaic acid (OA)...
  34. Ehlers A, Scholz J, These A, Hessel S, Preiss Weigert A, Lampen A. Analysis of the passage of the marine biotoxin okadaic acid through an in vitro human gut barrier. Toxicology. 2011;279:196-202 pubmed publisher
    The marine biotoxin okadaic acid (OA), produced by dinoflagellates, can accumulate in various bivalve molluscs...
  35. Oberbeck D, McCormack S, Houpt T. Intra-amygdalar okadaic acid enhances conditioned taste aversion learning and CREB phosphorylation in rats. Brain Res. 2010;1348:84-94 pubmed publisher
    ..examine the effects of PP1/2A blockade on CTA acquisition and extinction, rats received bilateral infusions of okadaic acid (OA) (100nM, 1microl/hemisphere) or vehicle (0...
  36. Otero P, Alfonso A, Alfonso C, Rodriguez P, Vieytes M, Botana L. Effect of uncontrolled factors in a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method question its use as a reference method for marine toxins: major causes for concern. Anal Chem. 2011;83:5903-11 pubmed publisher
    ..such as toxin solvents, mass spectrometric detection method, mobile-phase-solvent brands and equipment on okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) quantification...
  37. Hu W, Xu J, Sinkkonen J, Wu J. Polyketides from marine dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum, biosynthetic origin and bioactivity of their okadaic acid analogues. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2010;10:51-61 pubmed
    Marine dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum are famous for the production of okadaic acid (OA) and its analogues. This review covers first the source, chemistry and bioactivity of polyketides from Prorocentrum species...
  38. Ehlers A, Stempin S, Al Hamwi R, Lampen A. Embryotoxic effects of the marine biotoxin okadaic acid on murine embryonic stem cells. Toxicon. 2010;55:855-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA), a marine toxin produced by dinoflagellates, can accumulate in various bivalve molluscs. In humans, consumption of OA induces acute toxic effects like diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain...
  39. Sugiyama N, Konoki K, Tachibana K. Isolation and characterization of okadaic acid binding proteins from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. Biochemistry. 2007;46:11410-20 pubmed
    b>Okadaic acid, first isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai, is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A, respectively)...
  40. Rubiolo J, López Alonso H, Vega F, Vieytes M, Botana L. Comparative study of toxicological and cell cycle effects of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 in primary rat hepatocytes. Life Sci. 2012;90:416-23 pubmed publisher
    To determine the relative toxicity and effects on the cell cycle of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 in primary hepatocyte cultures...
  41. Pistocchi R, Guerrini F, Pezzolesi L, Riccardi M, Vanucci S, Ciminiello P, et al. Toxin levels and profiles in microalgae from the north-Western Adriatic Sea--15 years of studies on cultured species. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:140-62 pubmed publisher
    ..e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e...
  42. Haneji T, Hirashima K, Teramachi J, Morimoto H. Okadaic acid activates the PKR pathway and induces apoptosis through PKR stimulation in MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Int J Oncol. 2013;42:1904-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of the human osteosarcoma cell line MG63 with the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid stimulated the expression and phosphorylation of I?B?, as judged from the results of real-time PCR and western ..
  43. Deeds J, Wiles K, Heideman G, White K, Abraham A. First U.S. report of shellfish harvesting closures due to confirmed okadaic acid in Texas Gulf coast oysters. Toxicon. 2010;55:1138-46 pubmed publisher
    ..of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) due to the presence of the DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) toxin okadaic acid in excess of the 20 microg/100 g tissue FDA regulatory guidance level...
  44. Florez Barros F, Prado Alvarez M, Mendez J, Fernandez Tajes J. Evaluation of genotoxicity in gills and hemolymph of clam Ruditapes decussatus fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74:971-9 pubmed publisher
    Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal (GIT) disease that appears a few hours after ingesting okadaic acid (OA)-contaminated mollusks; okadaic acid is present in dinoflagellates of the genera Dinophysis and Prorocentrum...
  45. Jørgensen K, Cold U, Fischer K. Accumulation and depuration of okadaic acid esters in the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) during a feeding study. Toxicon. 2008;51:468-72 pubmed
    ..The crabs were fed with mussels containing DSP toxins (2500 microg total okadaic acid equivalents/kg) for 17 days and then fasted for 19 days...
  46. Torgersen T, Wilkins A, Rundberget T, Miles C. Characterization of fatty acid esters of okadaic acid and related toxins in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from Norway. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008;22:1127-36 pubmed publisher
    Marine algal toxins of the okadaic acid group can occur as fatty acid esters in blue mussels, and are commonly determined indirectly by transformation to their parent toxins by alkaline hydrolysis...
  47. Torgersen T, Sandvik M, Lundve B, Lindegarth S. Profiles and levels of fatty acid esters of okadaic acid group toxins and pectenotoxins during toxin depuration. Part II: blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and flat oyster (Ostrea edulis). Toxicon. 2008;52:418-27 pubmed publisher
    Bivalve molluscs accumulate toxins of the okadaic acid (OA) and pectenotoxin (PTX) groups, which are frequently found in Dinophysis spp...
  48. Chen Z, Chen B, Xu W, Liu R, Yang J, Yu C. Effects of PTEN inhibition on regulation of tau phosphorylation in an okadaic acid-induced neurodegeneration model. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2012;30:411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that okadaic acid (OA)-induced tau phosphorylation is accompanied by PTEN induction, knockdown of PTEN reduces the tau ..
  49. Manfrin C, Dreos R, Battistella S, Beran A, Gerdol M, Varotto L, et al. Mediterranean mussel gene expression profile induced by okadaic acid exposure. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44:8276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Commonly produced by Dinophysis and Prorocentrum spp., okadaic acid (OA) and its analogues are responsible for the Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) syndrome in humans...
  50. Wang J, Wang Y, Lin L, Gao Y, Hong H, Wang D. Quantitative proteomic analysis of okadaic acid treated mouse small intestines reveals differentially expressed proteins involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. J Proteomics. 2012;75:2038-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA) is a principal diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin produced by marine dinoflagellates...
  51. Kamat P, Tota S, Shukla R, Ali S, Najmi A, Nath C. Mitochondrial dysfunction: a crucial event in okadaic acid (ICV) induced memory impairment and apoptotic cell death in rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;100:311-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently we have reported that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of okadaic acid (OKA) causes memory impairment in rat...
  52. Konoki K, Onoda T, Watanabe R, Cho Y, Kaga S, Suzuki T, et al. In vitro acylation of okadaic acid in the presence of various bivalves' extracts. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:300-15 pubmed publisher
    ..exposed to the toxic bloom of the dinoflagellate, dinophysistoxin 3 (DTX3), the 7-OH acylated form of either okadaic acid (OA) or DTX1, is produced...
  53. Blanco J, Marino C, Martin H, Acosta C. Anatomical distribution of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Toxicon. 2007;50:1011-8 pubmed
    ..To this end, the distribution of two DSP toxins--okadaic acid and DTX2--and some of their derivatives were studied by means of HPLC/MS at different stages of the depuration ..
  54. Campàs M, de la Iglesia P, Le Berre M, Kane M, Diogène J, Marty J. Enzymatic recycling-based amperometric immunosensor for the ultrasensitive detection of okadaic acid in shellfish. Biosens Bioelectron. 2008;24:716-22 pubmed publisher
    ..immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) and an enzymatic recycling system were developed for the detection of okadaic acid (OA)...
  55. Ravindran J, Gupta N, Agrawal M, Bala Bhaskar A, Lakshmana Rao P. Modulation of ROS/MAPK signaling pathways by okadaic acid leads to cell death via, mitochondrial mediated caspase-dependent mechanism. Apoptosis. 2011;16:145-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA) is a specific and potent protein phosphatase inhibitor and tumor promoter...
  56. Napolitano J, Norte M, Fernández J, Hernández Daranas A. Corozalic acid: a key okadaic acid biosynthetic precursor with phosphatase inhibition activity. Chemistry. 2010;16:11576-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a comprehensive picture of the interactions of corozalic acid with PP1 and PP2A is proposed (see figure) on the basis of ab initio, docking and molecular dynamics calculations. ..
  57. Vale C, Botana L. Marine toxins and the cytoskeleton: okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins. FEBS J. 2008;275:6060-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs, the dinophysistoxins, are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A...
  58. Albano C, Ronzitti G, Rossini A, Callegari F, Rossini G. The total activity of a mixture of okadaic acid-group compounds can be calculated by those of individual analogues in a phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A assay. Toxicon. 2009;53:631-7 pubmed publisher
    Monitoring of okadaic acid (OA)-group toxins in seafood is of paramount importance for the protection of consumer health from diarrheic shellfish poisoning...
  59. Ferrero Gutiérrez A, Pérez Gómez A, Novelli A, Fernández Sánchez M. Inhibition of protein phosphatases impairs the ability of astrocytes to detoxify hydrogen peroxide. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:1806-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The marine toxin okadaic acid (OKA), a potent PP1 and PP2A inhibitor, caused a concentration-dependent degeneration of astrocytes and ..
  60. Xing M, Wang X, Zhu X, Zhou X, Xu L. Morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptosis induced by okadaic acid in human amniotic FL cells. Environ Toxicol. 2009;24:437-45 pubmed publisher
    The marine toxin okadaic acid (OA) is an apoptosis inducer and a tumor promoter. During recent years, extensive studies have demonstrated that OA can induce apoptosis in a wide variety of cell types...
  61. Martín López A, Gallardo Rodríguez J, Sánchez Mirón A, García Camacho F, Molina Grima E. Cytotoxicity of yessotoxin and okadaic acid in mouse T lymphocyte cell line EL-4. Toxicon. 2012;60:1049-56 pubmed publisher
    Yessotoxin (YTX) and okadaic acid (OA), algal toxins accumulated in edible shellfish, were previously shown to induce a specific and reversible T Cell Receptor (TCR) down-regulation in T lymphocyte EL-4 cells, in a time and concentration-..
  62. Valdiglesias V, Mendez J, Pasaro E, Cemeli E, Anderson D, Laffon B. Assessment of okadaic acid effects on cytotoxicity, DNA damage and DNA repair in human cells. Mutat Res. 2010;689:74-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA) is a phycotoxin produced by several types of dinoflagellates causing diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans...
  63. Ariu F, Fois S, Bebbere D, Ledda S, Rosati I, Zedda M, et al. The effect of okadaic acid on meiotic maturation of canine oocytes of different size. Theriogenology. 2012;77:46-52 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ?M for 1 h, improves meiotic maturation. The culture of fully grown (>120 ?m) oocytes with OA at the onset of in vitro maturation can result in a higher frequency of meiotic maturation. ..
  64. Li L, Liu J, Yan X, Qin K, Shi M, Lin T, et al. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rd against okadaic acid-induced neurotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;138:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To mimic the in vivo or in vitro tau hyperphosphorylation, okadaic acid (OA), a protein phosphatase inhibitor, was bilaterally micro-infused into the cerebral ventricle of adult male ..
  65. Fujiki H, Suganuma M. Carcinogenic aspects of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitors. Prog Mol Subcell Biol. 2009;46:221-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid is functionally a potent tumor promoter working through inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), resulting in sustained phosphorylation of proteins in cells...
  66. Kamat P, Tota S, Rai S, Shukla R, Ali S, Najmi A, et al. Okadaic acid induced neurotoxicity leads to central cholinergic dysfunction in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;690:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we examined the effect of okadaic acid, OKA (200ng, i.c.v.) on memory impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction in rats...
  67. Munday R. Is protein phosphatase inhibition responsible for the toxic effects of okadaic Acid in animals?. Toxins (Basel). 2013;5:267-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives, which are produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Prorocentrum and Dinophysis, are responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in humans...
  68. Espiña B, Louzao M, Cagide E, Alfonso A, Vieytes M, Yasumoto T, et al. The methyl ester of okadaic acid is more potent than okadaic acid in disrupting the actin cytoskeleton and metabolism of primary cultured hepatocytes. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:337-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA) and microcystins (MCs) are structurally different toxins with the same mechanism of action, inhibition of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs)...
  69. Cruz P, Fernández J, Norte M, Daranas A. Belizeanic acid: a potent protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor belonging to the okadaic acid class, with an unusual skeleton. Chemistry. 2008;14:6948-56 pubmed publisher
    Belizeanic acid (BA), a novel metabolite belonging to the okadaic acid class of protein phosphatase inhibitors, was isolated from artificial cultures of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum belizeanum...
  70. Louppis A, Badeka A, Katikou P, Paleologos E, Kontominas M. Determination of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and related esters in Greek mussels using HPLC with fluorometric detection, LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay. Toxicon. 2010;55:724-33 pubmed publisher
    ..both chemical and biological methods was undertaken for the detection and quantification of the marine toxins okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and their respective esters in mussels from different sampling sites in Greece ..
  71. Leuba G, Walzer C, Vernay A, Carnal B, Kraftsik R, Piotton F, et al. Postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 expression in Alzheimer's disease and okadaic acid induced neuritic retraction. Neurobiol Dis. 2008;30:408-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Alzheimer-like neuritic retraction was generated in okadaic acid (OA) treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with no decrease in PSD-95 expression...
  72. Zhang J, Cheng Y, Zhang J. [Protective effect of (-) clausenamide against neurotoxicity induced by okadaic acid and beta-amyloid peptide25-35]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007;42:935-42 pubmed
    This study is to investigate the protective effect of (-) clausenamide against the neurotoxicity of okadaic acid in SH-SY5Y cell line, and injection beta-amyloid peptide25-35 (Abeta25-35) to the cerebral ventricle in ovariectomy (OVX) ..
  73. Perreault F, Matias M, Oukarroum A, Matias W, Popovic R. Okadaic acid inhibits cell growth and photosynthetic electron transport in the alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. Sci Total Environ. 2012;414:198-204 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA), which is produced by several dinoflagellate species, is a phycotoxin known to induce a decrease of biomass production in phytoplankton. However, the mechanisms of OA cytotoxicity are still unknown in microalgae...
  74. Kunze A, Meissner R, Brando S, Renaud P. Co-pathological connected primary neurons in a microfluidic device for Alzheimer studies. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2011;108:2241-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A gradient of okadaic acid (OA) is generated over this neurite network by perfusion...
  75. Valdiglesias V, Laffon B, Pasaro E, Mendez J. Evaluation of okadaic acid-induced genotoxicity in human cells using the micronucleus test and ?H2AX analysis. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74:980-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Okadaic acid (OA) is the main representative of diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin...
  76. Mackenzie L, Selwood A, Marshall C. Isolation and characterization of an enzyme from the Greenshell™ mussel Perna canaliculus that hydrolyses pectenotoxins and esters of okadaic acid. Toxicon. 2012;60:406-19 pubmed publisher
    An enzyme capable of hydrolysing pectenotoxins (PTXs) and okadaic acid (OA) esters within the hepatopancreas of the Greenshell™ mussel Perna canaliculus was isolated and characterized...
  77. Yoon S, Choi J, Haam J, Choe H, Kim D. Reduction of mint-1, mint-2, and APP overexpression in okadaic acid-treated neurons. Neuroreport. 2007;18:1879-83 pubmed
    Treatment of neurons with okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor, has been used to induce tau phosphorylation and neuronal death, and to create a research model of Alzheimer's disease...
  78. del Campo M, Toledo H, Lagos N. Okadaic acid toxin at sublethal dose produced cell proliferation in gastric and colon epithelial cell lines. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:4751-60 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Okadaic Acid (OA) on the proliferation of gastric and colon epithelial cells, the main target tissues of the toxin...
  79. Volpe G, Cotroneo E, Moscone D, Croci L, Cozzi L, Ciccaglioni G, et al. A bienzyme electrochemical probe for flow injection analysis of okadaic acid based on protein phosphatase-2A inhibition: an optimization study. Anal Biochem. 2009;385:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..probe has been assembled and used to monitor the inhibition of the enzyme protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) by okadaic acid (OA), taking advantage of the particular characteristics of a biochemical pathway in which PP2A is involved...
  80. Suzuki T, Quilliam M. LC-MS/MS analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin analogues, and other lipophilic toxins. Anal Sci. 2011;27:571-84 pubmed
    ..Based on their structures, DSP toxins were initially classified into three groups, okadaic acid (OA)/dinophysistoxin (DTX) analogues, pectenotoxins (PTXs), and yessotoxins (YTXs)...
  81. Kamat P, Tota S, Rai S, Swarnkar S, Shukla R, Nath C. A study on neuroinflammatory marker in brain areas of okadaic acid (ICV) induced memory impaired rats. Life Sci. 2012;90:713-20 pubmed publisher
    ..c.v.) okadaic acid (OKA) induced memory impaired rat. OKA (200 ng) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) was administered in rats...
  82. Kamat P, Tota S, Saxena G, Shukla R, Nath C. Okadaic acid (ICV) induced memory impairment in rats: a suitable experimental model to test anti-dementia activity. Brain Res. 2010;1309:66-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OKA) is a potent and selective inhibitor of protein phosphatases, PP2A and PP1...
  83. Kim S, Yoon S, Choi J, Park J, Choi J, Nguyen T, et al. Activation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 ?-kinases in okadaic acid-treated neurons. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Okadaic acid (OA), a protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) inhibitor, is known to increase tau phosphorylation, beta-amyloid (A beta)..
  84. Valdiglesias V, Laffon B, Pasaro E, Mendez J. Okadaic acid induces morphological changes, apoptosis and cell cycle alterations in different human cell types. J Environ Monit. 2011;13:1831-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Okadaic acid (OA) is a marine toxin produced by dinoflagellate species which is frequently accumulated in molluscs usual in the human diet...
  85. McCarron P, Kilcoyne J, Hess P. Effects of cooking and heat treatment on concentration and tissue distribution of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 in mussels (Mytilus edulis). Toxicon. 2008;51:1081-9 pubmed publisher
    ..with mass spectrometry, the influence of conventional steaming and another heat treatment on the level of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 in mussels (Mytilus edulis) was investigated...
  86. Kitazumi I, Maseki Y, Nomura Y, Shimanuki A, Sugita Y, Tsukahara M. Okadaic acid induces DNA fragmentation via caspase-3-dependent and caspase-3-independent pathways in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. FEBS J. 2010;277:404-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Okadaic acid (OA) is a potent inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs) PP1 and PP2A, which induce ..
  87. Costa A, Tramontina A, Biasibetti R, Batassini C, Lopes M, Wartchow K, et al. Neuroglial alterations in rats submitted to the okadaic acid-induced model of dementia. Behav Brain Res. 2012;226:420-7 pubmed publisher
    Several types of animal models have been developed to investigate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Okadaic acid (OA), a potent inhibitor of phosphatases 1 and 2A, induces characteristics that resemble AD-like pathology...