Summary: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.

Top Publications

  1. Magarvey N, Ehling Schulz M, Walsh C. Characterization of the cereulide NRPS alpha-hydroxy acid specifying modules: activation of alpha-keto acids and chiral reduction on the assembly line. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:10698-9 pubmed
    ..Cereulide, the emetic toxin from the human pathogen Bacillus cereus, and valinomycin, from Streptomyces spp., are closely related macrocyclic K+ ionophores...
  2. Ryoo I, Park H, Choo S, Hwang J, Park Y, Bae K, et al. Selective cytotoxic activity of valinomycin against HT-29 Human colon carcinoma cells via down-regulation of GRP78. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:817-20 pubmed
    ..M126 was identified as valinomycin by various spectroscopic methods...
  3. Bolkent S, Zierold K. Effects of the ionophores valinomycin, ionomycin and gramicidin A on the element compartmentation in cultured rat hepatocytes. Toxicol In Vitro. 2002;16:159-65 pubmed
    ..electron probe X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections after exposure of the cells to the ionophores valinomycin, ionomycin or gramicidin A...
  4. Bookchin R, Etzion Z, Sorette M, Mohandas N, Skepper J, Lew V. Identification and characterization of a newly recognized population of high-Na+, low-K+, low-density sickle and normal red cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8045-50 pubmed
    ..03%) that fail to dehydrate when permeabilized to K(+) with either valinomycin or elevated internal Ca(2+)...
  5. Kepplinger C, Höfer I, Steinem C. Impedance analysis of valinomycin activity in nano-BLMs. Chem Phys Lipids. 2009;160:109-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The ionophore valinomycin was successfully inserted into nano-BLMs and its transport activity monitored as a function of different ..
  6. Park C, Lee J, Lee D, Kim B. Antifungal activity of valinomycin, a peptide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. Strain M10 antagonistic to Botrytis cinerea. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:880-4 pubmed
    ..An antifungal substance (CN1) was purified from the culture extracts of the strain, and then identified as valinomycin through extensive spectroscopic analyses...
  7. Costa A, Quinlan C, Andrukhiv A, West I, Jaburek M, Garlid K. The direct physiological effects of mitoK(ATP) opening on heart mitochondria. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H406-15 pubmed
    ..volume is the consequence of a steady-state balance between K+ influx, caused either by mitoK(ATP) opening or valinomycin, and K+ efflux caused by the mitochondrial K+/H+ antiporter...
  8. Shimada N, Miyamoto K, Kanda K, Murata H. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal Cry1ab toxin does not affect the membrane integrity of the mammalian intestinal epithelial cells: An in vitro study. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2006;42:45-9 pubmed
  9. Amer J, Etzion Z, Bookchin R, Fibach E. Oxidative status of valinomycin-resistant normal, beta-thalassemia and sickle red blood cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:793-9 pubmed
    Exposure of red blood cells (RBC) to the K+ -ionophore valinomycin (val), causes loss of KCl and water, resulting in cell dehydration, manifested by increased cell density...

More Information


  1. Hansson M, Morota S, Teilum M, Mattiasson G, Uchino H, Elmér E. Increased potassium conductance of brain mitochondria induces resistance to permeability transition by enhancing matrix volume. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:741-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study K(+) channel activity was mimicked by picomolar concentrations of valinomycin. Isolated brain mitochondria were exposed to continuous infusions of calcium...
  2. Rakovic A, Grünewald A, Seibler P, Ramirez A, Kock N, Orolicki S, et al. Effect of endogenous mutant and wild-type PINK1 on Parkin in fibroblasts from Parkinson disease patients. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:3124-37 pubmed publisher
  3. Cheng Y. Deciphering the biosynthetic codes for the potent anti-SARS-CoV cyclodepsipeptide valinomycin in Streptomyces tsusimaensis ATCC 15141. Chembiochem. 2006;7:471-7 pubmed
    b>Valinomycin was recently reported to be the most potent agent against severe acute respiratory-syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in infected Vero E6 cells...
  4. Kim J, Choi I, Park J, Kang S. Specific inhibition of hamster prion protein translocation by the dodecadepsipeptide valinomycin. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:2049-57 pubmed publisher
  5. Tempelaars M, Rodrigues S, Abee T. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activities of valinomycin and cereulide, the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:2755-62 pubmed publisher
    Cereulide and valinomycin are highly similar cyclic dodecadepsipeptides with potassium ionophoric properties...
  6. Gogvadze V, Robertson J, Enoksson M, Zhivotovsky B, Orrenius S. Mitochondrial cytochrome c release may occur by volume-dependent mechanisms not involving permeability transition. Biochem J. 2004;378:213-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast with mitochondrial permeability transition-dependent release of cytochrome c, in the present study mitochondria remain intact and functionally active. ..
  7. Marques Santos L, Coqueiro V, Rumjanek V. Cyclosporin A does not protect the disruption of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential induced by potassium ionophores in intact K562 cells. Cell Biol Int. 2006;30:197-204 pubmed
    ..carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), potassium exchanger (nigericin), potassium ionophore (valinomycin), Na+K+-ATPase inhibitor (ouabain) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor (cyclosporin A) ..
  8. Klein B, Wörndl K, Lütz Meindl U, Kerschbaum H. Perturbation of intracellular K(+) homeostasis with valinomycin promotes cell death by mitochondrial swelling and autophagic processes. Apoptosis. 2011;16:1101-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated, which mode of cell death is induced by decreasing the intracellular K(+) concentration using valinomycin, a highly K(+)-selective ionophore...
  9. Gohil V, Hayes P, Matsuyama S, Schagger H, Schlame M, Greenberg M. Cardiolipin biosynthesis and mitochondrial respiratory chain function are interdependent. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42612-8 pubmed the presence of CCCP, an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation that reduces the pH gradient but not by valinomycin or oligomycin, both of which reduce the membrane potential and inhibit ATP synthase, respectively...
  10. Andrukhiv A, Costa A, West I, Garlid K. Opening mitoKATP increases superoxide generation from complex I of the electron transport chain. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H2067-74 pubmed
    ..ROS production exhibited a biphasic dependence on valinomycin concentration, with peak production occurring at valinomycin concentrations that catalyze about the same K(+) ..
  11. Andersson M, Mikkola R, Kroppenstedt R, Rainey F, Peltola J, Helin J, et al. The mitochondrial toxin produced by Streptomyces griseus strains isolated from an indoor environment is valinomycin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998;64:4767-73 pubmed
    ..dodecadepsipeptide, and the fragmentation pattern obtained by tandem mass spectrometry was identical to that of valinomycin. Commercial valinomycin had effects in sperm cells that were identical to the effects of the four indoor ..
  12. Bondzio A, Stumpff F, Schon J, Martens H, Einspanier R. Impact of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ab on rumen epithelial cells (REC) - a new in vitro model for safety assessment of recombinant food compounds. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:1976-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The results were compared to the effects of valinomycin, a potassium ionophore known to induce cytotoxic effects on a wide range of cells...
  13. Wu M, Grabe M, Adams S, Tsien R, Moore H, Machen T. Mechanisms of pH regulation in the regulated secretory pathway. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:33027-35 pubmed
    ..However, neither steady-state pH(MSG) nor rates of passive H(+) leak were affected by Cl(-)-free solutions or valinomycin, indicating that MSG membrane potential was small and not a determinant of pH(MSG)...
  14. Ndukwe Erlingsson U, Iacobazzi F, Liu A, Ardon O, Pasquali M, Longo N. The effect of valinomycin in fibroblasts from patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;437:637-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we evaluate the capacity of valinomycin, a potassium ionophore that increases mitochondrial respiration, to increase the oxidation of fatty acids in ..
  15. Sharma R, Jamwal V, Singh V, Wazir P, Awasthi P, Singh D, et al. Revelation and cloning of valinomycin synthetase genes in Streptomyces lavendulae ACR-DA1 and their expression analysis under different fermentation and elicitation conditions. J Biotechnol. 2017;253:40-47 pubmed publisher
    ..isolated from extreme cold deserts of the North Western Himalayas, which produces a macrolactone antibiotic, valinomycin. Valinomycin is a K+ ionophoric non-ribosomal cyclodepsipeptide with a broad range of bioactivities ..
  16. Ye X, Anjum K, Song T, Wang W, Liang Y, Chen M, et al. Antiproliferative cyclodepsipeptides from the marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. P11-23B downregulating the tumor metabolic enzymes of glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and lipogenesis. Phytochemistry. 2017;135:151-159 pubmed publisher
    Two cyclodepsipeptides and a known cyclodepsipeptide valinomycin were isolated from a culture of the marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. P11-23B...
  17. Lofrumento D, La Piana G, Palmitessa V, Abbrescia D, Lofrumento N. Stimulation by pro-apoptotic valinomycin of cytosolic NADH/cytochrome c electron transport pathway-Effect of SH reagents. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;76:12-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5kDa) does not permeate into mitochondria. Valinomycin at 2nM stimulates both the energy-dependent reversible mitochondrial swelling and the NADH/cyto-c oxidation ..
  18. Bancila V, Nikonenko I, Dunant Y, Bloc A. Zinc inhibits glutamate release via activation of pre-synaptic K channels and reduces ischaemic damage in rat hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2004;90:1243-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, by activating pre-synaptic KATP channels, zinc protects neurones from hyper-excitation, excessive transmitter release and exitotoxicity, and may thus act as an endogenous neuroprotector in conditions such as epilepsy or stroke. ..
  19. Saris N, Andersson M, Mikkola R, Andersson L, Teplova V, Grigoriev P, et al. Microbial toxin's effect on mitochondrial survival by increasing K+ uptake. Toxicol Ind Health. 2009;25:441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Some strains of Bacillus cereus and Streptomyces griseus produced potassium ionophoric peptides cereulide and valinomycin (Mikkola, et al., European Journal of Biochemistry 1999; 263: 112-117)...
  20. Wu Q, Xu H, Zhang D, Ouyang P. A novel glutamate transport system in poly(?-glutamic acid)-producing strain Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 0833. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2011;164:1431-43 pubmed publisher
    ..subtilis strains were not due to the differences of the amino acid sequence and the structure of transporter protein. This is the first extensive report on the properties of glutamate transport system in ?-PGA-producing strain. ..
  21. Bondy S, McKee M, Le Bel C. Changes in synaptosomal pH and rates of oxygen radical formation induced by chlordecone. Mol Chem Neuropathol. 1990;13:95-106 pubmed
    ..The elevation of cytosolic pH, and depression of oxygen radical formation by chlordecone, may result from both the attenuation of respiratory metabolism and an impaired capacity of the plasma membrane to maintain ionic gradients. ..
  22. Zhang J, Zenobi R. Matrix-dependent cationization in MALDI mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2004;39:808-16 pubmed
    ..It is also demonstrated that attachment of free gas-phase cations, rather than cation transfer from the cationized matrix, is the predominant process in cationization. ..
  23. Martinez Becerra P, Briz O, Romero M, Macias R, Perez M, Sancho Mateo C, et al. Further characterization of the electrogenicity and pH sensitivity of the human organic anion-transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;79:596-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in substrate uptake in the presence of valinomycin (K(+)-ionophore), carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone and nigericin (protonophores), and amiloride (Na(+)/..
  24. Russo Abrahão T, Koeller C, Steinmann M, Silva Rito S, Marins Lucena T, Alves Bezerra M, et al. H+-dependent inorganic phosphate uptake in Trypanosoma brucei is influenced by myo-inositol transporter. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2017;49:183-194 pubmed publisher
    ..5 = 0.093 ± 0.008 mM. Additionally, FCCP (H+-ionophore), valinomycin (K+-ionophore) and SCH28080 (H+, K+-ATPase inhibitor) inhibited the Pi
  25. Schneider J, Nicolay J, Foller M, Wieder T, Lang F. Suicidal erythrocyte death following cellular K+ loss. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;20:35-44 pubmed
    ..Cellular K(+) loss was achieved by treatment of human erythrocytes with the K(+) ionophore valinomycin (1 nM) at different extracellular K(+) concentrations (5-125 mM) and osmolarities (300-550 m Osm)...
  26. Morrison M, Williamson K, Arthur K, Price G, Hamilton P, Maxwell P. Phenotypic changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi(m)) during valinomycin-induced depolarisation and apoptosis. Cell Oncol. 2005;27:231-6 pubmed
    ..tool of digital texture analysis to establish mitochondrial phenotypic changes induced by the K+ ionophore, valinomycin in a unique model comprising SW480 and SW620 cell lines...
  27. Irurzun A, Carrasco L. Entry of poliovirus into cells is blocked by valinomycin and concanamycin A. Biochemistry. 2001;40:3589-600 pubmed
    ..Combination of concanamycin A, a vacuolar proton-ATPase inhibitor, and valinomycin, an ionophore that promotes K(+) efflux from cells, powerfully prevented poliovirus infection...
  28. Suzuki H, Wang Z, Yamakoshi M, Kobayashi M, Nozawa T. Probing the transmembrane potential of bacterial cells by voltage-sensitive dyes. Anal Sci. 2003;19:1239-42 pubmed
    ..b>Valinomycin was then added to the solution, which caused changes in the fluorescence intensity, depending on the K+ ..
  29. Fernandez Vizarra E, Berardinelli A, Valente L, Tiranti V, Zeviani M. Nonsense mutation in pseudouridylate synthase 1 (PUS1) in two brothers affected by myopathy, lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anaemia (MLASA). J Med Genet. 2007;44:173-80 pubmed
    ..The structural differences in nuclear versus mitochondrial isoforms of PUS1 may be implicated in the variability of the clinical presentations in MLASA. ..
  30. Zhao G, Yu Y, Shoup T, Elmaleh D, Bonab A, Tompkins R, et al. Membrane potential-dependent uptake of 18F-triphenylphosphonium--a new voltage sensor as an imaging agent for detecting burn-induced apoptosis. J Surg Res. 2014;188:473-9 pubmed publisher
    ..18)F-TPP is a promising new voltage sensor for detecting mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in various tissues. ..
  31. Setty O, Hendler R, Shrager R. Simultaneous measurements of proton motive force, delta pH, membrane potential, and H+/O ratios in intact Escherichia coli. Biophys J. 1983;43:371-81 pubmed
    ..b) An increase in [K+] from 1 to 100 mM, in the presence of 0.5 microM valinomycin, causes the conversion of delta psi to delta pH, a gradual decline in PMF and an increase in H+/O ratio, ..
  32. Kroteń M, Bartoszewicz M, Swiecicka I. Cereulide and valinomycin, two important natural dodecadepsipeptides with ionophoretic activities. Pol J Microbiol. 2010;59:3-10 pubmed
    Cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus sensu stricto and valinomycin synthesized mainly by Streptomyces spp. are natural dodecadepsipeptide ionophores that act as potassium transporters...
  33. White G, Shi Z, Shi L, Dohnalkova A, Fredrickson J, Zachara J, et al. Development of a proteoliposome model to probe transmembrane electron-transfer reactions. Biochem Soc Trans. 2012;40:1257-60 pubmed publisher
    ..proteoliposome system has been developed that contains Methyl Viologen as an internalized electron carrier and valinomycin as a membrane-associated cation exchanger...
  34. Silic Benussi M, Cannizzaro E, Venerando A, Cavallari I, Petronilli V, La Rocca N, et al. Modulation of mitochondrial K(+) permeability and reactive oxygen species production by the p13 protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1787:947-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of p13 on ROS are mimicked by the K(+) ionophore valinomycin, while the protonophore FCCP decreases ROS, indicating that depolarization induced by K(+) vs...
  35. Chernysheva F, Alekseeva V, Polygalova O, Gordon L. [Localization of ATPase activity, respiration and ultrastructure of wheat root cells with modulated ion conductivity of plasma membrane]. Tsitologiia. 2004;46:221-8 pubmed
    ..A 2 h treatment of excised root with valinomycin (20 microM), N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimid (100 microM), gramicidin S (20 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) ..
  36. Rudhe C, Clifton R, Whelan J, Glaser E. N-terminal domain of the dual-targeted pea glutathione reductase signal peptide controls organellar targeting efficiency. J Mol Biol. 2002;324:577-85 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a domain structure for the dual-targeting peptide of pGR and the existence of domains controlling organellar import efficiency therein. ..
  37. Dalmonte M, Forte E, Genova M, Giuffrè A, Sarti P, Lenaz G. Control of respiration by cytochrome c oxidase in intact cells: role of the membrane potential. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32331-5 pubmed publisher
    ..e. when Delta psi is maximal, and in the presence of nigericin and valinomycin (C(IV) = 0.77), when Delta mu(H(+)) is abolished...
  38. Juge N, Muroyama A, Hiasa M, Omote H, Moriyama Y. Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter is a Cl-/gamma-aminobutyrate Co-transporter. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35073-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that Cl(-) plays an essential role in vesicular storage of GABA and glycine. ..
  39. Ozdemir A, Lednev I, Asher S. UVRR spectroscopic studies of valinomycin complex formation in different solvents. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2005;61:19-26 pubmed
    We investigated the complexation of valinomycin (VM) in different solvent environments with the aid of the UVRR spectroscopy. By probing the 206...
  40. Ahmed I, Krishnamoorthy G. Enhancement of transmembrane proton conductivity of protonophores by membrane-permeant cations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1024:298-306 pubmed
    ..decay of pH gradient across lipid vesicular membranes was found to be enhanced by orders of magnitude by valinomycin-K+...
  41. Guimarães E, Best J, Dollé L, Najimi M, Sokal E, van Grunsven L. Mitochondrial uncouplers inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:68 pubmed publisher
    ..Cultured primary human and mouse HSCs were treated with the chemical uncouplers FCCP and Valinomycin. ATP levels were measured by luciferase assay and production of reactive oxygen species was determined using ..
  42. Ehala S, Kašička V, Makrlík E. Determination of stability constants of valinomycin complexes with ammonium and alkali metal ions by capillary affinity electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:652-7 pubmed publisher
    Capillary affinity electrophoresis (CAE) has been employed to investigate quantitatively the interactions of valinomycin, macrocyclic depsipeptide antibiotic ionophore, with univalent cations, ammonium and alkali metal ions, K(+), Cs(+), ..
  43. Renauld S, Cortes S, Bersch B, Henry X, De Waard M, Schaack B. Functional reconstitution of cell-free synthesized purified Kv channels. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2017;1859:2373-2380 pubmed publisher
    ..the use of the optical indicator oxonol VI was adapted for 96 well microtiter plates using the ionophore valinomycin as a positive control. The activity of Kv1.1 and Kv1...
  44. Yamamoto S, Watarai H, Bour P. Monitoring the backbone conformation of valinomycin by Raman optical activity. Chemphyschem. 2011;12:1509-18 pubmed publisher
    Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopy is used to investigate the backbone conformation of valinomycin in methanol and dioxane solution...
  45. Yamamoto S, Straka M, Watarai H, Bour P. Formation and structure of the potassium complex of valinomycin in solution studied by Raman optical activity spectroscopy. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010;12:11021-32 pubmed publisher
    The formation and structure of the potassium complex with valinomycin in solution were studied by means of Raman and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopy...
  46. Kong S, Chan P, Choy Y, Fung K, Lee C. Change of membrane potential is not required for the tumour necrosis factor-alpha mediated cytotoxicity. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1993;15:57-68 pubmed our study demonstrate that: 1) TNF did not induce any changes of Em of L-929 cells but gramicidin and valinomycin produced positive responses as measured by two fluorescent probes, bis-oxonol and dis-C3-(5)...
  47. Wenzel M, Light M, Davis A, Gale P. Thiourea isosteres as anion receptors and transmembrane transporters. Chem Commun (Camb). 2011;47:7641-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant affinity for oxo-anions was observed in organic solution and the receptors were found to function as transmembrane chloride/nitrate antiporters with transport rates enhanced in the presence of valinomycin-K(+) complex.
  48. Tedeschi H. Old and new data, new issues: the mitochondrial DeltaPsi. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1709:195-202 pubmed
    ..Biophys. Acta 449 (1976) 108-129] in which light-induced ATP synthesis occurs in the absence of an apparent DeltaPsi or DeltapH, suggesting the presence of mechanisms similar to the one proposed for mitochondria. ..
  49. Ishijima S, Uchibori A, Takagi H, Maki R, Ohnishi M. Light-induced increase in free Mg2+ concentration in spinach chloroplasts: measurement of free Mg2+ by using a fluorescent probe and necessity of stromal alkalinization. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;412:126-32 pubmed
    ..The K(+)-specific ionophore valinomycin inhibited the [Mg(2+)] increase in the absence of external K(+), and addition of KCl restored the [Mg(2+)] ..
  50. Pratt R, Ferreira G, Pedersen P. Mitochondrial phosphate transport. Import of the H+/Pi symporter and role of the presequence. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:1276-80 pubmed
  51. Carraro Lacroix L, Lessa L, Bezerra C, Pessoa T, Souza Menezes J, Morales M, et al. Role of CFTR and ClC-5 in modulating vacuolar H+-ATPase activity in kidney proximal tubule. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;26:563-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In these cells, even after abolishing the membrane potential with valinomycin, ATPase activity was seen to be still dependent on Cl(-)...
  52. Dick C, Dos Santos A, Majerowicz D, Paes L, Giarola N, Gondim K, et al. Inorganic phosphate uptake in Trypanosoma cruzi is coupled to K(+) cycling and to active Na(+) extrusion. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:4265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Valinomycin (K(+) ionophore) or SCH28028 (inhibitor of (H(+)+K(+))ATPase) significantly inhibited Pi uptake, indicating ..
  53. Glickson J, Gordon S, Pitner P, Agresti D, Walter R. Intramolecular 1H nuclear Overhauser effect study of the solution conformation of valinomycin in dimethyl sulfoxide. Biochemistry. 1976;15:5721-9 pubmed
    ..Towards this end, 1H NMR double-resonance studies were conducted on valinomycin in (CD3)2SO at 90 MGZ (FT mode) and 250 MGZ (correlation mode)...