bacitracin

Summary

Summary: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)

Top Publications

  1. Majchrzykiewicz J, Kuipers O, Bijlsma J. Generic and specific adaptive responses of Streptococcus pneumoniae to challenge with three distinct antimicrobial peptides, bacitracin, LL-37, and nisin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:440-51 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the response of Streptococcus pneumoniae to three distinct antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), bacitracin, nisin, and LL-37, transcriptome analysis of challenged bacteria was performed...
  2. Gong J, Yu H, Liu T, Gill J, Chambers J, Wheatcroft R, et al. Effects of zinc bacitracin, bird age and access to range on bacterial microbiota in the ileum and caeca of broiler chickens. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:1372-82 pubmed publisher
    Determining the effects of zinc bacitracin, bird age and access to range on bacterial microbiota in the ileum and caeca of broilers...
  3. Higuchi T, Watanabe Y, Waga I. Protein disulfide isomerase suppresses the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;318:46-52 pubmed
    ..This negative regulation of NF-kappaB was reversed by bacitracin, a PDI inhibitor...
  4. Bell S, Shah C, Gordge M. Protein disulfide-isomerase mediates delivery of nitric oxide redox derivatives into platelets. Biochem J. 2007;403:283-8 pubmed
    ..These results further highlight the importance of PDI in mediating the action of a wide range of NO-related signals. ..
  5. Becker P, Hakenbeck R, Henrich B. An ABC transporter of Streptococcus pneumoniae involved in susceptibility to vancoresmycin and bacitracin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2034-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the similarity of Spr0812-Spr0813 to bacitracin transporters of Streptococcus mutans and Bacillus spp...
  6. Pavli V, Kmetec V. Pathways of chemical degradation of polypeptide antibiotic bacitracin. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:2160-7 pubmed
    We described the main pathways of bacitracin (Bc) decomposition, chromatographically set the position of its major degradation products and evaluated microbiological activity of isolated components of Bc and its degradation products...
  7. Bernard R, Guiseppi A, Chippaux M, Foglino M, Denizot F. Resistance to bacitracin in Bacillus subtilis: unexpected requirement of the BceAB ABC transporter in the control of expression of its own structural genes. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:8636-42 pubmed
    The Bacillus subtilis BceAB ABC transporter involved in a defense mechanism against bacitracin is composed of a membrane-spanning domain and a nucleotide-binding domain...
  8. Chalker A, Ingraham K, Lunsford R, Bryant A, Bryant J, Wallis N, et al. The bacA gene, which determines bacitracin susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, is also required for virulence. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 7):1547-53 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus bacA mutant showed slightly reduced virulence in a mouse model of infection and an eightfold increase in bacitracin susceptibility. However, a Strep...
  9. Karala A, Ruddock L. Bacitracin is not a specific inhibitor of protein disulfide isomerase. FEBS J. 2010;277:2454-62 pubmed publisher
    To successfully dissect molecular pathways in vivo, there is often a need to use specific inhibitors. Bacitracin is very widely used as an inhibitor of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in vivo...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kesel S, Mader A, Höfler C, Mascher T, Leisner M. Immediate and heterogeneous response of the LiaFSR two-component system of Bacillus subtilis to the peptide antibiotic bacitracin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53457 pubmed publisher
    ..The complete LiaFSR system was shown to respond to various peptide antibiotics interfering with cell wall biosynthesis, including bacitracin.
  2. Tseng C, Shaw G. Genetic evidence for the actin homolog gene mreBH and the bacitracin resistance gene bcrC as targets of the alternative sigma factor SigI of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..search procedure, we found putative sigmaI promoters preceding the actin homolog gene mreBH and the bacitracin resistance gene bcrC of B. subtilis. Overexpression of the B...
  3. Ryser H, Levy E, Mandel R, DiSciullo G. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus infection by agents that interfere with thiol-disulfide interchange upon virus-receptor interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:4559-63 pubmed
    ..More recently it was found that the same membrane function can be inhibited by bacitracin, an inhibitor of protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI), and by monoclonal antibodies against PDI, suggesting that ..
  4. Adimpong D, Sørensen K, Thorsen L, Stuer Lauridsen B, Abdelgadir W, Nielsen D, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus strains isolated from primary starters for African traditional bread production and characterization of the bacitracin operon and bacitracin biosynthesis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:7903-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The ermD and ermK genes were localized on an 11.4-kbp plasmid. All of the B. sonorensis strains harbored the bacitracin synthetase gene, bacA, and the transporter gene bcrA, which correlated with their observed resistance to ..
  5. Ohki R, Tateno K, Okada Y, Okajima H, Asai K, Sadaie Y, et al. A bacitracin-resistant Bacillus subtilis gene encodes a homologue of the membrane-spanning subunit of the Bacillus licheniformis ABC transporter. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:51-9 pubmed
    b>Bacitracin is a peptide antibiotic nonribosomally produced by Bacillus licheniformis...
  6. Anglen J. Comparison of soap and antibiotic solutions for irrigation of lower-limb open fracture wounds. A prospective, randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:1415-22 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to compare the efficacy of those two solutions in the treatment of open fractures in humans...
  7. Ohki R, Giyanto -, Tateno K, Masuyama W, Moriya S, Kobayashi K, et al. The BceRS two-component regulatory system induces expression of the bacitracin transporter, BceAB, in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:1135-44 pubmed
    ..Disruption of these genes resulted in hypersensitivity to bacitracin, a peptide antibiotic that is non-ribosomally synthesized in some strains of Bacillus...
  8. El Ghachi M, Bouhss A, Blanot D, Mengin Lecreulx D. The bacA gene of Escherichia coli encodes an undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30106-13 pubmed publisher
    The bacA gene, the overexpression of which results in bacitracin resistance, was inactivated and shown to be non-essential for growth of Escherichia coli...
  9. Chalmers G, Bruce H, Hunter D, Parreira V, Kulkarni R, Jiang Y, et al. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of Clostridium perfringens isolates from necrotic enteritis outbreaks in broiler chicken populations. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..perfringens type A strains, was also found, but only in the presence of netB. Resistance to bacitracin was found in 34% of isolates from antimicrobial agent-free birds and in 100% of isolates from conventionally ..
  10. Mascher T, Margulis N, Wang T, Ye R, Helmann J. Cell wall stress responses in Bacillus subtilis: the regulatory network of the bacitracin stimulon. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:1591-604 pubmed
    ..We report the response of Bacillus subtilis to bacitracin, an inhibitor of cell wall biosynthesis found in its natural environment...
  11. Manson J, Keis S, Smith J, Cook G. Acquired bacitracin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis is mediated by an ABC transporter and a novel regulatory protein, BcrR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3743-8 pubmed
    b>Bacitracin resistance (bacitracin MIC, >/=256 microg ml(-1)) has been reported in Enterococcus faecalis, and in the present study we report on the genetic basis for this resistance...
  12. Bernard R, El Ghachi M, Mengin Lecreulx D, Chippaux M, Denizot F. BcrC from Bacillus subtilis acts as an undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase in bacitracin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28852-7 pubmed
    ..called YwoA, in Escherichia coli or in Bacillus subtilis allows these bacteria to stand higher concentrations of bacitracin. It was suggested that BcrC(Bs) was a membrane-spanning domain of an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter ..
  13. Harel Y, Bailone A, Bibi E. Resistance to bacitracin as modulated by an Escherichia coli homologue of the bacitracin ABC transporter BcrC subunit from Bacillus licheniformis. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:6176-8 pubmed
    ..reading frame from the Escherichia coli chromosome, bcrC(EC), encodes a homologue to the BcrC subunit of the bacitracin permease from Bacillus licheniformis...
  14. Campos S, Chapman J, Deymier M, Bronnimann M, Ozbun M. Opposing effects of bacitracin on human papillomavirus type 16 infection: enhancement of binding and entry and inhibition of endosomal penetration. J Virol. 2012;86:4169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..role of cellular protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) by studying the effects of the commonly used PDI inhibitor bacitracin on HPV16 infection. Bacitracin caused an unusual time-dependent opposing effect on viral infection...
  15. Cao M, Helmann J. Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis bcrC bacitracin resistance gene by two extracytoplasmic function sigma factors. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6123-9 pubmed
    b>Bacitracin resistance is normally conferred by either of two major mechanisms, the BcrABC transporter, which pumps out bacitracin, or BacA, an undecaprenol kinase that provides C(55)-isoprenyl phosphate by de novo synthesis...
  16. Pires R, Rolo D, Mato R, Feio de Almeida J, Johansson C, Henriques Normark B, et al. Resistance to bacitracin in Streptococcus pyogenes from oropharyngeal colonization and noninvasive infections in Portugal was caused by two clones of distinct virulence genotypes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;296:235-40 pubmed publisher
    During 2000-2007 in Lisbon, we identified 45 bacitracin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates among 1629 isolates: 24 from oropharyngeal healthy carriers (out of 1026), 21 from patients with noninvasive infections (out of 559) and ..
  17. El Ghachi M, Derbise A, Bouhss A, Mengin Lecreulx D. Identification of multiple genes encoding membrane proteins with undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (UppP) activity in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18689-95 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of either of these genes, or of a fourth identified one, yeiU, is shown to result in bacitracin resistance and increased levels of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase activity, as previously observed for ..
  18. Jain S, McGinnes L, Morrison T. Thiol/disulfide exchange is required for membrane fusion directed by the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2007;81:2328-39 pubmed publisher
    ..that inhibitors of cell surface thiol/disulfide isomerase activity--5'5-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), bacitracin, and anti-protein disulfide isomerase antibody--inhibited cell-cell fusion and virus entry but had no effect on ..
  19. Bernard R, Joseph P, Guiseppi A, Chippaux M, Denizot F. YtsCD and YwoA, two independent systems that confer bacitracin resistance to Bacillus subtilis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;228:93-7 pubmed
    ..tested for their sensitivity towards a series of antibiotics, null yts mutants were found to be sensitive to bacitracin. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments demonstrated that the presence of bacitracin in the ..
  20. Podlesek Z, Comino A, Herzog Velikonja B, Grabnar M. The role of the bacitracin ABC transporter in bacitracin resistance and collateral detergent sensitivity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;188:103-6 pubmed
    The bacitracin resistance of Bacillus licheniformis, a producer of bacitracin, is mediated by the ABC transporter Bcr...
  21. Mikami Y, Suzuki N, Takahashi T, Otsuka K, Tsuda H. Bacitracin upregulates mbrAB transcription via mbrCD to confer bacitracin resistance in Streptococcus mutans. J Pharmacol Sci. 2011;117:204-7 pubmed
    Streptococcus mutans is a bacterial cause of dental caries that is resistant to bacitracin. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mbrABCD-related bacitracin resistance mechanism of S. mutans...
  22. Kuroda M, Kuroda H, Oshima T, Takeuchi F, Mori H, Hiramatsu K. Two-component system VraSR positively modulates the regulation of cell-wall biosynthesis pathway in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol. 2003;49:807-21 pubmed
    ..aureus showed significant decrease of resistance against teicoplanin, beta-lactam, bacitracin and fosfomycin but not of D-cycloserine and levofloxacin...
  23. Staron A, Finkeisen D, Mascher T. Peptide antibiotic sensing and detoxification modules of Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:515-25 pubmed publisher
    ..BceRS-BceAB (BceRS-AB) responds to bacitracin, plectasin, mersacidin, and actagardine. YxdJK-LM is induced by a cationic antimicrobial peptide, LL-37...
  24. Economou N, Cocklin S, Loll P. High-resolution crystal structure reveals molecular details of target recognition by bacitracin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:14207-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacitracin is a metalloantibiotic agent that is widely used as a medicine and feed additive...
  25. Matos R, Pinto V, Ruivo M, Lopes M. Study on the dissemination of the bcrABDR cluster in Enterococcus spp. reveals that the BcrAB transporter is sufficient to confer high-level bacitracin resistance. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;34:142-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Bacitracin is used both in clinical practice and as an animal growth promoter in some countries. Recent reports revealed the dissemination of high-level bacitracin resistance (HLBR) in the genus Enterococcus...
  26. Tsuda H, Yamashita Y, Shibata Y, Nakano Y, Koga T. Genes involved in bacitracin resistance in Streptococcus mutans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:3756-64 pubmed
    Streptococcus mutans is resistant to bacitracin, which is a peptide antibiotic produced by certain species of Bacillus. The purpose of this study was to clarify the bacitracin resistance mechanism of S. mutans...
  27. Utaida S, Dunman P, Macapagal D, Murphy E, Projan S, Singh V, et al. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the response of Staphylococcus aureus to cell-wall-active antibiotics reveals a cell-wall-stress stimulon. Microbiology. 2003;149:2719-32 pubmed
    ..and stress responses (including msrA, htrA, psrA and hslO), were upregulated by oxacillin, D-cycloserine or bacitracin. This response may represent the transcriptional signature of a cell-wall stimulon induced in response to cell-..
  28. Rogelj S, Reiter K, Kesner L, Li M, Essex D. Enzyme destruction by a protease contaminant in bacitracin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;273:829-32 pubmed
    b>Bacitracin, as purchased from biochemical supply companies, is a mixture of more than 30 different substances. The major antibiotic isoforms A and B account for about 60% of the mixture...
  29. Rietkötter E, Hoyer D, Mascher T. Bacitracin sensing in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:768-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The bacitracin stress response network of Bacillus subtilis consists of four signal-transducing systems, the two-component ..
  30. Cladera J, O Shea P, Hadgraft J, Valenta C. Influence of molecular dipoles on human skin permeability: Use of 6-ketocholestanol to enhance the transdermal delivery of bacitracin. J Pharm Sci. 2003;92:1018-27 pubmed
    ..Using fluorescein-labeled bacitracin and confocal microscopy, we show that the penetration of the antibiotic peptide bacitracin into the epidermis is ..
  31. Neumüller A, Konz D, Marahiel M. The two-component regulatory system BacRS is associated with bacitracin 'self-resistance' of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 10716. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:3180-9 pubmed
    b>Bacitracin is a peptide antibiotic produced by several Bacillus licheniformis strains that is most active against other Gram-positive microorganisms, but not against the producer strain itself...
  32. Engberg R, Hedemann M, Leser T, Jensen B. Effect of zinc bacitracin and salinomycin on intestinal microflora and performance of broilers. Poult Sci. 2000;79:1311-9 pubmed
    ..with four groups of broiler chickens fed experimental diets formulated to provide no supplementation, 20 mg zinc bacitracin, 60 mg salinomycin, or both feed additives in combination...
  33. Cain B, Norton P, Eubanks W, Nick H, Allen C. Amplification of the bacA gene confers bacitracin resistance to Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1993;175:3784-9 pubmed
    An Escherichia coli genomic library was constructed in order to facilitate selection for genes which confer bacitracin resistance through amplification...
  34. Citron D, Merriam C, Tyrrell K, Warren Y, Fernandez H, Goldstein E. In vitro activities of ramoplanin, teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid, bacitracin, and four other antimicrobials against intestinal anaerobic bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2334-8 pubmed
  35. Sharif S, Goldberg B. Detection of IgE antibodies to bacitracin using a commercially available streptavidin-linked solid phase in a patient with anaphylaxis to triple antibiotic ointment. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007;98:563-6 pubmed
    b>Bacitracin is a commonly used topical antibiotic that has on occasion been reported to cause anaphylaxis. Evidence of the role of bacitracin specific IgE in such reactions has been demonstrated by skin testing...
  36. Pan L, Zhao P, Ma X, Shang Q, Xu Y, Long S, et al. Probiotic supplementation protects weaned pigs against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 challenge and improves performance similar to antibiotics. J Anim Sci. 2017;95:2627-2639 pubmed publisher
    ..or challenged with ETEC K88 (CHA-C) on d 9 and pigs fed the same basal diet supplemented with AB (100 mg/kg zinc bacitracin, 50 mg/kg colistin sulfate, and 100 mg/kg olaquindox; CHA-AB) or 500 mg/kg PB ( and ; CHA-PB) and challenged ..
  37. Oliver O, Stämpfli H. Acute diarrhea in the adult horse: case example and review. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2006;22:73-84 pubmed
  38. Perez Trallero E, Tamayo E, Montes M, García Arenzana J, Iriarte V. In vitro activities of retapamulin and 16 other antimicrobial agents against recently obtained Streptococcus pyogenes isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:2406-8 pubmed publisher
    ..types, including isolates nonsusceptible to erythromycin (n=187), tetracycline (n=99), ciprofloxacin (n=59), and bacitracin (n=43). Results were compared to the activities of 16 other antibiotics for topical and systemic use...
  39. Guin J. Recurrence of pemphigus foliaceus after allergic contact dermatitis from triple antibiotic ointment. Contact Dermatitis. 2003;49:115 pubmed
  40. Ben Khalaf N, De Muylder G, Louzir H, McKerrow J, Chenik M. Leishmania major protein disulfide isomerase as a drug target: enzymatic and functional characterization. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1911-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Bacitracin, a reductase activity inhibitor, and Ribostamycin, a chaperone activity inhibitor, were tested in LmPDI ..
  41. Rocha B, Correia M, Barbosa R, Laranjinha J. A dietary-driven redox modulation of gut microbiome-host interactions: the rescue of epithelial barrier and mucus production during dysbiosis by dietary nitrate. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;75 Suppl 1:S36-7 pubmed publisher
    ..for 7 days during which, in addition to food, they had access to 1) water, 2) an antibiotic cocktail (neomycin, bacitracin, imipenem), 3) antibiotic cocktail sodium nitrate 10mM, 4) sodium nitrate. Animals were weighted daily...
  42. Jassal S, Lok C. A randomized controlled trial comparing mupirocin versus Polysporin Triple for the prevention of catheter-related infections in peritoneal dialysis patients (the MP3 study). Perit Dial Int. 2008;28:67-72 pubmed
    ..The results of this study will help determine if the use of P3 is superior to mupirocin ointment in the prevention of catheter-related infections and will help guide evidence-based best practices. ..
  43. Mascher T, Hachmann A, Helmann J. Regulatory overlap and functional redundancy among Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function sigma factors. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:6919-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In several cases, these antibiotic-sensitive phenotypes are significantly enhanced in the triple mutant strain relative to strains lacking only one or two sigma factors...
  44. Abdel Hakim N, Hilali E, Amer A, Younis T. Effect of some antibiotics as growth promoters on performance of broiler chicks fed different protein levels. Arch Tierernahr. 1989;39:97-104 pubmed
    This work was carried out to study the effect of different sources of dietary antibiotics (Zinc bacitracin, Flavomycin, Virginiamycin) in rations with optimal protein levels (starter phase: 23.5%, finisher phase: 20...
  45. Fasina Y, Thanissery R. Comparative efficacy of a yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in broiler chicks from breeder hens of different ages. Poult Sci. 2011;90:1067-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, a 14-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in chicks obtained from young (26-27 ..
  46. Mowad C. Allergens of new and emerging significance. Dermatol Nurs. 2006;18:545-8 pubmed
  47. Bloom A, Perry H, Donnenfeld E, Davis R. Chryseobacterium meningosepticum keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:356-7 pubmed
    ..A 48-year-old man presented with a corneal ulcer in his right eye and was treated with ofloxacin and fortified bacitracin ophthalmic solution. Cultures grew C. meningosepticum, and the infection resolved...
  48. Heidrich C, Ursinus A, Berger J, Schwarz H, Höltje J. Effects of multiple deletions of murein hydrolases on viability, septum cleavage, and sensitivity to large toxic molecules in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6093-9 pubmed
    ..addition, the hydrolase mutants not only could be lysed by lysozyme in the absence of EDTA but also were sensitive to high-molecular-weight antibiotics, such as vancomycin and bacitracin, which are normally ineffective against E. coli.
  49. Saravia M, Nelson Filho P, Silva R, De Rossi A, Faria G, Silva L, et al. Recovery of mutans streptococci on MSB, SB-20 and SB-20M agar media. Arch Oral Biol. 2013;58:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we compared (i) the culture media Sucrose-Bacitracin agar (SB-20), Modified SB-20 (SB-20M) and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar (MSB) in the count of colony forming ..
  50. Eppelmann K, Doekel S, Marahiel M. Engineered biosynthesis of the peptide antibiotic bacitracin in the surrogate host Bacillus subtilis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34824-31 pubmed
    ..synthetases and subsequently used the same chromosomal location for integration of the entire 49-kilobase bacitracin biosynthetic gene cluster from Bacillus licheniformis by a stepwise homologous recombination method...
  51. Xu H, Montoya F, Wang Z, Lee J, Reeves R, Linthicum D, et al. Combined use of regulatory elements within the cDNA to increase the production of a soluble mouse single-chain antibody, scFv, from tobacco cell suspension cultures. Protein Expr Purif. 2002;24:384-94 pubmed
  52. Han X, Du X, Southey L, Bulach D, Seemann T, Yan X, et al. Functional analysis of a bacitracin resistance determinant located on ICECp1, a novel Tn916-like element from a conjugative plasmid in Clostridium perfringens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;59:6855-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed an avian necrotic enteritis strain of Clostridium perfringens that was resistant to bacitracin and produced NetB toxin...
  53. Waldroup P, Hellwig H, Johnson Z, Krueger W, Moore R, Charles O, et al. Response of broiler chickens to dietary supplementation with roxarsone and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in diets containing narasin. Poult Sci. 1988;67:103-7 pubmed
    Six trials were conducted at different locations to examine the response of broiler chickens to roxarsone and bacitracin in the form of bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in the presence of the anticoccidal narasin...