cyclic peptides


Summary: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).

Top Publications

  1. Friling S, Notman R, Walsh T. Probing diameter-selective solubilisation of carbon nanotubes by reversible cyclic peptides using molecular dynamics simulations. Nanoscale. 2010;2:98-106 pubmed publisher
    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the encapsulation behaviour of reversible cyclic peptides when adsorbed onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous solution...
  2. Martin Visscher L, Gong X, Duszyk M, Vederas J. The three-dimensional structure of carnocyclin A reveals that many circular bacteriocins share a common structural motif. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28674-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This shared three-dimensional arrangement resembles the fold of mammalian saposins, peptides that either directly lyse membranes or serve as activators of lipid-degrading enzymes. ..
  3. Zhao J, Liu X, Wang Z, Li Z. Significance of anti-CCP antibodies in modification of 1987 ACR classification criteria in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2010;29:33-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Leikoski N, Fewer D, Jokela J, Wahlsten M, Rouhiainen L, Sivonen K. Highly diverse cyanobactins in strains of the genus Anabaena. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:701-9 pubmed publisher
    Cyanobactins are small, cyclic peptides recently found in cyanobacteria...
  5. Schultz A, Lewis C, Luzung M, Baran P, Moore B. Functional characterization of the cyclomarin/cyclomarazine prenyltransferase CymD directs the biosynthesis of unnatural cyclic peptides. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:373-7 pubmed publisher
    ..prenyltransferase CymD revealed its ability to prenylate tryptophan prior to incorporation into both cyclic peptides by the nonribosomal peptide synthetase CymA...
  6. Morgan A, Thomson W, Martin S, Carter A, Erlich H, Barton A, et al. Reevaluation of the interaction between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles, PTPN22, and smoking in determining susceptibility to autoantibody-positive and autoantibody-negative rheumatoid arthritis in a large UK Caucasian population. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:2565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has confirmed associations of specific gene-environment combinations with a substantially increased risk of developing RA. Further work is needed to determine how these data can be used to inform clinical practice. ..
  7. Bhunia A, Vivekanandan S, Eckert T, Burg Roderfeld M, Wechselberger R, Romanuka J, et al. Why structurally different cyclic peptides can be glycomimetics of the HNK-1 carbohydrate antigen. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:96-105 pubmed publisher
    The cyclic peptides c-(LSETTl) and c-(RTLPFS) are of potential clinical interest--they stimulate neurite outgrowth in a way that is similar to the effects of the HNK-1 (human natural killer cell-1) antigenic carbohydrate chains, which ..
  8. Sivonen K, Leikoski N, Fewer D, Jokela J. Cyanobactins-ribosomal cyclic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:1213-25 pubmed publisher
    Cyanobactins are small cyclic peptides that are produced by a diverse selection of cyanobacteria living in symbioses as well as terrestrial, marine, or freshwater environments...
  9. Liu H, Boudreau M, Zheng J, Whittal R, Austin P, Roskelley C, et al. Chemical synthesis and biological activity of the neopetrosiamides and their analogues: revision of disulfide bond connectivity. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:1486-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 4 and 6 demonstrated potent bioactivity comparable to that of the parent peptides. ..

More Information


  1. Bang S, Lee K, Cho S, Lee H, Lee K, Bae S. Smoking increases rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in individuals carrying the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope, regardless of rheumatoid factor or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody status. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:369-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The SE-smoking interactions were present in anti-CCP-positive and RF-positive RA. ..
  2. Pavlaskova K, Nedved J, Kuzma M, Zabka M, Sulc M, Sklenar J, et al. Characterization of pseudacyclins A-E, a suite of cyclic peptides produced by Pseudallescheria boydii. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1027-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, two P. boydii isolates (human and animal origin) have been identified as being producers of cyclic peptides. Five putative nonribosomal peptides with a unique structure, which have been named pseudacyclins, were ..
  3. Ibrahim S, Min C, Teuscher F, Ebel R, Kakoschke C, Lin W, et al. Callyaerins A-F and H, new cytotoxic cyclic peptides from the Indonesian marine sponge Callyspongia aerizusa. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:4947-56 pubmed publisher
    ..guided fractionation of the EtOAc fraction of the sponge Callyspongia aerizusa yielded seven new cytotoxic cyclic peptides callyaerins A-F (1-6) and H (8)...
  4. Chibnik L, Mandl L, Costenbader K, Schur P, Karlson E. Comparison of threshold cutpoints and continuous measures of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in predicting future rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:706-11 pubmed publisher
    ..A lower threshold for anti-CCP positivity was more sensitive in predicting RA development. Higher ranges of the level were informative in predicting time to RA onset. ..
  5. De Man Y, Bakker Jonges L, Goorbergh C, Tillemans S, Hooijkaas H, Hazes J, et al. Women with rheumatoid arthritis negative for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and rheumatoid factor are more likely to improve during pregnancy, whereas in autoantibody-positive women autoantibody levels are not influenced by pregnancy. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:420-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvement of disease activity of RA during pregnancy was not associated with changes in levels of autoantibodies during pregnancy, however, improvement may occur more frequently in the absence of anti-CCP and RF. ..
  6. van der Linden M, Van der Woude D, Ioan Facsinay A, Levarht E, Stoeken Rijsbergen G, Huizinga T, et al. Value of anti-modified citrullinated vimentin and third-generation anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide compared with second-generation anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and rheumatoid factor in predicting disease outcome in undifferentiated arthritis a. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:2232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..For clinical practice, a single autoantibody test is sufficient for risk estimation in UA and RA. ..
  7. Bougdour A, Maubon D, Baldacci P, Ortet P, Bastien O, Bouillon A, et al. Drug inhibition of HDAC3 and epigenetic control of differentiation in Apicomplexa parasites. J Exp Med. 2009;206:953-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify FR235222 as a potent HDACi of Apicomplexa, and establish HDAC3 as a central regulator of gene expression and stage conversion in Toxoplasma and, likely, other Apicomplexa...
  8. Hirose T, Sunazuka T, Sugawara A, Endo A, Iguchi K, Yamamoto T, et al. Chitinase inhibitors: extraction of the active framework from natural argifin and use of in situ click chemistry. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2009;62:277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, our finding of an enzyme-made 1,5-disubstituted triazole, using in situ click chemistry is the second example reported in the literature. ..
  9. Jourdan E, Henry G, Duby F, Dommes J, Barthelemy J, Thonart P, et al. Insights into the defense-related events occurring in plant cells following perception of surfactin-type lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2009;22:456-68 pubmed publisher
    ..but also more globally on the way elicitors from beneficial bacteria can be perceived by host plant cells. ..
  10. Clerc J, Groll M, Illich D, Bachmann A, Huber R, Schellenberg B, et al. Synthetic and structural studies on syringolin A and B reveal critical determinants of selectivity and potency of proteasome inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6507-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of the medicinal relevance of proteasome inhibitors as anticancer compounds, the present findings may assist in the rational design and development of syrbactin-based chemotherapeutics. ..
  11. Belin P, Le Du M, Fielding A, Lequin O, Jacquet M, Charbonnier J, et al. Identification and structural basis of the reaction catalyzed by CYP121, an essential cytochrome P450 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7426-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides insight into the catalytic activity, mechanism, and biological function of CYP121. Also, it provides clues for rational design of putative CYP121 substrate-based antimycobacterial agents...
  12. Syversen S, Goll G, van der Heijde D, Landewe R, Lie B, Odegard S, et al. Prediction of radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis and the role of antibodies against mutated citrullinated vimentin: results from a 10-year prospective study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibody status showed a stronger association to bone than to cartilage destruction. This study also indicates that higher anti-MCV levels add prognostic information compared to their mere presence or absence. ..
  13. Cuchacovich M, Catalan D, Wainstein E, Gatica H, Soto L, Aravena O, et al. Basal anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody levels and a decrease in anti-CCP titres are associated with clinical response to adalimumab in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2008;26:1067-73 pubmed
    ..A decrease in anti-CCP levels on time was observed in patients showing also clinical improvement, suggesting that serum anti-CCP antibodies determination may be useful in assessing treatment efficacy in RA patients. ..
  14. Kato H, Tsuji K, Harada K. Microbial degradation of cyclic peptides produced by bacteria. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2009;62:181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..possesses hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading various toxic and non-toxic cyanobacterial cyclic peptides, such as microcystins, nodularin, microviridin, microcyclamide and aeruginopeptin...
  15. Hirose T, Sunazuka T, Sugawara A, Noguchi Y, Tanaka T, Iguchi K, et al. Solid-phase total synthesis of the chitinase inhibitor Argadin using a supported acetal resin. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2009;62:495-500 pubmed publisher
  16. Wagner E, Skoumal M, Bayer P, Klaushofer K. Antibody against mutated citrullinated vimentin: a new sensitive marker in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2009;29:1315-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In a subgroup of 86 RA patients we found a significant correlation between anti-MCV and disease activity. Anti-MCV appears to be an important marker for the diagnosis of RA, and correlates also with disease activity. ..
  17. Dixon M, Nathubhai A, Andersen O, van Aalten D, Eggleston I. Solid-phase synthesis of cyclic peptide chitinase inhibitors: SAR of the argifin scaffold. Org Biomol Chem. 2009;7:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The flexibility of the synthesis is demonstrated by the preparation of a series of argifin analogues designed from the X-ray structure of the natural product in complex with a representative family 18 chitinase. ..
  18. Okumura H, Philmus B, Portmann C, Hemscheidt T. Homotyrosine-containing cyanopeptolins 880 and 960 and anabaenopeptins 908 and 915 from Planktothrix agardhii CYA 126/8. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The anabaenopeptins have a common cyclopentapeptide portion and differ in the amino acid linked to it via an ureido bond, arginine and tyrosine, respectively. ..
  19. Bos W, Dijkmans B, Boers M, van de Stadt R, van Schaardenburg D. Effect of dexamethasone on autoantibody levels and arthritis development in patients with arthralgia: a randomised trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:571-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In autoantibody-positive patients with arthralgia, dexamethasone treatment decreases ACPA and IgM-RF levels, but does not prevent arthritis development. ISRCTN73232918. ..
  20. Lee J, McIntosh J, Hathaway B, Schmidt E. Using marine natural products to discover a protease that catalyzes peptide macrocyclization of diverse substrates. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:2122-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that PatG, a protease discovered in this analysis, cleaves variables, short peptides out of a precursor protein, and cyclizes these peptides in vivo and in vitro. ..
  21. Gouda H, Sunazuka T, Iguchi K, Sugawara A, Hirose T, Noguchi Y, et al. Computer-aided rational molecular design of argifin-derivatives with increased inhibitory activity against chitinase B from Serratia marcescens. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:2630-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identified and obtained a derivative which exhibited 28-fold more inhibition than argifin itself, a compound in which the d-Ala(5) of argifin was replaced with d-Leu and the 4-benzylpiperdine was attached to l-Asp(4). ..
  22. Gandjbakhch F, Fajardy I, Ferré B, Dubucquoi S, Flipo R, Roger N, et al. A functional haplotype of PADI4 gene in rheumatoid arthritis: positive correlation in a French population. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:881-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings confirm those of Japanese, Korean, and Canadian studies and suggest that PADI4 may be a new susceptibility gene independent of HLA-DRB1 for RA in Caucasian populations. ..
  23. Sunazuka T, Sugawara A, Iguchi K, Hirose T, Nagai K, Noguchi Y, et al. Argifin; efficient solid phase total synthesis and evaluation of analogues of acyclic peptide. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:2751-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel acyclic peptide 18b, prepared from a synthetic intermediate of Argifin, was found to be 70 times more potent as an inhibitor of Serratia marcescens chitinases B than Argifin itself. ..
  24. Hall P, Hjelle B, Njus H, Ye C, Bondu Hawkins V, Brown D, et al. Phage display selection of cyclic peptides that inhibit Andes virus infection. J Virol. 2009;83:8965-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These peptides will be valuable tools for further development of both peptide and nonpeptide therapeutic agents. ..
  25. Bos W, Wolbink G, Boers M, Tijhuis G, de Vries N, van der Horst Bruinsma I, et al. Arthritis development in patients with arthralgia is strongly associated with anti-citrullinated protein antibody status: a prospective cohort study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:490-4 pubmed publisher
    ..0). In patients with arthralgia the presence of ACPA (but not of IgM-RF or SE) predicts arthritis development. The risk in ACPA-positive patients may be further increased by the concomitant presence of IgM-RF or high levels of ACPA. ..
  26. Freeston J, Wakefield R, Conaghan P, Hensor E, Stewart S, Emery P. A diagnostic algorithm for persistence of very early inflammatory arthritis: the utility of power Doppler ultrasound when added to conventional assessment tools. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:417-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In seronegative patients with early IA, combining PDUS with routine assessment can have a major impact on the certainty of diagnosis. ..
  27. Jędrzejczak K, Hrynczyszyn P, Szczesio M, Artym J, Jastrząbek T, Kocieba M, et al. Synthesis and biological activity of cyclolinopeptide A analogues modified with ?4-bis(homo-phenylalanine). Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:4265-4276 pubmed publisher
    ..The proliferation of PBMC induced by phytohemagglutinin A (PHA) was strongly inhibited by cyclic peptides only, in a dose-dependant manner...
  28. Guarracino D, Oldfield A, Gentile K, Martin S, Nguyen D, Barreto G, et al. Head-to-Tail Cyclic Peptide Inhibitors of the Interaction between Human von?Willebrand Factor and Collagen. ChemMedChem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we describe novel cyclic peptides as moderate inhibitors of the protein-protein interaction between von?Willebrand factor (vWF) and collagen ..
  29. Yoshiya T, Kawashima H, Hasegawa Y, Okamoto K, Kimura T, Sohma Y, et al. Epimerization-free synthesis of cyclic peptide by use of the O-acyl isopeptide method. J Pept Sci. 2010;16:437-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The isopeptide was then efficiently converted to the desired cyclic peptide via an O-to-N acyl migration reaction using a silica gel-anchored base. ..
  30. Zhong B, Zhang C, Guo S, Zhang C. Rational design of cyclic peptides to disrupt TGF-Β/SMAD7 signaling in heterotopic ossification. J Mol Graph Model. 2017;72:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a successful rational design of cyclic peptides to disrupt the signaling pathway by targeting TGF-β-receptor complex...
  31. Zolova O, Mady A, Garneau Tsodikova S. Recent developments in bisintercalator natural products. Biopolymers. 2010;93:777-90 pubmed publisher
  32. Shi J, Liu Z, Jia B, Yu Z, Zhao H, Wang F. Potential therapeutic radiotracers: preparation, biodistribution and metabolic characteristics of 177Lu-labeled cyclic RGDfK dimer. Amino Acids. 2010;39:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, DTPA-Bz is an optimal BFC for routine preparation of (177)Lu-labeled cyclic RGDfK peptides, and (177)Lu-DTPA-Bz-RGD2 is worthy of further investigation for targeted radiotherapy of integrin alpha(v)beta(3)-positive tumors. ..
  33. Kolfenbach J, Deane K, Derber L, O Donnell C, Gilliland W, Edison J, et al. Autoimmunity to peptidyl arginine deiminase type 4 precedes clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:2633-9 pubmed publisher
  34. Doedens L, Opperer F, Cai M, Beck J, Dedek M, Palmer E, et al. Multiple N-methylation of MT-II backbone amide bonds leads to melanocortin receptor subtype hMC1R selectivity: pharmacological and conformational studies. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:8115-28 pubmed publisher
  35. Christensen A, Hørslev Petersen K, Christgau S, Lindegaard H, Lottenburger T, Junker K, et al. Uncoupling of collagen II metabolism in newly diagnosed, untreated rheumatoid arthritis is linked to inflammation and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:1113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Trial registration NCT00209859. ..
  36. Karatay S, Yildirim K, Erdal A, Uzkeser H, Erdem F, Yanmaz V. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies are not associated with familial Mediterranean fever. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2010;23:21-3 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Moreover, anti-CCP was negative in all healthy controls as well as in all FMF patients. Our results show that anti-CCP antibodies are not associated with FMF. ..
  37. Lyamichev V, Goodrich L, Sullivan E, Bannen R, Benz J, Albert T, et al. Stepwise Evolution Improves Identification of Diverse Peptides Binding to a Protein Target. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12116 pubmed publisher
    ..The method can be applied to synthesize both linear and cyclic peptides, as well as peptides composed of natural and non-natural amino acid analogs, thereby enabling screens in a ..
  38. Ribeiro T, Lemos F, Preto M, Azevedo J, Sousa M, Leão P, et al. Cytotoxicity of portoamides in human cancer cells and analysis of the molecular mechanisms of action. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188817 pubmed publisher
    Portoamides are cyclic peptides produced and released by the cyanobacterial strain Phormidium sp. presumably to interfere with other organisms in their ecosystems ("allelopathy")...
  39. Mendoza Sanchez R, Corless V, Nguyen Q, Bergeron Brlek M, Frost J, Adachi S, et al. Cyclols Revisited: Facile Synthesis of Medium-Sized Cyclic Peptides. Chemistry. 2017;23:13319-13322 pubmed publisher
    Medium-sized rings, particularly the corresponding cyclic peptides, are challenging synthetic targets...
  40. Zhao P, Xue Y, Gao W, Li J, Zu X, Fu D, et al. Actinobacteria-Derived peptide antibiotics since 2000. Peptides. 2018;103:48-59 pubmed publisher
    ..nucleosidyl peptides, two thioamide-containing peptides, 25 thiopeptides, nine lasso peptides, and 34 typical cyclic peptides. The current and potential therapeutic applications of these peptides, including their structure, ..
  41. Schartmann E, Schemmert S, Ziehm T, Leithold L, Jiang N, Tusche M, et al. Comparison of blood-brain barrier penetration efficiencies between linear and cyclic all-d-enantiomeric peptides developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2018;114:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..For in total three cyclic peptides we show that administration of cyclic peptides resulted in up to tenfold higher peak concentrations in brain ..
  42. Zheng J, Zhu H, Hong K, Wang Y, Liu P, Wang X, et al. Novel cyclic hexapeptides from marine-derived fungus, Aspergillus sclerotiorum PT06-1. Org Lett. 2009;11:5262-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Both compounds showed moderate antifungal activity. Compound 2 also showed weak cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity...
  43. Kim S, Lee K, Park H, Park S, Min K, Moon H, et al. HIF-1? inhibition ameliorates an allergic airway disease via VEGF suppression in bronchial epithelium. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2858-69 pubmed publisher
  44. Tripathi A, Puddick J, Prinsep M, Lee P, Tan L. Hantupeptins B and C, cytotoxic cyclodepsipeptides from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:307-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Hantupeptins B and C showed moderate in vitro cytotoxicity when tested against MOLT-4 (leukemic) and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cell lines. ..
  45. Zoda M, Zacharias M, Reissmann S. Syntheses and activities of backbone-side chain cyclic octapeptide ligands with N-functionalized phosphotyrosine for the N-terminal SH2-domain of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. J Pept Sci. 2010;16:403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The strong activity of some cyclic octapeptides supports the modelled structure. ..
  46. Wu G, Wu H, Li L, Fan X, Ding J, Li X, et al. Membrane aggregation and perturbation induced by antimicrobial peptide of S-thanatin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;395:31-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results supported our hypothesis that S-thanatin bound to negatively charged LPS and anionic lipid, impeded membrane respiration, exhausted the intracellular potential, and released periplasmic material, which led to cell death...
  47. Mjaavatten M, van der Heijde D, Uhlig T, Haugen A, Nygaard H, Sidenvall G, et al. The likelihood of persistent arthritis increases with the level of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody and immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor: a longitudinal study of 376 patients with very early undifferentiated arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R76 pubmed publisher
    ..Testing both anti-CCP and IgM RF has added predictive value in UA patients. This study suggests that antibody level should be taken into account when making risk assessments in patients with UA. ..
  48. Wilson K, Sedberry S, Pescatore R, Vinton D, LOVE B, Ballard S, et al. Microwave-assisted cleavage of Alloc and Allyl Ester protecting groups in solid phase peptide synthesis. J Pept Sci. 2016;22:622-627 pubmed publisher
    ..chains in solid phase peptide synthesis allows for selective deprotection of side chains and the formation of cyclic peptides on resin...
  49. Lee H, Park Y, Kim S. Enzymatic Cross-Linking of Side Chains Generates a Modified Peptide with Four Hairpin-like Bicyclic Repeats. Biochemistry. 2017;56:4927-4930 pubmed publisher
    ..of two side chains in a peptide via an ester or amide has a high potential for making topologically diverse cyclic peptides but is found with only a single consensus sequence in the microviridin class of natural products...
  50. Zhang Y, Collazo R, Gao Y, Li G, Scarpace P. Intermittent MTII application evokes repeated anorexia and robust fat and weight loss. Peptides. 2010;31:639-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Either form of MTII administration results in significant weight and adiposity reductions, involving perhaps fatty acid oxidation within specific adipose tissues. ..
  51. Stösser S, Agarwal N, Tappe Theodor A, Yanagisawa M, Kuner R. Dissecting the functional significance of endothelin A receptors in peripheral nociceptors in vivo via conditional gene deletion. Pain. 2010;148:206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results help understand the role of ET(A) receptors in complex biological processes and peripheral cell-cell interactions involved in inflammatory and tumor-associated pain. ..
  52. Tapi A, Chollet Imbert M, Scherens B, Jacques P. New approach for the detection of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase genes in Bacillus strains by polymerase chain reaction. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:1521-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this work highlighted the differences between the fengycin and plipastatin operon at DNA level. ..