Summary: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)

Top Publications

  1. Swedberg K, Zannad F, McMurray J, Krum H, van Veldhuisen D, Shi H, et al. Eplerenone and atrial fibrillation in mild systolic heart failure: results from the EMPHASIS-HF (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization And SurvIval Study in Heart Failure) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:1598-603 pubmed publisher
    ..33). In patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms, eplerenone reduced the incidence of new onset AFF. The effects of eplerenone on the reduction of major CV events were similar in patients with and without AFF at baseline. ..
  2. Mackenzie I, MacDonald T, Thompson A, Morant S, Wei L. Spironolactone and risk of incident breast cancer in women older than 55 years: retrospective, matched cohort study. BMJ. 2012;345:e4447 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether exposure to spironolactone treatment affects the risk of incident breast cancer in women over 55 years of age. Retrospective, matched cohort study...
  3. Luo W, Meng Y, Ji H, Pan C, Huang S, Yu C, et al. Spironolactone lowers portal hypertension by inhibiting liver fibrosis, ROCK-2 activity and activating NO/PKG pathway in the bile-duct-ligated rat. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34230 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist, has beneficial effect on hyperdynamic circulation in clinical practice...
  4. Polyzos S, Kountouras J, Zafeiriadou E, Patsiaoura K, Katsiki E, Deretzi G, et al. Effect of spironolactone and vitamin E on serum metabolic parameters and insulin resistance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:498-503 pubmed publisher
    ..The beneficial effect of spironolactone in a mouse model with diabetes and NAFLD has recently been reported...
  5. Zhu D, Yu H, He H, Ding J, Tang J, Cao D, et al. Spironolactone inhibits apoptosis in rat mesangial cells under hyperglycaemic conditions via the Wnt signalling pathway. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;380:185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..MR) blockade effectively reduces proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy; however, it is rarely known whether spironolactone (SPI), a nonspecific MR antagonist, inhibits apoptosis in MCs under hyperglycaemic conditions...
  6. Gu X, Peng L, Yang D, Ma Q, Zheng Y, Liu C, et al. The respective and interaction effects of spinal GRs and MRs on radicular pain induced by chronic compression of the dorsal root ganglion in the rat. Brain Res. 2011;1396:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..root ganglion (CCD) are attenuated by either GR agonist dexamethasone (4=2 ?g>vehicle) or MR antagonist spironolactone (3 ?g) administered intrathecally twice daily for postoperative days 2-4, whereas the GR antagonist ..
  7. Kolkhof P, Borden S. Molecular pharmacology of the mineralocorticoid receptor: prospects for novel therapeutics. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;350:310-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, only two steroidal antimineralocorticoids, spironolactone (and its active metabolite canrenone) and eplerenone, have been approved, whereas novel non-steroidal ..
  8. Levin S, McMahon E, John Baptiste A, Bell R. Prostate effect in dogs with the aldosterone receptor blocker eplerenone. Toxicol Pathol. 2013;41:271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Another mineralocorticoid blocker, spironolactone, had greater antiandrogenic activity than eplerenone both in vivo and in vitro, and it has well known ..
  9. Taheri S, Mortazavi M, Pourmoghadas A, Seyrafian S, Alipour Z, Karimi S. A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of spironolactone in patients with advanced congestive heart failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012;23:507-12 pubmed
    ..There is little data in the literature about the safety and efficacy of use of spironolactone in patients with end-stage renal disease with heart failure...

More Information


  1. Liu Y, Hirooka K, Nishiyama A, Lei B, Nakamura T, Itano T, et al. Activation of the aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor system and protective effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Exp Eye Res. 2012;96:116-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Rats were treated with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist (candesartan), MR antagonist (spironolactone), or aldosterone...
  2. Goyal B, Mehta A. Beneficial role of spironolactone, telmisartan and their combination on isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Acta Cardiol. 2012;67:203-11 pubmed
    Although spironolactone and telmisartan are reported to reduce the risk of morbidity and death, direct studies on their effects on isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy are scanty...
  3. Deswal A, Richardson P, Bozkurt B, Mann D. Results of the Randomized Aldosterone Antagonism in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction trial (RAAM-PEF). J Card Fail. 2011;17:634-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether these favorable effects will translate into morbidity and mortality benefit in HFpEF remains to be determined. ..
  4. Baker W, White W. Safety of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients receiving hemodialysis. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46:889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..2 of February 2012) using the key words and MeSH terms mineralocorticoid antagonists, aldosterone antagonists, spironolactone, or eplerenone combined with dialysis, renal disease, or kidney disease...
  5. Maron B, Zhang Y, White K, Chan S, Handy D, Mahoney C, et al. Aldosterone inactivates the endothelin-B receptor via a cysteinyl thiol redox switch to decrease pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide levels and modulate pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circulation. 2012;126:963-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In human pulmonary artery endothelial cells, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism with spironolactone decreased aldosterone-mediated reactive oxygen species generation and restored ET(B)-dependent NO(·) ..
  6. Kasama S, Toyama T, Sumino H, Kumakura H, Takayama Y, Minami K, et al. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:244-9 pubmed publisher
    Aldosterone prevents norepinephrine uptake and promotes structural remodeling of the heart. Spironolactone is well known to have an anti-aldosteronergic effect, and this agent could improve cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) in ..
  7. Rossignol P, Ménard J, Fay R, Gustafsson F, Pitt B, Zannad F. Eplerenone survival benefits in heart failure patients post-myocardial infarction are independent from its diuretic and potassium-sparing effects. Insights from an EPHESUS (Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Surviv. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:1958-66 pubmed publisher
  8. Markowitz M, Messineo F, Coplan N. Aldosterone receptor antagonists in cardiovascular disease: a review of the recent literature and insight into potential future indications. Clin Cardiol. 2012;35:605-9 pubmed publisher
    Randomized controlled trials demonstrate the efficacy of aldosterone receptor antagonists (spironolactone and eplerenone) as a useful pharmacologic intervention specifically in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III and ..
  9. Fourkiotis V, Vonend O, Diederich S, Fischer E, Lang K, Endres S, et al. Effectiveness of eplerenone or spironolactone treatment in preserving renal function in primary aldosteronism. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..cohort, renal function was evaluated depending on the type of treatment (adrenalectomy (ADX; n=86); spironolactone (n=65); and eplerenone (n=18))...
  10. Rathnayake D, Sinclair R. Use of spironolactone in dermatology. Skinmed. 2010;8:328-32; quiz 333 pubmed
    b>Spironolactone has been used as a potassium-sparing diuretic for more than 30 years. It is a synthetic 17-lactone steroid and primarily acts as an aldosterone antagonist...
  11. Edelmann F, Wachter R, Schmidt A, Kraigher Krainer E, Colantonio C, Kamke W, et al. Effect of spironolactone on diastolic function and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the Aldo-DHF randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2013;309:781-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary objective was to determine whether spironolactone is superior to placebo in improving diastolic function and maximal exercise capacity in patients with heart ..
  12. Raheja P, Price A, Wang Z, Arbique D, Adams Huet B, Auchus R, et al. Spironolactone prevents chlorthalidone-induced sympathetic activation and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2012;60:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..nerve activity at baseline and after 12 weeks of chlorthalidone alone (25 mg/d), chlorthalidone plus spironolactone, and chlorthalidone plus irbesartan, using randomized crossover design...
  13. Zhao M, Celerier I, Bousquet E, Jeanny J, Jonet L, Savoldelli M, et al. Mineralocorticoid receptor is involved in rat and human ocular chorioretinopathy. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2672-9 pubmed publisher
  14. Matthesen S, Larsen T, Vase H, Lauridsen T, Jensen J, Pedersen E. Effect of amiloride and spironolactone on renal tubular function and central blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension during baseline conditions and after furosemide: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2013;35:313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We wanted to test the hypotheses that amiloride and spironolactone induced potassium retention reduces ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and central blood pressure (CBP) during ..
  15. Yavas G, Elsurer R, Yavas C, Elsurer C, Ata O. Does spironolactone ameliorate trastuzumab-induced cardiac toxicity?. Med Hypotheses. 2013;81:231-4 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Spironolactone, an aldosterone receptor antagonist, is known to ameliorate the cardiac damage...
  16. Maron B, Waxman A, Opotowsky A, Gillies H, Blair C, Aghamohammadzadeh R, et al. Effectiveness of spironolactone plus ambrisentan for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (from the [ARIES] study 1 and 2 trials). Am J Cardiol. 2013;112:720-5 pubmed publisher
    In translational models of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), spironolactone improves cardiopulmonary hemodynamics by attenuating the adverse effects of hyperaldosteronism on endothelin type-B receptor function in pulmonary ..
  17. Nielsen S, Persson F, Frandsen E, Sugaya T, Hess G, Zdunek D, et al. Spironolactone diminishes urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria: a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study. Diabet Med. 2012;29:e184-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We expected an impact of spironolactone in early diabetic nephropathy, and for this hypothesis we studied the effect on markers of glomerular and ..
  18. Patel B, Kakadiya J, Goyal R, Mehta A. Effect of spironolactone on cardiovascular complications associated with type-2 diabetes in rats. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013;121:441-7 pubmed publisher
    We have studied the effect spironolactone (20 mg/kg/day) on cardiovascular complications in neonatal model of diabetes in rats, induced by administering 90 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ), i.p. in 2 day old rats...
  19. Viswanathan V, Mohan V, Subramani P, Parthasarathy N, Subramaniyam G, Manoharan D, et al. Effect of spironolactone and amiloride on thiazolidinedione-induced fluid retention in South Indian patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8:225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..5 percentage points) entered a randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate effects of amiloride and spironolactone on attenuating rosiglitazone-induced fluid retention...
  20. Łabuzek K, Liber S, Bułdak Ł, Machnik G, Liber J, Okopień B. Eplerenone promotes alternative activation in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Pharmacol Rep. 2013;65:226-34 pubmed
    ..Eplerenone did not quantitatively weaken the response of macrophages to aldosterone but instead qualitatively changed their behavior. ..
  21. Zendaoui A, Lachance D, Roussel E, Couet J, Arsenault M. Effects of spironolactone treatment on an experimental model of chronic aortic valve regurgitation. J Heart Valve Dis. 2012;21:478-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, the effects were studied of the aldosterone receptor blocking agent spironolactone in a model of chronic AR in rats...
  22. Rigsby C, Ergul A, Portik Dobos V, Pollock D, Dorrance A. Effects of spironolactone on cerebral vessel structure in rats with sustained hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2011;24:708-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Spironolactone prevents eutrophic middle cerebral artery (MCA) remodeling in young stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP)...
  23. Butler J, Ezekowitz J, Collins S, Givertz M, Teerlink J, Walsh M, et al. Update on aldosterone antagonists use in heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Heart Failure Society of America Guidelines Committee. J Card Fail. 2012;18:265-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of eplerenone in patients with mild HF symptoms translates into a unique opportunity to reduce morbidity and mortality earlier in the course of the disease. ..
  24. Baldo M, Zaniqueli D, Forechi L, Machado R, Rodrigues S, Mill J. Effects of spironolactone in spontaneously hypertensive adult rats subjected to high salt intake. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:477-82 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of spironolactone on ventricular stiffness in spontaneously hypertensive adult rats subjected to high salt intake. High salt intake leads to cardiac hypertrophy, collagen accumulation and diastolic dysfunction...
  25. Desai A, Lewis E, Li R, Solomon S, Assmann S, Boineau R, et al. Rationale and design of the treatment of preserved cardiac function heart failure with an aldosterone antagonist trial: a randomized, controlled study of spironolactone in patients with symptomatic heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. Am Heart J. 2011;162:966-972.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..The TOPCAT trial is designed to evaluate the effect of spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist, on morbidity, mortality, and quality of life in patients with HF-PEF...
  26. Edwards N, Steeds R, Chue C, Stewart P, Ferro C, Townend J. The safety and tolerability of spironolactone in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;73:447-54 pubmed publisher
    ..73m(2) ) received 25mg daily of spironolactone for 4 weeks before randomization to continuing treatment or placebo for a further 36 weeks...
  27. Zhou M, Kindt M, Joels M, Krugers H. Blocking mineralocorticoid receptors prior to retrieval reduces contextual fear memory in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26220 pubmed publisher
    ..MR or GR blockade was achieved by giving spironolactone or RU486 subcutaneously one hour before retrieval on day 2...
  28. Ganie M, Khurana M, Nisar S, Shah P, Shah Z, Kulshrestha B, et al. Improved efficacy of low-dose spironolactone and metformin combination than either drug alone in the management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a six-month, open-label randomized study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:3599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..To improve the treatment outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), various drugs like glitazones, oral contraceptive pills, or antiandrogens have been combined with metformin...
  29. Basnyat B, Holck P, Pun M, Halverson S, Szawarski P, Gertsch J, et al. Spironolactone does not prevent acute mountain sickness: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial by SPACE Trial Group (spironolactone and acetazolamide trial in the prevention of acute mountain sickness group). Wilderness Environ Med. 2011;22:15-22 pubmed publisher
    Over the last 20 years a number of small trials have reported that spironolactone effectively prevents acute mountain sickness (AMS), but to date there have been no large randomized trials investigating the efficacy of spironolactone in ..
  30. Vaclavik J, Sedlak R, Plachy M, Navrátil K, Plasek J, Jarkovsky J, et al. Addition of spironolactone in patients with resistant arterial hypertension (ASPIRANT): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Hypertension. 2011;57:1069-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to assess the effect of the addition of 25 mg of spironolactone on BP in patients with resistant arterial hypertension...
  31. Williams R, deLemos J, Dimas V, Reisch J, Hill J, Naseem R. Effect of spironolactone on patients with atrial fibrillation and structural heart disease. Clin Cardiol. 2011;34:415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker and a potent antifibrotic agent, in AF is as yet unexplored...
  32. Resch M, Schmid P, Amann K, Fredersdorf S, Weil J, Schach C, et al. Eplerenone prevents salt-induced vascular stiffness in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a preliminary report. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:94 pubmed publisher
    ..Eplerenone has additionally the potential to prevent increased vascular stiffness in salt-loaded ZDF-rats. This suggests an effect of the specific aldosterone antagonist on adverse vascular wall remodelling. ..
  33. Boesby L, Elung Jensen T, Klausen T, Strandgaard S, Kamper A. Moderate antiproteinuric effect of add-on aldosterone blockade with eplerenone in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. A randomized cross-over study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26904 pubmed publisher
    ..The aldosterone antagonist spironolactone has an antiproteinuric effect, but its use is limited by side effects...
  34. Johnson L, Govani S, Joyce J, Waljee A, Gillespie B, Higgins P. Spironolactone and colitis: increased mortality in rodents and in humans. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18:1315-24 pubmed publisher
    Crohn's disease causes intestinal inflammation leading to intestinal fibrosis. Spironolactone is an antifibrotic medication commonly used in heart failure to reduce mortality...
  35. Kosmala W, Przewlocka Kosmala M, Szczepanik Osadnik H, Mysiak A, O Moore Sullivan T, Marwick T. A randomized study of the beneficial effects of aldosterone antagonism on LV function, structure, and fibrosis markers in metabolic syndrome. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011;4:1239-49 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of spironolactone on left ventricular (LV) structure and function, and serological fibrosis markers in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) taking angiotensin-converting enzyme ..
  36. Drüppel V, Kusche Vihrog K, Grossmann C, Gekle M, Kasprzak B, Brand E, et al. Long-term application of the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone prevents stiff endothelial cell syndrome. FASEB J. 2013;27:3652-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cultured in aldosterone-supplemented medium with or without the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. MR expression, ENaC expression, cortical stiffness, and shear-mediated nitric oxide (NO) release were ..
  37. Cornelisse S, Joels M, Smeets T. A randomized trial on mineralocorticoid receptor blockade in men: effects on stress responses, selective attention, and memory. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:2720-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 64 healthy young men received 400 mg of the MR antagonist spironolactone or placebo. After 1...
  38. Ji H, Meng Y, Zhang X, Luo W, Wu P, Xiao B, et al. Aldosterone induction of hepatic stellate cell contraction through activation of RhoA/ROCK-2 signaling pathway. Regul Pept. 2011;169:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This induced contraction was suppressed by the mineralcorticoid receptor (MR) inhibitor spironolactone, the ROCK-2 inhibitor Y27632, and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) inhibitor irbesartan...
  39. Zhou Q, Liu K, Wu H, Chen L, Pouranan V, Yuan M, et al. Spironolactone rescues Dot1a-Af9-mediated repression of endothelin-1 and improves kidney injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47360 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocking aldosterone with spironolactone significantly reduced proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial injury and endothelin-1 expression, ..
  40. Michaelis M, Hofmann P, Gotz F, Bartel C, Kienitz T, Quinkler M. Sex-specific effects of spironolactone on blood pressure in gonadectomized male and female Wistar rats. Horm Metab Res. 2012;44:291-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, to determine the sex-specific effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blockade by spironolactone in high-salt and low-salt fed gonadectomized male and female animals...
  41. Loan Le T, Mardini M, Howell V, Funder J, Ashton A, Mihailidou A. Low-dose spironolactone prevents apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain degradation during myocardial infarction. Hypertension. 2012;59:1164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Low-dose spironolactone (10 nmol/L) or eplerenone (100 nmol/L) significantly reduced infarct size...
  42. Yau J, Noble J, Seckl J. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 deficiency prevents memory deficits with aging by switching from glucocorticoid receptor to mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated cognitive control. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..memory was measured in aged 11?-HSD1(-/-) mice before and during intracerebroventricular infusion (10 d) of spironolactone (MR antagonist) or RU486 (GR antagonist)...
  43. LaLone C, Villeneuve D, Cavallin J, Kahl M, Durhan E, Makynen E, et al. Cross-species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:2528-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that in humans is used to treat conditions like hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female-pattern hair loss through antagonism of the androgen receptor...
  44. Pitt B, Pfeffer M, Assmann S, Boineau R, Anand I, Claggett B, et al. Spironolactone for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1383-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effects of spironolactone in patients with heart failure and a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction...
  45. Vardeny O, Wu D, Desai A, Rossignol P, Zannad F, Pitt B, et al. Influence of baseline and worsening renal function on efficacy of spironolactone in patients With severe heart failure: insights from RALES (Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60:2082-9 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the influence of baseline and worsening renal function (WRF) on the efficacy of spironolactone in patients with severe heart failure (HF)...
  46. Barrera Chimal J, Pérez Villalva R, Rodríguez Romo R, Reyna J, Uribe N, Gamba G, et al. Spironolactone prevents chronic kidney disease caused by ischemic acute kidney injury. Kidney Int. 2013;83:93-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Aldosterone has a critical role in promoting renal injury induced by ischemia. Here, we evaluated whether spironolactone administered before or after AKI caused by ischemia protects against CKD...
  47. Matthesen S, Larsen T, Lauridsen T, Vase H, Gjørup P, Nykjær K, et al. Effect of amiloride and spironolactone on renal tubular function, ambulatory blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity in healthy participants in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2012;34:588-600 pubmed publisher
    We wanted to test the hypothesis that treatment with amiloride or spironolactone reduced ambulatory (ABP) and central blood pressure (CBP) and that tubular transport via ENaC? and AQP2 was increased after furosemide treatment...
  48. Clark D, Ahmed M, Calhoun D. Resistant hypertension and aldosterone: an update. Can J Cardiol. 2012;28:318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction is supported by preliminary data which demonstrates improvement in OSA severity after treatment with spironolactone.
  49. Sánchez Pozos K, Barrera Chimal J, Garzon Muvdi J, Pérez Villalva R, Rodríguez Romo R, Cruz C, et al. Recovery from ischemic acute kidney injury by spironolactone administration. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:3160-9 pubmed publisher
    Prophylactic mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism with spironolactone (Sp) in rats completely prevents renal damage induced by ischemia...
  50. Martin Fernandez B, de las Heras N, Miana M, Ballesteros S, Valero Muñoz M, Vassallo D, et al. Spironolactone prevents alterations associated with cardiac hypertrophy produced by isoproterenol in rats: involvement of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase type 1. Exp Physiol. 2012;97:710-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to investigate the cardiac effects of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone on the response to isoproterenol treatment in rats, as well as the involvement of the main mediator of ..
  51. Rigalli J, Ruiz M, Perdomo V, Villanueva S, Mottino A, Catania V. Pregnane X receptor mediates the induction of P-glycoprotein by spironolactone in HepG2 cells. Toxicology. 2011;285:18-24 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the effect of spironolactone (SL), a well-known inducer of biotransformation and elimination pathways, on the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1/MDR1), a major xenobiotic transporter, in HepG2 cells, as ..
  52. Preston I, Sagliani K, Warburton R, Hill N, Fanburg B, Jaffe I. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism attenuates experimental pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;304:L678-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the efficacy of MR antagonism by spironolactone in two experimental PH models; mouse chronic hypoxia-induced PH (prevention model) and rat monocrotaline-..
  53. Sun Y, Peng L, Sun X, Bo J, Yang D, Zheng Y, et al. Intrathecal injection of spironolactone attenuates radicular pain by inhibition of spinal microglia activation in a rat model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39897 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to investigate whether selective MR antagonist spironolactone develop antinociceptive effects on radicular pain by inhibition neuroinflammation induced by spinal microglia ..