aldosterone

Summary

Summary: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.

Top Publications

  1. Fischer E, Reuschl S, Quinkler M, Rump L, Hahner S, Bidlingmaier M, et al. Assay characteristics influence the aldosterone to renin ratio as a screening tool for primary aldosteronism: results of the German Conn's registry. Horm Metab Res. 2013;45:526-31 pubmed publisher
    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most frequent cause of secondary arterial hypertension. The aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) is the gold standard for screening, but variability between biochemical methods used remains of concern...
  2. Rao A, Shah R, Garg R, Abbasi S, Neilan T, Perlstein T, et al. Aldosterone and myocardial extracellular matrix expansion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol. 2013;112:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because aldosterone is implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiac fibrosis and vascular injury, the aim of this study was to test ..
  3. Kitada K, Nakano D, Hitomi H, Kobori H, Deguchi K, Mori H, et al. Aldosterone induces p21-regulated apoptosis via increased synthesis and secretion of tumour necrosis factor-? in human proximal tubular cells. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;39:858-63 pubmed publisher
    1. Aldosterone has been shown to mediate p21-dependent cellular senescence in rat kidney proximal tubules in vivo and in cultured human proximal tubular cells...
  4. Sakuma I, Suematsu S, Matsuzawa Y, Saito J, Omura M, Maekawa T, et al. Characterization of steroidogenic enzyme expression in aldosterone-producing adenoma: a comparison with various human adrenal tumors. Endocr J. 2013;60:329-36 pubmed
    We analyzed the expression profiles of several steroidogenic enzymes in normal adrenals, aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA), cortisol-producing adenomas combined with Cushing's syndrome (CPA) or with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (..
  5. Strushkevich N, Gilep A, Shen L, Arrowsmith C, Edwards A, Usanov S, et al. Structural insights into aldosterone synthase substrate specificity and targeted inhibition. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:315-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Aldosterone is a major mineralocorticoid hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of electrolyte balance and blood pressure...
  6. Lee J, Kim J, Kim J, Chang J, Kim S, Park J, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits TGF-?-, angiotensin II-, aldosterone-, high glucose-, and albumin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;304:F686-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), angiotensin II, aldosterone, high glucose, and urinary albumin are well-known causes of EMT and renal fibrosis...
  7. Adlin E, Braitman L, Vasan R. Bimodal aldosterone distribution in low-renin hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2013;26:1076-85 pubmed publisher
    In low-renin hypertension (LRH), serum aldosterone levels are higher in those subjects with primary aldosteronism and may be lower in those with non-aldosterone mineralocorticoid excess or primary renal sodium retention...
  8. Mayyas F, Alzoubi K, Van Wagoner D. Impact of aldosterone antagonists on the substrate for atrial fibrillation: aldosterone promotes oxidative stress and atrial structural/electrical remodeling. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:5135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..A key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the mineralocorticoid aldosterone...
  9. Rossitto G, Regolisti G, Rossi E, Negro A, Nicoli D, Casali B, et al. Elevation of angiotensin-II type-1-receptor autoantibodies titer in primary aldosteronism as a result of aldosterone-producing adenoma. Hypertension. 2013;61:526-33 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms of excess aldosterone secretion in primary aldosteronism (PA) remain poorly understood, although a role for circulating factors has been hypothesized for decades...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Whaley Connell A, Habibi J, Nistala R, Hayden M, Pulakat L, Sinak C, et al. Combination of direct renin inhibition with angiotensin type 1 receptor blockade improves aldosterone but does not improve kidney injury in the transgenic Ren2 rat. Regul Pept. 2012;176:36-44 pubmed publisher
    Enhanced renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation contributes to proteinuria and chronic kidney disease by increasing glomerular and tubulointerstitial oxidative stress, promotion of fibrosis...
  2. Boulkroun S, Golib Dzib J, Samson Couterie B, Rosa F, Rickard A, Meatchi T, et al. KCNJ5 mutations in aldosterone producing adenoma and relationship with adrenal cortex remodeling. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;371:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mutations of KCNJ5, coding for the potassium channel GIRK4, have recently been implicated in the formation of aldosterone producing adenoma (APA)...
  3. Beuschlein F, Boulkroun S, Osswald A, Wieland T, Nielsen H, Lichtenauer U, et al. Somatic mutations in ATP1A1 and ATP2B3 lead to aldosterone-producing adenomas and secondary hypertension. Nat Genet. 2013;45:440-4, 444e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore molecular mechanisms of autonomous aldosterone secretion, we performed exome sequencing of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs)...
  4. Gennari Moser C, Khankin E, Escher G, Burkhard F, Frey B, Karumanchi S, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A and aldosterone: relevance to normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2013;61:1111-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Aldosterone levels are markedly elevated during normal pregnancy but fall even though volume contracts when preeclampsia occurs...
  5. Scholl U, Goh G, Stölting G, de Oliveira R, Choi M, Overton J, et al. Somatic and germline CACNA1D calcium channel mutations in aldosterone-producing adenomas and primary aldosteronism. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1050-4 pubmed publisher
    Adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) constitutively produce the salt-retaining hormone aldosterone and are a common cause of severe hypertension...
  6. Tsai C, Yang S, Chu H, Ueng K. Cross-talk between mineralocorticoid receptor/angiotensin II type 1 receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways underlies aldosterone-induced atrial fibrotic responses in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Int J Cardiol. 2013;169:17-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Aldosterone is increasingly recognized for its involvement in atrial structural remodeling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms and signal pathways underlying aldosterone-induced atrial fibrosis are unknown...
  7. Catena C, Colussi G, Sechi L. Aldosterone, organ damage and dietary salt. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2013;40:922-8 pubmed publisher
    Long-term exposure to elevated aldosterone levels or activation of the mineralocorticoid receptors results in cardiac, vascular and renal tissue injury with mechanisms that are independent of blood pressure levels...
  8. Patel B, Mehta A. Aldosterone and angiotensin: Role in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;697:1-12 pubmed publisher
    The present review shall familiarize the readers with the role of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure, electrolyte and fluid homeostasis...
  9. Gros R, Ding Q, Liu B, Chorazyczewski J, Feldman R. Aldosterone mediates its rapid effects in vascular endothelial cells through GPER activation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C532-40 pubmed publisher
    The importance of the rapid vascular effects of aldosterone is increasingly appreciated. Through these rapid pathways, aldosterone has been shown to regulate vascular contractility, cell growth, and apoptosis...
  10. Wen D, Cornelius R, Yuan Y, Sansom S. Regulation of BK-? expression in the distal nephron by aldosterone and urine pH. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F463-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that aldosterone mediates a high-K-induced increase in BK-? and urinary alkalinization increases BK-?4 expression, which ..
  11. Brown N. Contribution of aldosterone to cardiovascular and renal inflammation and fibrosis. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013;9:459-69 pubmed publisher
    The steroid hormone aldosterone regulates sodium and potassium homeostasis...
  12. Brown J, Williams J, Luther J, Garg R, Garza A, Pojoga L, et al. Human interventions to characterize novel relationships between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and parathyroid hormone. Hypertension. 2014;63:273-80 pubmed publisher
    Observational studies in primary hyperaldosteronism suggest a positive relationship between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH); however, interventions to better characterize the physiological relationship between the renin-..
  13. Fischer E, Hannemann A, Rettig R, Lieb W, Nauck M, Pallauf A, et al. A high aldosterone to renin ratio is associated with high serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in the general population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:965-71 pubmed publisher
    Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is associated with high serum PTH concentrations and vice versa...
  14. Lumbers E, Pringle K. Roles of the circulating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in human pregnancy. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014;306:R91-101 pubmed publisher
    This review describes the changes that occur in circulating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) components in human pregnancy. These changes depend on endocrine secretions from the ovary and possibly the placenta and decidua...
  15. Bousquet E, Zhao M, Ly A, Leroux les Jardins G, Goldenberg B, Naud M, et al. The aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in endotoxin-induced uveitis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49036 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluations were made 6 and 24 hours after intraocular injection of aldosterone (simultaneous to LPS injection)...
  16. Yogi A, Callera G, O CONNOR S, Antunes T, Valinsky W, Miquel P, et al. Aldosterone signaling through transient receptor potential melastatin 7 cation channel (TRPM7) and its ?-kinase domain. Cell Signal. 2013;25:2163-75 pubmed publisher
    ..a role for the Mg(2+) transporter TRPM7, a bifunctional protein with channel and ?-kinase domains, in aldosterone signaling. Molecular mechanisms underlying this are elusive...
  17. Pruthi D, McCurley A, Aronovitz M, Galayda C, Karumanchi S, Jaffe I. Aldosterone promotes vascular remodeling by direct effects on smooth muscle cell mineralocorticoid receptors. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:355-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that the blood pressure-regulating hormone aldosterone enhances vascular remodeling in mice at sites of endothelial injury in a placental growth factor-dependent ..
  18. Dembek K, Onasch K, Hurcombe S, Macgillivray K, Slovis N, Barr B, et al. Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in hospitalized newborn foals. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27:331-8 pubmed publisher
    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and their interactions during illness and hypoperfusion are important to maintain organ function...
  19. Chen D, Chen Z, Park C, Centrella M, McCarthy T, Chen L, et al. Aldosterone stimulates fibronectin synthesis in renal fibroblasts through mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms. Gene. 2013;531:23-30 pubmed publisher
    In addition to its role in regulation of salt transport in the kidney, the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone plays an independent role as a mediator of kidney injury and progression of chronic kidney disease...
  20. He B, Joiner M, Singh M, Luczak E, Swaminathan P, Koval O, et al. Oxidation of CaMKII determines the cardiotoxic effects of aldosterone. Nat Med. 2011;17:1610-8 pubmed publisher
    Excessive activation of the β-adrenergic, angiotensin II (Ang II) and aldosterone signaling pathways promotes mortality after myocardial infarction, and antagonists targeting these pathways are core therapies for treating this condition...
  21. Su M, Dhoopun A, Yuan Y, Huang S, Zhu C, Ding G, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early event in aldosterone-induced podocyte injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F520-31 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) is involved in an aldosterone (Aldo)-induced podocyte injury. Here, the potential role of MtD in the initiation of podocyte damage was investigated...
  22. Gamliel Lazarovich A, Raz Pasteur A, Coleman R, Keidar S. The effects of aldosterone on diet-induced fatty liver formation in male C57BL/6 mice: comparison of adrenalectomy and mineralocorticoid receptor blocker. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;25:1086-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and hypertension are major determinants of the metabolic syndrome. The effects of aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor blockers on fatty liver are largely unknown...
  23. Calvier L, Miana M, Reboul P, Cachofeiro V, Martínez Martínez E, de Boer R, et al. Galectin-3 mediates aldosterone-induced vascular fibrosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:67-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Aldosterone (Aldo) is involved in arterial stiffness and heart failure, but the mechanisms have remained unclear. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a ?-galactoside-binding lectin, plays an important role in inflammation, fibrosis, and heart failure...
  24. Besedovsky L, Born J, Lange T. Blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors enhances naïve T-helper cell counts during early sleep in humans. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26:1116-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of these cells to lymphoid tissues possibly mediated by sleep-associated release of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. We show here that blocking mineralocorticoid receptors by spironolactone (200mg, orally at 23:00 h and again ..
  25. Tu W, Eckert G, Pratt J, Jan Danser A. Plasma levels of prorenin and renin in blacks and whites: their relative abundance and associations with plasma aldosterone concentration. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:1030-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The proportion of renin relative to prorenin could influence overall renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity...
  26. Calhoun D, White W, Krum H, Guo W, Bermann G, Trapani A, et al. Effects of a novel aldosterone synthase inhibitor for treatment of primary hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled phase 2 trial. Circulation. 2011;124:1945-55 pubmed publisher
    LCI699, a novel inhibitor of aldosterone synthase, reduces serum aldosterone, and may have benefit in the treatment of hypertension. We performed the first double-blind, randomized trial with LCI699 in patients with primary hypertension...
  27. Thum T, Schmitter K, Fleissner F, Wiebking V, Dietrich B, Widder J, et al. Impairment of endothelial progenitor cell function and vascularization capacity by aldosterone in mice and humans. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:1275-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterized the effects of aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade on EPC number and function as well as vascularization capacity and ..
  28. Wang T, Rowland J, Parmar J, Nesterova M, Seki T, Rainey W. Comparison of aldosterone production among human adrenocortical cell lines. Horm Metab Res. 2012;44:245-50 pubmed publisher
    Several human adrenocortical cell lines have been used as model systems for aldosterone production. However, these cell lines have not been directly compared with each other...
  29. van der Lubbe N, Lim C, Fenton R, Meima M, Jan Danser A, Zietse R, et al. Angiotensin II induces phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter independent of aldosterone. Kidney Int. 2011;79:66-76 pubmed publisher
    We studied here the independent roles of angiotensin II and aldosterone in regulating the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) of the distal convoluted tubule. We adrenalectomized three experimental and one control group of rats...
  30. Ding W, Yang L, Zhang M, Gu Y. Chronic inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B attenuates aldosterone/salt-induced renal injury. Life Sci. 2012;90:600-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated whether NF-?B inhibition attenuates progressive renal damage in aldosterone/salt-induced renal injury and its mechanisms...
  31. Singh S, O HARA B, Talukder J, Rajendran V. Aldosterone induces active K? secretion by enhancing mucosal expression of Kcnn4c and Kcnma1 channels in rat distal colon. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;302:C1353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, studies were initiated to investigate the relative roles of Kcnn4c and Kcnma1 in mediating aldosterone (Na-free diet)-induced K(+) secretion...
  32. Di Murro A, Petramala L, Cotesta D, Zinnamosca L, Crescenzi E, Marinelli C, et al. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with sleep apnoea: prevalence of primary aldosteronism. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2010;11:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..blood pressure increases, such as sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, oxidative stress, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation, endothelin system activation, and endothelial dysfunction...
  33. Schreier B, Rabe S, Schneider B, Ruhs S, Grossmann C, Hauptmann S, et al. Aldosterone/NaCl-induced renal and cardiac fibrosis is modulated by TGF-? responsiveness of T cells. Hypertens Res. 2011;34:623-9 pubmed publisher
    We examined the contribution of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?-T-cell signaling to aldosterone (aldo)/salt-induced fibrosis in the kidneys and the hearts of FVB/N wild-type (WT) or transgenic (Tg) mice expressing a dominant-negative ..
  34. Hillaert M, Lentjes E, Beygui F, Kemperman H, Asselbergs F, Nathoe H, et al. Measuring and targeting aldosterone and renin in atherosclerosis-a review of clinical data. Am Heart J. 2011;162:585-96 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant role for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in this process has gained appreciation in recent years...
  35. Nishikawa T, Matsuzawa Y, Suematsu S, Saito J, Omura M, Kino T. Effect of atorvastatin on aldosterone production induced by glucose, LDL or angiotensin II in human renal mesangial cells. Arzneimittelforschung. 2010;60:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..It was previously reported that human mesangial cells locally produced aldosterone, a steroid hormone that plays an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy...
  36. Sherajee S, Fujita Y, Rafiq K, Nakano D, Mori H, Masaki T, et al. Aldosterone induces vascular insulin resistance by increasing insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and hybrid receptor. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:257-63 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that aldosterone induces insulin resistance in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
  37. Tomaschitz A, Pilz S, Ritz E, Grammer T, Amrein K, Merger S, et al. Relationship between plasma aldosterone concentration and soluble cellular adhesion molecules in patients referred to coronary angiography. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2011;119:649-55 pubmed publisher
    Evidence is emerging that aldosterone contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease...
  38. Shimodaira M, Nakayama T, Sato N, Aoi N, Sato M, Izumi Y, et al. Association of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 gene polymorphisms with essential hypertension, aldosterone level, and left ventricular structure. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;163:671-80 pubmed publisher
    HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 are crucial enzymes for the synthesis of hormonal steroids, including aldosterone. Therefore, HSD3B gene variations could possibly influence blood pressure (BP) by affecting the aldosterone level...
  39. de Rita O, Hackam D, Spence J. Effects of aldosterone on human atherosclerosis: plasma aldosterone and progression of carotid plaque. Can J Cardiol. 2012;28:706-11 pubmed publisher
    In animal models, aldosterone has adverse cardiac and vascular effects independent of blood pressure, and these are ameliorated by spironolactone or eplerenone (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists)...
  40. Fukuda S, Horimai C, Harada K, Wakamatsu T, Fukasawa H, Muto S, et al. Aldosterone-induced kidney injury is mediated by NF?B activation. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2011;15:41-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Aldosterone induces inflammation and fibrosis in the kidney, while nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) plays key roles in inflammation mediated by various cytokines...
  41. Gonzaga C, Gaddam K, Ahmed M, Pimenta E, Thomas S, Harding S, et al. Severity of obstructive sleep apnea is related to aldosterone status in subjects with resistant hypertension. J Clin Sleep Med. 2010;6:363-8 pubmed
    We previously described a significant correlation between plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with resistant hypertension...
  42. Usher M, Duan S, Ivaschenko C, Frieler R, Berger S, Schutz G, et al. Myeloid mineralocorticoid receptor controls macrophage polarization and cardiovascular hypertrophy and remodeling in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3350-64 pubmed publisher
    Inappropriate excess of the steroid hormone aldosterone, which is a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) agonist, is associated with increased inflammation and risk of cardiovascular disease...
  43. Murthy M, Azizan E, Brown M, O Shaughnessy K. Characterization of a novel somatic KCNJ5 mutation delI157 in an aldosterone-producing adenoma. J Hypertens. 2012;30:1827-33 pubmed publisher
    Adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are an increasingly recognized cause of primary aldosteronism, and somatic mutations within the KCNJ5 gene encoding an inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (also called GIRK4 or Kir3...
  44. Bienvenu L, Morgan J, Rickard A, Tesch G, Cranston G, Fletcher E, et al. Macrophage mineralocorticoid receptor signaling plays a key role in aldosterone-independent cardiac fibrosis. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3416-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical evidence demonstrates that MR antagonism is protective even when plasma aldosterone levels are not increased...
  45. Ivanes F, Susen S, Mouquet F, Pigny P, Cuilleret F, Sautière K, et al. Aldosterone, mortality, and acute ischaemic events in coronary artery disease patients outside the setting of acute myocardial infarction or heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2012;33:191-202 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have demonstrated that aldosterone levels measured in patients with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction (MI) are associated with long-term mortality, but the association with aldosterone levels in patients with ..
  46. Waanders F, de Vries L, van Goor H, Hillebrands J, Laverman G, Bakker S, et al. Aldosterone, from (patho)physiology to treatment in cardiovascular and renal damage. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2011;9:594-605 pubmed
    b>Aldosterone, a steroid hormone with mineralocorticoid activity, is far more than merely a salt-and-water hormone...
  47. Cooper J, Tepper P, Barinas Mitchell E, Woodard G, Sutton Tyrrell K. Serum aldosterone is associated with inflammation and aortic stiffness in normotensive overweight and obese young adults. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2012;34:63-70 pubmed publisher
    Circulating aldosterone is increased in obesity and is associated with arterial stiffening in hypertensives and older adults...
  48. Ahn Y, Cho K, Kang D, Lee H. Oryeongsan (Wulingsan), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, induces natriuresis and diuresis along with an inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:780-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiments were performed in rats caged individually. Renal function and plasma levels of renin activity and aldosterone concentration were measured...
  49. Pitt B, Filippatos G, Gheorghiade M, Kober L, Krum H, Ponikowski P, et al. Rationale and design of ARTS: a randomized, double-blind study of BAY 94-8862 in patients with chronic heart failure and mild or moderate chronic kidney disease. Eur J Heart Fail. 2012;14:668-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Perspectives ARTS is the first phase II clinical trial of BAY 94-8862 and is expected to provide a wealth of information on BAY 94-8862 in patients with HFREF and CKD, including the optimal dose range for further studies. ..
  50. Luther J, Luo P, Wang Z, Cohen S, Kim H, Fogo A, et al. Aldosterone deficiency and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism prevent angiotensin II-induced cardiac, renal, and vascular injury. Kidney Int. 2012;82:643-51 pubmed publisher
    Angiotensin II causes cardiovascular injury in part by aldosterone-induced mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and it can also activate the mineralocorticoid receptor in the absence of aldosterone in vitro...
  51. Irita J, Okura T, Jotoku M, Nagao T, Enomoto D, Kurata M, et al. Osteopontin deficiency protects against aldosterone-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and interstitial fibrosis in the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F833-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we demonstrated in vitro that aldosterone has important roles in collagen synthesis by inducing OPN (Irita J, Okura T, Kurata M, Miyoshi K, Fukuoka T, ..
  52. Dooley R, Harvey B, Thomas W. Non-genomic actions of aldosterone: from receptors and signals to membrane targets. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;350:223-34 pubmed publisher
    In tissues which express the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), aldosterone modulates the expression of membrane targets such as the subunits of the epithelial Na(+) channel, in combination with important signalling intermediates such as ..
  53. Mironova E, Bugaj V, Roos K, Kohan D, Stockand J. Aldosterone-independent regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) by vasopressin in adrenalectomized mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10095-100 pubmed publisher
    The epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) is under negative-feedback regulation by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in protection of sodium balance and blood pressure...