canrenone

Summary

Summary: A synthetic pregnadiene compound with anti-aldosterone activity.

Top Publications

  1. Cittadini A, Casaburi C, Monti M, Di Gianni A, Serpico R, Scherillo G, et al. Effects of canrenone on myocardial reactive fibrosis in a rat model of postinfarction heart failure. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2002;16:195-201 pubmed
    ..The day after surgery, animals were randomized to either placebo or canrenone-gamma-cyclodestrin 8 mg/kg/die or canrenone-gamma-cyclodestrin 18 mg/kg/die...
  2. Saudan P, Mach F, Perneger T, Schnetzler B, Stoermann C, Fumeaux Z, et al. Safety of low-dose spironolactone administration in chronic haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:2359-63 pubmed
    ..9 +/- 0.7 vs 4.9 +/- 0.3 mmol/l: control). The mean plasma canrenone level induced by administration of spironolactone 25 mg three times/week in the 14 treated patients was 13 +/- 5...
  3. Sora D, Udrescu S, Albu F, David V, Medvedovici A. Analytical issues in HPLC/MS/MS simultaneous assay of furosemide, spironolactone and canrenone in human plasma samples. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;52:734-40 pubmed publisher
    A new sensitive HPLC/MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of furosemide, spironolactone and canrenone in human plasma samples is presented. Electrospray ionization source (ESI) has been used...
  4. Boccanelli A, Mureddu G, Cacciatore G, Clemenza F, Di Lenarda A, Gavazzi A, et al. Anti-remodelling effect of canrenone in patients with mild chronic heart failure (AREA IN-CHF study): final results. Eur J Heart Fail. 2009;11:68-76 pubmed publisher
    To test whether canrenone, an aldosterone receptor antagonist, improves left ventricular (LV) remodelling in NYHA class II heart failure (HF)...
  5. Caligiuri A, De Franco R, Romanelli R, Gentilini A, Meucci M, Failli P, et al. Antifibrogenic effects of canrenone, an antialdosteronic drug, on human hepatic stellate cells. Gastroenterology. 2003;124:504-20 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible direct antifibrogenic effects of canrenone, the active metabolite of spironolactone, in activated human hepatic stellate cells...
  6. Preisig C, Laakso J, Mocek U, Wang P, Baez J, Byng G. Biotransformations of the cardiovascular drugs mexrenone and canrenone. J Nat Prod. 2003;66:350-6 pubmed
    Microbial transformation studies of the cardiovascular drugs mexrenone (1) and canrenone (2) were conducted. Thirty-nine biotransformations of mexrenone and 84 biotransformations of canrenone were analyzed...
  7. Foukaridis G. Influence of spironolactone and its metabolite canrenone on serum digoxin assays. Ther Drug Monit. 1990;12:82-4 pubmed
    ..In vitro determinations of digoxin performed on blank serum spiked with spironolactone and its metabolite canrenone showed that contrary to the belief gained from reading the manuals of some diagnostic immunoassay kits, ..
  8. Knights K, Bowalgaha K, Miners J. Spironolactone and canrenone inhibit UGT2B7-catalyzed human liver and kidney microsomal aldosterone 18beta-glucuronidation: a potential drug interaction. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:1011-4 pubmed publisher
    ..18beta-glucuronidation, this study aimed to determine whether spironolactone and its primary metabolites, canrenone and canrenoic acid, inhibit ALDO 18beta-glucuronidation by recombinant UGT2B7 and by human liver (HLM) and human ..
  9. Jankowski A, Skorek Jankowska A, Lamparczyk H. Simultaneous determination of spironolactone and its metabolites in human plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1996;14:1359-65 pubmed
    ..Spironolactone and 7 alpha-thiomethyl-spironolactone were detected at 245 nm, while canrenone and internal standard were detected at 280 nm. The column used was an S5 ODS2 (500 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Megges R, Weiland J, Undeutsch B, Büchting H, Schon R. The nitration of canrenone with acetic anhydride/nitric acid. Steroids. 1997;62:762-6 pubmed
    3-Oxo-17 alpha-pregna-4,6-diene-21,17-carbolactone (canrenone, II) is produced from the potassium salt of 17-hydroxy-3-oxo-17 alpha-pregna-4,6-diene-21-carboxylic acid (I) by acid catalyzed lactonization...
  2. Defrance A, Armbruster D, Petty D, Cooper K, Dasgupta A. Abbott ARCHITECT clinical chemistry and immunoassay systems: digoxin assays are free of interferences from spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone. Ther Drug Monit. 2011;33:128-31 pubmed publisher
    Spironolactone, which is metabolized to canrenone, is often used in combination with digoxin. Potassium canrenoate is a similar drug that is also metabolized to canrenone...
  3. Steimer W, Muller C, Eber B. Digoxin assays: frequent, substantial, and potentially dangerous interference by spironolactone, canrenone, and other steroids. Clin Chem. 2002;48:507-16 pubmed
    ..The low results were caused by negative interference from canrenone and spironolactone, the latter of which has recently been advocated for the treatment of severe heart failure...
  4. Cargnelli G, Trevisi L, Debetto P, Luciani S, Bova S. Effects of canrenone on aorta and right ventricle of the rat. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2001;37:540-7 pubmed
    b>Canrenone is a major active metabolite of spironolactone and, in addition to the antimineralocorticoid effect, shares with the parent compound the action as a partial agonist with respect to ouabain on the Na+-K+ ATPase...
  5. Vergin H, Mahr G, Metz R, Eichinger A, Nitsche V, Martens H. Analysis of metabolites--a new approach to bioequivalence studies of spironolactone formulations. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997;35:334-40 pubmed
    ..Aldactone 50, the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the parent drug and 2 predominant active metabolites, canrenone and 7 alpha-thiomethylspirolactone, were determined in a 2-way crossover study in 24 young healthy male ..
  6. Ramsay L, Shelton J, Wilkinson D, Tidd M. Canrenone--the principal active metabolite of spironolactone?. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1976;3:607-12 pubmed
    ..examined in two studies in healthy subjects, the first study comparing levels of their common major metabolite, canrenone, in plasma and the second study comparing the pharmacological activity of the two drugs in reversing the renal ..
  7. Blaya B, Gonzalez M, Ratón J, Diaz Perez J. Allergic contact dermatitis produced by canrenone. Contact Dermatitis. 2007;57:197 pubmed
  8. De Simone G, Chinali M, Mureddu G, Cacciatore G, Lucci D, Latini R, et al. Effect of canrenone on left ventricular mechanics in patients with mild systolic heart failure and metabolic syndrome: the AREA-in-CHF study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21:783-91 pubmed publisher
    We analyzed the effect of the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist canrenone on LV mechanics in patients with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS) and compensated (Class II NYHA) heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF?45%)..
  9. Calo L, Zaghetto F, Pagnin E, Davis P, De Mozzi P, Sartorato P, et al. Effect of aldosterone and glycyrrhetinic acid on the protein expression of PAI-1 and p22(phox) in human mononuclear leukocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1973-6 pubmed
    ..both aldosterone and glycyrrhetinic acid is blocked by incubation with added 1 x 10(-6) M of receptor-antagonist canrenone. Canrenone alone did not show any effect. PAI-1 related protein was also found using 4 x 10(-9) M aldosterone...
  10. Asada S, Ohtawa T, Nakae H. Reversible pharmacokinetic profiles of canrenoic acid and its biotransformed product. Canrenone in the rat. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1990;38:1012-8 pubmed
    Pharmacokinetic profiles of canrenoic acid (CRA) and canrenone (CR), the reversible metabolite of CRA, were studied in the rat after intraportal (pv) administration in comparison with those after intravenous (iv) administration using an ..
  11. Preuss H, al Karadaghi P, Yousufi A, MacArthy P. Effects of canrenone on RRM-sucrose hypertension in WKY. Clin Exp Hypertens A. 1991;13:917-23 pubmed
    ..When the RRM-sucrose WKY were given canrenone, an agent which is a digoxin antagonist, the BP decreased significantly simulating previous findings in RRM-salt...
  12. Balzan S, Nicolini G, Bellitto L, Ghione S, Biver P, Montali U. Effect of canrenone on the digitalis site of Na+/K(+)-ATPase in human placental membranes and in erythrocytes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2003;42:32-6 pubmed
    It has been reported that canrenone, which is used in hypertensive therapy as an antialdosteronic drug, may also act as a blocker of ouabain effects...
  13. La Villa G, Barletta G, Romanelli R, Laffi G, Del Bene R, Vizzutti F, et al. Cardiovascular effects of canrenone in patients with preascitic cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2002;35:1441-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate whether the cardiac dysfunction in cirrhosis is influenced by canrenone, an aldosterone antagonist, 8 patients with preascitic, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, and portal hypertension ..
  14. Los L, Coddington A, Ramjit H, Colby H. Identification of spironolactone metabolites in plasma and target organs of guinea pigs. Drug Metab Dispos. 1993;21:1086-90 pubmed
    ..The major plasma metabolite was 7 alpha-thiomethyl-SL (TM) with smaller amounts of canrenone (CAN) and 7 alpha-thio-SL (TH) also present...
  15. Chatterjee S, Moeller C, Shah N, Bolorunduro O, Lichstein E, Moskovits N, et al. Eplerenone is not superior to older and less expensive aldosterone antagonists. Am J Med. 2012;125:817-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Interventions included aldosterone antagonists (Aldactone [Pfizer, NY, NY], canrenone, eplerenone) in systolic heart failure. The comparator included standard medical therapy or placebo, or both...
  16. Pamnani M, Whitehorn W, Clough D, Haddy F. Effects of canrenone on blood pressure in rats with reduced renal mass. Am J Hypertens. 1990;3:188-95 pubmed
    b>Canrenone, a metabolic product of spironolactone, which competes with ouabain for binding to Na-K-ATPase at the digitalis receptor site and by itself inhibits Na-K-ATPase, was administered intramuscularly to reduced renal mass-saline ..
  17. Briski K, Sylvester P. Antagonism of type II, but not type I glucocorticoid receptors results in elevated basal luteinizing hormone release in male rats. Neuroendocrinology. 1994;60:601-8 pubmed
    ..In additional experiments, groups of rats were pretreated with vehicle or the synthetic GR agonist, RU 362, before administration of RU 486.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  18. Nassiacos D, Meloni S. [Tolerability and efficacy of aldosterone inhibition with canrenone in heart failure: the real-world experience of an outpatient heart failure clinic]. Ital Heart J. 2005;6 Suppl 1:51S-65S pubmed
    ..they were in NYHA class I-IV, on ACE-inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, and were treated with canrenone if they were in NYHA class I-IV having experienced a previous cardiac event and did not show asymptomatic left ..
  19. Cittadini A, Monti M, Isgaard J, Casaburi C, Strömer H, Di Gianni A, et al. Aldosterone receptor blockade improves left ventricular remodeling and increases ventricular fibrillation threshold in experimental heart failure. Cardiovasc Res. 2003;58:555-64 pubmed
    ..Eighty-seven rats with moderate myocardial infarction were randomized to receive either no drug or canrenone, the active metabolite of spironolactone, 20 mg/kg/day, or ramipril, 1 mg/kg/day, or a combination of the two ..
  20. Tal D, Karlish S. Do canrenone and 6,7-dihydroxylated derivatives compete with ouabain at the same site on Na,K-ATPase?. Mol Pharmacol. 1988;34:245-9 pubmed
    b>Canrenone is the major metabolic product of the synthetic steroids spironolactone and K+-canrenoate, used in antihypertensive therapy...
  21. Doignon J, Grognet J, Thebault J, Caplain M, Capron M, Pelletier B, et al. [Pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects of althiazide and spironolactone in a fixed combination for 2 doses]. Therapie. 1990;45:475-81 pubmed
    ..SPI) and two of the main metabolites of spironolactone, 7 alpha-thiomethyl-spirolactone (7TM) and canrenone (CAN) have been established in 12 healthy human volunteers (6 men and 6 women) after unique oral administration ..
  22. Voicu V, Gheorghe M, Sora I, Sarbu C, Medvedovici A. Incurred sample reanalysis: different evaluation approaches on data obtained for spironolactone and its active metabolite canrenone. Bioanalysis. 2011;3:1343-56 pubmed publisher
    ..produced through reanalysis after the long-term period indicated a systematic positive bias for the metabolite canrenone (although results supported reproducibility)...
  23. Dong H, Xu F, Zhang Z, Tian Y, Chen Y. Simultaneous determination of spironolactone and its active metabolite canrenone in human plasma by HPLC-APCI-MS. J Mass Spectrom. 2006;41:477-86 pubmed
    ..spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of spironolactone and its active metabolite canrenone in human plasma has been developed and validated...
  24. Vergin H, Mahr G, Metz R, Eichinger A, Nitsche V. Investigation on the bioequivalence of 2 oral preparations containing spironolactone and furosemide. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998;36:231-8 pubmed
    ..Plasma samples were assayed for spironolactone, its 2 active metabolites canrenone and 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone, and furosemide by HPLC...
  25. Sorrentino R, Autore G, Cirino G, d Emmanuele de Villa Bianca R, Calignano A, Vanasia M, et al. Effect of spironolactone and its metabolites on contractile property of isolated rat aorta rings. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2000;36:230-5 pubmed
    Spironolactone and its active metabolites canrenone and potassium canrenoate are normally used as antihypertensive drugs...
  26. Zhang B, Chen H, Tang H, Feng H, Li Y. A diastereoselective synthesis of 7?-nitromethyl steroid derivative and its use for an efficient synthesis of eplerenone. Steroids. 2012;77:1086-91 pubmed publisher
    A novel and efficient method of stereoselectively introducing ?-nitromethyl group to C-7 position of 11?-hydroxyl canrenone 4 was described. In addition, this method was successfully applied in a total synthesis of Eplerenone 8...
  27. Fernandez M, Carter G, Palmer T. The interaction of canrenone with oestrogen and progesterone receptors in human uterine cytosol. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1983;15:95-101 pubmed
    1 Canrenone, the major active metabolite of spironolactone, decreased [3H]-progesterone binding to isolated uterine cytosolic progesterone receptors. The inhibition was concentration-dependent...
  28. Boero R, Guarena C, Deabate M, Rolando B, Rosati C, Quarello F, et al. Erythrocyte Na+, K+ pump inhibition after saline infusion in essentially hypertensive subjects: effects of canrenone administration. Int J Cardiol. 1989;25 Suppl 1:S47-52 pubmed
    The effects of a 2-litre isotonic saline infusion, with and without prior oral canrenone (150 mg) administration, on erythrocyte Na+, K+ pump, urinary sodium excretion and arterial pressure were evaluated in nine patients with essential ..
  29. Wehling M, Christ M, Theisen K. High affinity aldosterone binding to plasma membrane rich fractions from mononuclear leukocytes: is there a membrane receptor for mineralocorticoids?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;181:1306-12 pubmed
    ..1 nM was found. Aldosterone displaced the tracer at a similar Kd. Both canrenone and cortisol were inactive as ligands up to concentrations of 0.1 microM...
  30. Kourounakis P, Pouskoulelis G, Rekka E. Interaction of spironolactone with mercury. A possible molecular mechanism. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992;42:1025-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of both the steroidal skeleton and the thioacetyl group in the same molecule is necessary for the protection against mercury intoxication. ..
  31. Hernandez O, Martin E, Jimenez F, Jimenez A, Arias J. Use of partial least-squares regression for multicomponent determinations based on kinetic spectrofluorimetric data. Simultaneous determination of canrenone and spironolactone in urine. Analyst. 2000;125:1159-65 pubmed
    A new spectrofluorimetric method for the simultaneous determination of canrenone and spironolactone in urine is proposed...
  32. Huang D, Zhang T, Cui F, Sun W, Zhao L, Yang M, et al. Simultaneous identification and quantification of canrenone and 11-?-hydroxy-canrenone by LC-MS and HPLC-UVD. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:917232 pubmed publisher
    A procedure for simultaneous identification and quantification of canrenone and its biotransformed product 11-?-hydroxy-canrenone by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UVD) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS)..
  33. Rey F, Valterio C, Locatelli L, Ramelet A, Felber J. Lack of endocrine systemic side effects after topical application of spironolactone in man. J Endocrinol Invest. 1988;11:273-8 pubmed
    ..During the 72 h following the application of the ointment, blood levels of canrenone, the major metabolite of spironolactone, have been determined...
  34. Weindel K, Lewicka S, Vecsei P. Comparative dose-effect studies with four C-17-spirosteroidal mineralocorticoid synthesis inhibitors. J Steroid Biochem. 1989;34:455-9 pubmed
    ..Different patterns of enzyme inhibition could be observed for each inhibitor. The points of interference were mostly related to cytochrome P450-C11-activities (i.e. 11 beta-/18-hydroxylation and 18-OH-oxidation). ..
  35. Wehling M, Käsmayr J, Theisen K. Aldosterone influences free intracellular calcium in human mononuclear leukocytes in vitro. Cell Calcium. 1990;11:565-71 pubmed
    ..4 nM. The effect of aldosterone was antagonized by N-ethyl-isopropylamiloride, but not by canrenoate, canrenone, cycloheximide and actinomycin D. It was absent in a sodium-free buffer...
  36. Dasgupta A, Saffer H, Wells A, Datta P. Bidirectional (positive/negative) interference of spironolactone, canrenone, and potassium canrenoate on serum digoxin measurement: elimination of interference by measuring free digoxin or using a chemiluminescent assay for digoxin. J Clin Lab Anal. 2002;16:172-7 pubmed
    ..Spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone cross-react with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for digoxin, and can falsely elevate serum ..
  37. Mussa A, Camilla R, Monticone S, Porta F, Tessaris D, Verna F, et al. Polyuric-polydipsic syndrome in a pediatric case of non-glucocorticoid remediable familial hyperaldosteronism. Endocr J. 2012;59:497-502 pubmed
    ..a two-years old girl with polyuric-polydipsic syndrome and severe hypertension, successfully treated with canrenone and amiloride...
  38. Derosa G, Bonaventura A, Bianchi L, Romano D, D Angelo A, Fogari E, et al. Effects of canrenone in patients with metabolic syndrome. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14:2161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to evaluate the effects of canrenone compared to placebo on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in patients affected by metabolic syndrome...
  39. Dasgupta A, Tso G, Wells A. Effect of spironolactone, potassium canrenoate and their common metabolite canrenone on serum digoxin measurement by digoxin III, a new digoxin immunoassay. Ther Drug Monit. 2008;30:744-7 pubmed publisher
    ..been well documented in the literature that spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone cross-react with several digoxin immunoassays at concentrations expected after therapeutic usage of these drugs ..
  40. Boccanelli A, Cacciatore G, Mureddu G, de Simone G, Clemenza F, De Maria R, et al. Baseline characteristics of patients recruited in the AREA IN-CHF study (Antiremodelling Effect of Aldosterone Receptors Blockade with Canrenone in Mild Chronic Heart Failure). J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2007;8:683-91 pubmed
    ..AREA IN-CHF was planned to investigate the effects of canrenone on progression of LV remodelling in mild HF...
  41. Guggino S, Mechine Neuville A, Weltin D, Imbs J, Stephan D. [Anti-angiogenic effects of aldosterone antagonists in the fibrin chamber in rats]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 2003;96:808-10 pubmed
    ..In this study we compared the effects of spironolactone, canrenone an active metabolite of spironolactone and eplerenone a more selective mineralocorticoid antagonist in rats ..
  42. Weiland J, Megges R, Undeutsch B, Schon R, Büchting H, Repke R. Partial synthetic derivatization of canrenone and characterization of its impact on the inhibitory effect on Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity in human heart muscle. Steroids. 1998;63:464-9 pubmed
    To improve the weak inhibitory effect of 3-oxo-17 alpha-pregna-4,6-diene-21,17-carbolactone (canrenone, II) on Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity in human heart muscle, we have investigated the impact of hydrogenation, reduction, glycosidation, ..
  43. Herráez Hernández R, Soriano Vega E, Campins Falco P. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of spironolactone and its major metabolite canrenone in urine using ultraviolet detection and column-switching. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994;658:303-10 pubmed
    ..method involving a column-switching system for the determination of spironolactone and its main metabolite canrenone in urine is described...
  44. Görlitzer K, Moormann P, Pollow K, Schaffrath M. [Acetylation of spironolactone, canrenone and 2-methyl-canrenone]. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 1995;328:161-3 pubmed
    ..The 2 alpha-methyl-8,14-didehydro-canrenone (9) is obtained by hydrolysis of 7...
  45. Andriulli A, Arrigoni A, Gindro T, Karbowiak I, Buzzetti G, Armanini D. Canrenone and androgen receptor-active materials in plasma of cirrhotic patients during long-term K-canrenoate or spironolactone therapy. Digestion. 1989;44:155-62 pubmed
    Plasma levels of canrenone and androgen receptor-active materials (ARM) were determined during long-term oral K-canrenoate or spironolactone therapy in cirrhotics with chronic recurrent ascites...
  46. McLellan A, Rentoul J, Mackie R, McInnes G. Lack of effect of spironolactone on hair shaft diameter in hirsute females. Postgrad Med J. 1989;65:459-62 pubmed
    ..The mean effect of spironolactone given over a 9 month period was to increase hair shaft diameter by +15% with 95% CI (-0.4% to +29%). In addition there were no changes in circulating serum androgen concentrations. ..
  47. Tian J, Shidyak A, Periyasamy S, Haller S, Taleb M, El Okdi N, et al. Spironolactone attenuates experimental uremic cardiomyopathy by antagonizing marinobufagenin. Hypertension. 2009;54:1313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Next, we examined the effects of spironolactone and its major metabolite, canrenone (both 100 nM), on marinobufagenin stimulation of rat cardiac fibroblasts...
  48. Suyagh M, Kole P, Millership J, Collier P, Halliday H, McElnay J. Development and validation of a dried blood spot-LC-APCI-MS assay for estimation of canrenone in paediatric samples. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2010;878:769-76 pubmed publisher
    ..liquid chromatography (LC)-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI)-mass spectroscopic (MS) assay of canrenone has been developed and validated employing Dried Blood Spots (DBS) as the sample collection medium...
  49. Cleland J, Coletta A, Abdellah A, Witte K, Hobson N, Clark A. Clinical trials update from Heart Rhythm 2007 and Heart Failure 2007: CARISMA, PREPARE, DAVID II, SAVE-PACE, PROTECT and AREA-IN-CHF. Eur J Heart Fail. 2007;9:850-3 pubmed
    ..AREA-IN-CHF failed to show a beneficial effect of canrenone on LV volumes compared to placebo however some beneficial effects on secondary clinical endpoints were observed.
  50. Rabe A, Fromter E. Micromolar concentrations of steroids and of aldosterone antagonists inhibit the outwardly rectifying chloride channel with different kinetics. Pflugers Arch. 2000;439:559-66 pubmed
    ..the sequence: hydrocortisone, corticosterone, P-oestradiol, cortisone, aldosterone, testosterone, progesterone, canrenone, spironolactone...
  51. Christ M, Eisen C, Aktas J, Theisen K, Wehling M. The inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate system is involved in rapid effects of aldosterone in human mononuclear leukocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;77:1452-7 pubmed
    ..b>Canrenone, a potent inhibitor of classical aldosterone action, was not effective up to a concentration of 100 nmol/L...
  52. Woźniak M, Tyrankiewicz U, Drelicharz L, Skorka T, Jabłońska M, Heinze Paluchowska S, et al. The effect of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition on myocardial function in early and late phases of dilated cardiomyopathy in Tgaq*44 mice. Kardiol Pol. 2013;71:730-7 pubmed publisher
    ..at the early or advanced stage of HF received combined therapy including ACE-I (perindopril 2 mg/kg) and ARA (canrenone 20 mg/kg). Cardiac function was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging before and after 2 months of treatment...
  53. Takkis K, Aro R, Kõrgvee L, Varendi H, Lass J, Herodes K, et al. Signal Enhancement in the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of spironolactone and its metabolites using HFIP and NH4F as eluent additives. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017;409:3145-3151 pubmed publisher
    ..method to determine the concentration of spironolactone and its metabolites 7-alpha-methylthiospironolactone and canrenone in blood plasma samples...