levonorgestrel

Summary

Summary: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.

Top Publications

  1. Parkin L, Sharples K, Hernandez R, Jick S. Risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone or levonorgestrel: nested case-control study based on UK General Practice Research Database. BMJ. 2011;342:d2139 pubmed publisher
    ..of a combined oral contraceptive containing drospirenone, relative to current users of preparations containing levonorgestrel. Nested case-control study. UK General Practice Research Database...
  2. Pashov A, Tskhay V, Ionouchene S. The combined GnRH-agonist and intrauterine levonorgestrel-releasing system treatment of complicated atypical hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: a pilot study. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012;28:559-61 pubmed publisher
    ..After the third injection of 3.75 mg of leuproreline acetate, the levonorgestrel intrauterine hormonal system containing 52 mg levonorgestrel (Mirena®, Bayer, Germany) was inserted for at ..
  3. van Grootheest K, Sachs B, Harrison Woolrych M, Caduff Janosa P, van Puijenbroek E. Uterine perforation with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device: analysis of reports from four national pharmacovigilance centres. Drug Saf. 2011;34:83-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices (LNG-IUD) are commonly used for contraception and other indications in many countries...
  4. Tariq N, Ayub R, Jaffery T, Rahim F, Naseem F, Kamal M. Efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) for abnormal uterine bleeding and contraception. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2011;21:210-3 pubmed publisher
    To find out clinical response, side effects and patients' acceptability of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). Observational study...
  5. Blumenthal P, Dawson L, Hurskainen R. Cost-effectiveness and quality of life associated with heavy menstrual bleeding among women using the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;112:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the literature for economic and health-related quality of life outcomes data associated with the use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the management of heavy menstrual bleeding...
  6. Middleton A, Naish J, Singer N. General practitioners' views on the use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in young, nulligravid women, in London, UK. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011;16:311-8 pubmed publisher
    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS, Mirena®) is one of the most reliable and cost-effective methods of contraception. In the UK, uptake of this method among nulligravid women under 25 years of age is very low...
  7. Tanmahasamut P, Rattanachaiyanont M, Angsuwathana S, Techatraisak K, Indhavivadhana S, Leerasiri P. Postoperative levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for pelvic endometriosis-related pain: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119:519-26 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the effectiveness of a postoperative levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for relieving pelvic pain in patients with endometriosis...
  8. Chor J, Bregand White J, Golobof A, Harwood B, Cowett A. Ibuprofen prophylaxis for levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system insertion: a randomized controlled trial. Contraception. 2012;85:558-62 pubmed publisher
    Despite the high efficacy of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in preventing pregnancy, uptake of the intrauterine devices remains low in the United States...
  9. van Hylckama Vlieg A, Helmerhorst F, Rosendaal F. The risk of deep venous thrombosis associated with injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate contraceptives or a levonorgestrel intrauterine device. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2297-300 pubmed publisher
    ..with nonoral contraceptives (ie, injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate contraceptives, hormone [levonorgestrel]-releasing intrauterine devices, a contraceptive patch, or a contraceptive implant)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Bayoglu Tekin Y, Dilbaz B, Altinbas S, Dilbaz S. Postoperative medical treatment of chronic pelvic pain related to severe endometriosis: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:492-6 pubmed publisher
    To compare efficacy of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS; Mirena) with depot GnRH analogue (GnRH-a; gosareline acetate; Zoladex) on endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in patients with severe ..
  2. Gallos I, Shehmar M, Thangaratinam S, Papapostolou T, Coomarasamy A, Gupta J. Oral progestogens vs levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for endometrial hyperplasia: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203:547.e1-10 pubmed publisher
    To conduct a systematic review and metaanalysis of studies evaluating the regression rate of endometrial hyperplasia with oral progestogens and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.
  3. Mansour D. The benefits and risks of using a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for contraception. Contraception. 2012;85:224-34 pubmed publisher
    The contraceptive profile of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS; Mirena®) is well established, with efficacy similar to that achieved with sterilization and rapid return to fertility after discontinuation of use...
  4. Klipping C, Duijkers I, Parke S, Mellinger U, Serrani M, Junge W. Hemostatic effects of a novel estradiol-based oral contraceptive: an open-label, randomized, crossover study of estradiol valerate/dienogest versus ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel. Drugs R D. 2011;11:159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of the estradiol valerate/dienogest COC with a monophasic low-estrogen dose COC containing ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel. Healthy women aged 18-50 years were randomized to receive a COC containing estradiol valerate/dienogest (2 ..
  5. Shaaban M, Shabaan M, Zakherah M, El Nashar S, Sayed G. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system compared to low dose combined oral contraceptive pills for idiopathic menorrhagia: a randomized clinical trial. Contraception. 2011;83:48-54 pubmed publisher
    This study compared the efficacy of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) to low dose combined oral contraceptive pills (COC) in the management of idiopathic menorrhagia.
  6. Haoula Z, Walker K, Powell M. Levonorgestrel intra-uterine system as a treatment option for complex endometrial hyperplasia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;159:176-9 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential treatment of atypical and non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia with the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS).
  7. Ruiz J, Rodríguez V, Cutillas N, Espinosa A, Hannon M. A potent ruthenium(II) antitumor complex bearing a lipophilic levonorgestrel group. Inorg Chem. 2011;50:9164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The act of conjugating a levonorgestrel group to a ruthenium(II) complex resulted in synergistic effects between the metallic center and the steroidal ..
  8. Lidegaard Ø, Nielsen L, Skovlund C, Skjeldestad F, Løkkegaard E. Risk of venous thromboembolism from use of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens and oestrogen doses: Danish cohort study, 2001-9. BMJ. 2011;343:d6423 pubmed publisher
    ..of confirmed venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing 30-40 µg ethinylestradiol with levonorgestrel was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 3.8), with desogestrel was 6.6 (5.6 to 7.8), with gestodene was 6.2 (5...
  9. Gemzell Danielsson K. Mechanism of action of emergency contraception. Contraception. 2010;82:404-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Today, levonorgestrel (LNG) in a single dose of 1...
  10. Zheng J, Xia E, Li T, Sun X. Comparison of combined transcervical resection of the endometrium and levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system treatment versus levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system treatment alone in women with adenomyosis: a prospective clinical trial. J Reprod Med. 2013;58:285-90 pubmed
    To compare the effect of transcervical resection of the endometrium (TCRE) combined with levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) versus LNG-IUS alone in the treatment of adenomyosis.
  11. Bahamondes M, Hidalgo M, Bahamondes L, Monteiro I. Ease of insertion and clinical performance of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in nulligravidas. Contraception. 2011;84:e11-6 pubmed publisher
    Despite the high contraceptive efficacy and the additional noncontraceptive benefits of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), concerns persist with respect to its use in nulligravidas...
  12. Haliloglu B, Celik A, Ilter E, Bozkurt S, Ozekici U. Comparison of uterine artery blood flow with levonorgestrel intrauterine system and copper intrauterine device. Contraception. 2011;83:578-81 pubmed publisher
    As a contraceptive method, we investigated whether the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) has any effect on uterine artery blood flow when compared with copper intrauterine device (IUD)...
  13. Kaunitz A, Inki P. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in heavy menstrual bleeding: a benefit-risk review. Drugs. 2012;72:193-215 pubmed publisher
    ..databases to evaluate the clinical evidence and provide an update on the risks and benefits of using the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the treatment of HMB...
  14. Nucera G, Mandato V, Gelli M, Palomba S, La Sala G. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist and levonorgestrel-intrauterine device followed by in vitro fertilization program as management strategy for an infertile endometrial cancer patient: a case report. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013;29:219-21 pubmed publisher
    ..with stage I endometrioid adenocarcinoma was treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD)...
  15. Gupta J, Kai J, Middleton L, Pattison H, Gray R, Daniels J. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system versus medical therapy for menorrhagia. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:128-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In a pragmatic, multicenter, randomized trial, we compared the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (levonorgestrel-IUS) with usual medical treatment in women with menorrhagia who ..
  16. Gallos I, Krishan P, Shehmar M, Ganesan R, Gupta J. Relapse of endometrial hyperplasia after conservative treatment: a cohort study with long-term follow-up. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:1231-6 pubmed publisher
    What is the risk of relapse for women with endometrial hyperplasia treated with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) or oral progestogens?
  17. Noe G, Croxatto H, Salvatierra A, Reyes V, Villarroel C, Muñoz C, et al. Contraceptive efficacy of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel given before or after ovulation. Contraception. 2010;81:414-20 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to evaluate whether emergency contraception with levonorgestrel (LNG-EC) administered after ovulation is equally effective to LNG-EC administered before ovulation...
  18. Heikinheimo O, Lehtovirta P, Aho I, Ristola M, Paavonen J. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: a 5-year follow-up study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204:126.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    We sought to assess the effects of long-term use and safety of the levonorgestrel-releasing (LNG)-intrauterine system (IUS) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in comparison with HIV-infected women not using the device...
  19. Marions L, Lövkvist L, Taube A, Johansson M, Dalvik H, Øverlie I. Use of the levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine system in nulliparous women--a non-interventional study in Sweden. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011;16:126-34 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the insertion procedure and continuation rates of the levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in nulliparous women who, due to fear of complications, are often denied this very effective contraceptive method...
  20. Ganz M, Shah D, Gidwani R, Filonenko A, Su W, Pocoski J, et al. The cost-effectiveness of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for the treatment of idiopathic heavy menstrual bleeding in the United States. Value Health. 2013;16:325-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) compared with other therapies for idiopathic heavy menstrual bleeding.
  21. Jick S, Hernandez R. Risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with women using oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel: case-control study using United States claims data. BMJ. 2011;342:d2151 pubmed publisher
    ..oral contraceptives containing drospirenone with that in women receiving oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel. Nested case-control and cohort study...
  22. Roberts T, Tsourapas A, Middleton L, Champaneria R, Daniels J, Cooper K, et al. Hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, and levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: cost effectiveness analysis. BMJ. 2011;342:d2202 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis comparing first and second generation endometrial ablative techniques, hysterectomy, and the levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) for treating heavy menstrual bleeding...
  23. Macha S, Mattheus M, Pinnetti S, Woerle H, Broedl U. Effect of empagliflozin on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel in healthy female volunteers. Clin Drug Investig. 2013;33:351-7 pubmed publisher
    ..daily (qd) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the combined oral contraceptive ethinylestradiol (EE) 30 ?g/levonorgestrel (LNG) 150 ?g qd was investigated. This was a phase I, open-label, two-period, fixed sequence study...
  24. Nelson A. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system: a first-line medical treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding. Womens Health (Lond). 2010;6:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The recent US FDA approval of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system as an indicated treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding in women who want to use ..
  25. Orbo A, Arnes M, Pettersen I, Larsen K, Hanssen K, Moe B. Down-regulated progesterone receptor A and B coinciding with successful treatment of endometrial hyperplasia by the levonorgestrel impregnated intrauterine system. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89:1438-46 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether regression of endometrial hyperplasia observed after 3 months of treatment with levonorgestrel impregnated intrauterine system device (LNG-IUS) was sustained after 6 months and whether these effects were still ..
  26. Sayed G, Zakherah M, El Nashar S, Shaaban M. A randomized clinical trial of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and a low-dose combined oral contraceptive for fibroid-related menorrhagia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;112:126-30 pubmed publisher
    To compare the efficacy of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with that of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) in reducing fibroid-related menorrhagia.
  27. Endrikat J, Vilos G, Muysers C, Fortier M, Solomayer E, Lukkari Lax E. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system provides a reliable, long-term treatment option for women with idiopathic menorrhagia. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;285:117-21 pubmed publisher
    Idiopathic menorrhagia (IM) is an important clinical challenge. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS) provides an effective treatment option as shown by multiple small clinical studies...
  28. Lee B, Ling X, Asif S, Kraemer P, Hanisch J, Inki P. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system versus conventional medical therapy for heavy menstrual bleeding in the Asia-Pacific region. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013;121:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..cumulative continuation rate (CCR), in the treatment of idiopathic heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and with conventional medical therapies (CMTs), including combined ..
  29. Kaunitz A, Bissonnette F, Monteiro I, Lukkari Lax E, Muysers C, Jensen J. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or medroxyprogesterone for heavy menstrual bleeding: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116:625-32 pubmed publisher
    To compare the efficacy and safety of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and oral medroxyprogesterone acetate in the treatment of idiopathic heavy menstrual bleeding.
  30. Lete I, Cristobal I, Febrer L, Crespo C, Arbat A, Hernandez F, et al. Economic evaluation of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for the treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding in Spain. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;154:71-80 pubmed publisher
    To compare the cost and effectiveness of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) versus combined oral contraception (COC) and progestogens (PROG) in first-line treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) in Spain...
  31. Lorenz C, Contardo Jara V, Pflugmacher S, Wiegand C, Nützmann G, Lutz I, et al. The synthetic gestagen levonorgestrel impairs metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis by disruption of the thyroid system. Toxicol Sci. 2011;123:94-102 pubmed publisher
    Synthetic gestagens, including levonorgestrel (LNG), are active compounds in contraceptives, and several studies report their occurrence in surface waters...
  32. Chen Q, Xiang W, Zhang D, Wang R, Luo Y, Kang J, et al. Efficacy and safety of a levonorgestrel enteric-coated tablet as an over-the-counter drug for emergency contraception: a Phase IV clinical trial. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:2316-21 pubmed publisher
    An enteric-coated levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pill (E-LNG-ECP) is an improved formulation, in terms of side effects, which both dissolves and is absorbed in the intestine...
  33. Vilos G, Marks J, Tureanu V, Abu Rafea B, Vilos A. The levonorgestrel intrauterine system is an effective treatment in selected obese women with abnormal uterine bleeding. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2011;18:75-80 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in obese premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). Prospective observational study (Canadian Task Force Classification II-2)...
  34. Gaussem P, Alhenc Gelas M, Thomas J, Bachelot Loza C, Remones V, Ali F, et al. Haemostatic effects of a new combined oral contraceptive, nomegestrol acetate/17?-estradiol, compared with those of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. A double-blind, randomised study. Thromb Haemost. 2011;105:560-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mg/1.5 mg) versus the second-generation OC, levonorgestrel (LNG)/EE (100 ?g/20 ?g)...
  35. Zhang P, Song K, Li L, Yukuwa K, Kong B. Efficacy of combined levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog for the treatment of adenomyosis. Med Princ Pract. 2013;22:480-3 pubmed publisher
    ..the clinical outcomes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) combined with implantation of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in adenomyosis patients with significantly enlarged uteruses...
  36. Heikinheimo O, Inki P, Kunz M, Parmhed S, Anttila A, Olsson S, et al. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on the effect of misoprostol on ease of consecutive insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Contraception. 2010;81:481-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the consecutive use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS)...
  37. Wong A, Tang L, Chin R. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) and Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depoprovera) as long-term maintenance therapy for patients with moderate and severe endometriosis: a randomised controlled trial. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;50:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) may be a useful form of prolonged progestogen therapy for ..
  38. Heikinheimo O, Inki P, Kunz M, Gemzell Danielsson K. Predictors of bleeding and user satisfaction during consecutive use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:1423-7 pubmed publisher
    Consecutive use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is increasing. However, little is known about factors that predict the bleeding during consecutive use...
  39. Dinger J, Assmann A, Möhner S, Minh T. Risk of venous thromboembolism and the use of dienogest- and drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives: results from a German case-control study. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2010;36:123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e. containing < or =30 microg EE), particularly oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel (LNG)...
  40. Kozinszky Z, Bakken R, Lieng M. Ectopic pregnancy after levonorgestrel emergency contraception. Contraception. 2011;83:281-3 pubmed publisher
    Although the possibility of ectopic pregnancy after intake of levonorgestrel (LNG) as an emergency contraceptive (EE) pill is well-known, the causality has not been well established...
  41. Cawello W, Rosenkranz B, Schmid B, Wierich W. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic evaluation of coadministration of lacosamide and an oral contraceptive (levonorgestrel plus ethinylestradiol) in healthy female volunteers. Epilepsia. 2013;54:530-6 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the antiepileptic drug lacosamide affects the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of a combined oral contraceptive (OC; ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg plus levonorgestrel 0.15 mg).
  42. Chattopdhyay B, Nigam A, Goswami S, Chakravarty P. Clinical outcome of levonorgestrel intra-uterine system in idiopathic menorrhagia. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011;15:764-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy, acceptability and side effects of levonorgestrel intrauterine system in patients with idiopathic menorrhagia.
  43. Sørdal T, Inki P, Draeby J, O Flynn M, Schmelter T. Management of initial bleeding or spotting after levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system placement: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121:934-41 pubmed publisher
    ..of the initial "nuisance" bleeding or spotting in the period immediately after placement of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system...
  44. Lete I, del Carme Cuesta M, Marín J, Martinez M, Bermejo A, Arina R. Acceptability of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in the long-term treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: how many women choose to use a second device?. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;154:67-70 pubmed publisher
    To assess the acceptability of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS, Mirena®) in the long-term treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding...
  45. Maruo T, Ohara N, Yoshida S, Nakabayashi K, Sasaki H, Xu Q, et al. Translational research with progesterone receptor modulator motivated by the use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Contraception. 2010;82:435-41 pubmed publisher
    The use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is effective for management of menorrhagic women with uterine myomas because of reduction in menorrhagia...
  46. Ågren U, Anttila M, Mäenpää Liukko K, Rantala M, Rautiainen H, Sommer W, et al. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17?-oestradiol compared with one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011;16:444-57 pubmed publisher
    ..metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with those of a COC containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE)...
  47. Lee T, Seong S, Kim J, Ryu H, Song E, Nam B. Management of endometrial hyperplasia with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: single arm, prospective multicenter study: Korean gynecologic oncology group study (KGOG2006). Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2011;41:817-9 pubmed publisher
    A prospective multicenter trial has been commenced in Korea to investigate the treatment efficacy of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in patients with endometrial hyperplasia...
  48. Hoffmann F, Kloas W. The synthetic progestogen, Levonorgestrel, but not natural progesterone, affects male mate calling behavior of Xenopus laevis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;176:385-90 pubmed publisher
    ..to three environmentally relevant concentrations (10(-7) M, 10(-8) M and 10(-10) M) of the synthetic progestin Levonorgestrel (LNG) and the corresponding natural steroid progesterone (PRG), respectively...
  49. Kaunitz A, Bissonnette F, Monteiro I, Lukkari Lax E, Desanctis Y, Jensen J. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for heavy menstrual bleeding improves hemoglobin and ferritin levels. Contraception. 2012;86:452-7 pubmed publisher
    We compared the effects of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with cyclic oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels in women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB)...
  50. Middleton L, Champaneria R, Daniels J, Hilken N, O Donovan P, Gray R, et al. Hysterectomy, endometrial destruction, and levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) for heavy menstrual bleeding: systematic review and meta-analysis of data from individual patients. BMJ. 2010;341:c3929 pubmed publisher
    ..destruction (both "first generation" hysteroscopic and "second generation" non-hysteroscopic techniques), and the levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) in the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.
  51. Hermanny A, Bahamondes M, Fazano F, Marchi N, Ortiz M, Genghini M, et al. In vitro assessment of some sperm function following exposure to levonorgestrel in human fallopian tubes. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2012;10:8 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism of action of levonorgestrel (LNG) as emergency contraception (EC) remains a subject of debate and its effect on sperm function has been only partially explained...
  52. Junge W, Mellinger U, Parke S, Serrani M. Metabolic and haemostatic effects of estradiol valerate/dienogest, a novel oral contraceptive: a randomized, open-label, single-centre study. Clin Drug Investig. 2011;31:573-584 pubmed publisher
    ..haemostatic effects of a novel COC comprising estradiol valerate/dienogest (E(2)V/DNG) with ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel (EE/LNG)...
  53. Ågren U, Anttila M, Mäenpää Liukko K, Rantala M, Rautiainen H, Sommer W, et al. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17?-oestradiol in comparison to one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on markers of endocrine function. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011;16:458-67 pubmed publisher
    ..monophasic combined oral contraceptives, containing either nomegestrol acetate/17?-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) or levonorgestrel/ ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE) on endocrine function, androgens, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)...