Summary: C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.

Top Publications

  1. Sasagawa S, Shimizu Y, Kami H, Takeuchi T, Mita S, Imada K, et al. Dienogest is a selective progesterone receptor agonist in transactivation analysis with potent oral endometrial activity due to its efficient pharmacokinetic profile. Steroids. 2008;73:222-31 pubmed
    ..66 nmol/l) was close to its EC50 value to activate PR. Thus, the stronger oral activity of dienogest could be explained simply by its in vitro potency on PR and its oral pharmacokinetic profile. ..
  2. Sun M, Shen W, Zhong M, Wu P, Chen H, Lu A. Nandrolone attenuates aortic adaptation to exercise in rats. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;97:686-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: (i) sedentary, (ii) sedentary + nandrolone-treated, (iii) aerobic exercise trained, and (iv) trained + nandrolone-treated...
  3. Kohler G, Faustmann T, Gerlinger C, Seitz C, Mueck A. A dose-ranging study to determine the efficacy and safety of 1, 2, and 4mg of dienogest daily for endometriosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010;108:21-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The 1-mg dose arm was discontinued owing to insufficient bleeding control. Dienogest at 2mg once a day is recommended as the optimal dose in future studies of endometriosis. ..
  4. Palacios S, Wildt L, Parke S, Machlitt A, Römer T, Bitzer J. Efficacy and safety of a novel oral contraceptive based on oestradiol (oestradiol valerate/dienogest): a Phase III trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;149:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The preparation is well tolerated and is associated with a high degree of user satisfaction and a low discontinuation rate. ..
  5. Schindler A, Henkel A, Moore C, Oettel M. Effect and safety of high-dose dienogest (20 mg/day) in the treatment of women with endometriosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010;282:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore likely that lower doses of dienogest would have similarly neutral safety effects: an important consideration in the use of dienogest for the treatment of endometriosis. ..
  6. Eiam Ong S, Buranaosot S, Eiam Ong S, Wathanavaha A, Pansin P. Nutritional effect of nandrolone decanoate in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. 2007;17:173-8 pubmed
    The study objective was to examine the nutritional effect of nandrolone decanoate, an androgen derivative, in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This was a prospective and experimental study...
  7. White J, Baltgalvis K, Sato S, Wilson L, Carson J. Effect of nandrolone decanoate administration on recovery from bupivacaine-induced muscle injury. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:1420-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Control mice received an intramuscular PBS injection. Anabolic steroid [nandrolone decanoate (ND), 6 mg/kg] or sesame seed oil was administered at the time of initial injury and continued every 7 ..
  8. Harada T, Momoeda M, Taketani Y, Aso T, Fukunaga M, Hagino H, et al. Dienogest is as effective as intranasal buserelin acetate for the relief of pain symptoms associated with endometriosis--a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) during DNG treatment was significantly lower than that during BA treatment. DNG is as effective as intranasal BA in alleviating endometriosis, and causes less BMD loss. ..
  9. Baume N, Avois L, Schweizer C, Cardis C, Dvorak J, Cauderay M, et al. [13C]Nandrolone excretion in trained athletes: interindividual variability in metabolism. Clin Chem. 2004;50:355-64 pubmed
    b>Nandrolone is one of the most abused anabolic steroids, and its use in doping is increasing, as revealed by numerous positive cases during recent years in various sports...

More Information


  1. Cuerda C, Zugasti A, Bretón I, Camblor M, Miralles P, Garcia P. Treatment with nandrolone decanoate and megestrol acetate in HIV-infected men. Nutr Clin Pract. 2005;20:93-7 pubmed
    ..Malnutrition, especially loss of lean body mass, is a frequent complication of people living with HIV that may increase their mortality and morbidity...
  2. Alsiö J, Birgner C, Björkblom L, Isaksson P, Bergstrom L, Schioth H, et al. Impact of nandrolone decanoate on gene expression in endocrine systems related to the adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009;105:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..adrenals, adipose tissue, kidneys and liver of male Sprague-Dawley rats after 14-day administration of the AAS nandrolone decanoate, 3 or 15 mg/kg...
  3. Ammar E, Said S, Hassan M. Enhanced vasoconstriction and reduced vasorelaxation induced by testosterone and nandrolone in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Pharmacol Res. 2004;50:253-9 pubmed
    ..The effect of chronic treatment for 16 weeks with testosterone (25mg(-1)kg(-1)week(-1)) and nandrolone (50mg(-1)kg(-1)week(-1)) on serum lipids of male hypercholesterolemic New Zealand rabbits was investigated...
  4. Liu X, Yao S, Qiao R, Levine A, Kirschenbaum A, Pan J, et al. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;414:165-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood...
  5. Caraci F, Pistarà V, Corsaro A, Tomasello F, Giuffrida M, Sortino M, et al. Neurotoxic properties of the anabolic androgenic steroids nandrolone and methandrostenolone in primary neuronal cultures. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:592-600 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether two different AASs, nandrolone and methandrostenolone, could affect neuronal survival in culture...
  6. Guarino G, Spampinato S. Nandrolone decreases mu opioid receptor expression in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Neuroreport. 2008;19:1131-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Nandrolone and other anabolic androgenic steroids alter the expression and function of neurotransmitter systems and contribute to drug dependence...
  7. Birgner C, Kindlundh Högberg A, Oreland L, Alsiö J, Lindblom J, Schioth H, et al. Reduced activity of monoamine oxidase in the rat brain following repeated nandrolone decanoate administration. Brain Res. 2008;1219:103-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that 14 days of daily intramuscular injections of the AAS nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) reduced the extracellular levels of the dopaminergic metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic ..
  8. Bagchus W, Smeets J, Verheul H, De Jager Van Der Veen S, Port A, Geurts T. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of three different intramuscular doses of nandrolone decanoate: analysis of serum and urine samples in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:2624-30 pubmed
    The pharmacokinetics of nandrolone in serum and urine were investigated in healthy young men after a single im injection of 50 mg (n = 20), 100 mg (n = 17), or 150 mg (n = 17) nandrolone decanoate...
  9. Georgieva K, Boyadjiev N. Effects of nandrolone decanoate on VO2max, running economy, and endurance in rats. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:1336-41 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of treatment with an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS), nandrolone decanoate, on the submaximal running endurance (SRE), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), running economy (..
  10. Wiegratz I, Lee J, Kutschera E, Winkler U, Kuhl H. Effect of four oral contraceptives on hemostatic parameters. Contraception. 2004;70:97-106 pubmed
    ..The results show an antagonistic effect of LNG on the EE-induced rise of factor VII activity and fragment 1+2 and on the EE-dependent reduction of total and free protein S. ..
  11. Zhao J, Zhang Y, Zhao W, Wu Y, Pan J, Bauman W, et al. Effects of nandrolone on denervation atrophy depend upon time after nerve transection. Muscle Nerve. 2008;37:42-9 pubmed
    ..To determine whether these beneficial effects extend to denervation atrophy, we tested whether nandrolone blocked denervation atrophy acutely or reversed subacute denervation atrophy...
  12. Bissoli N, Medeiros A, Santos M, Busato V, Jarske R, Abreu G, et al. Long-term treatment with supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate reduces the sensitivity of Bezold-Jarisch reflex control of heart rate and blood pressure. Pharmacol Res. 2009;59:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Male rats were treated with nandrolone decanoate (ND) (10 mg kg(-1) body weight for 8 weeks; DECA) or vehicle (control animals; CON)...
  13. Mulligan K, Zackin R, Clark R, Alston Smith B, Liu T, Sattler F, et al. Effect of nandrolone decanoate therapy on weight and lean body mass in HIV-infected women with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:578-85 pubmed
    ..of 5% or greater in the preceding year or a body mass index of less than 20 kg/m(2) were randomized to receive nandrolone decanoate (100 mg) or an equivalent volume of placebo every other week by intramuscular injection...
  14. Galbiati M, Onesto E, Zito A, Crippa V, Rusmini P, Mariotti R, et al. The anabolic/androgenic steroid nandrolone exacerbates gene expression modifications induced by mutant SOD1 in muscles of mice models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Pharmacol Res. 2012;65:221-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In these ALS models, we then evaluated the pharmacological effects of the synthetic AAS nandrolone on the expression of the genes modified in ALS muscle...
  15. Pinel G, Rambaud L, Cacciatore G, Bergwerff A, Elliott C, Nielen M, et al. Elimination kinetic of 17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17beta-nandrolone laureate ester metabolites in calves' urine. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;110:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..experiment involving 24 calves and consisting of three administrations of 17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17beta-nandrolone laureate esters was carried out over 50 days...
  16. Dudgeon W, Phillips K, Carson J, Brewer R, Durstine J, Hand G. Counteracting muscle wasting in HIV-infected individuals. HIV Med. 2006;7:299-310 pubmed
    ..This review will explore the HIV/AIDS muscle-wasting syndrome, its aetiology, and the treatments used to counteract wasting. ..
  17. Yarimkaya A, Apaydin B, Unal E, Karabicak I, Aydogan F, Uslu E, et al. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone and nandrolone phenylpropionate on the healing of ischemic colon anastomosis in rats. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46:1690-7 pubmed
    Recombinant human growth hormone and nandrolone phenylpropionate are two different anabolic agents. This study was designed to investigate the effects of these anabolic agents on the healing of ischemic colon anastomosis in rats...
  18. Marqueti R, Prestes J, Stotzer U, Paschoal M, Leite R, Perez S, et al. MMP-2, jumping exercise and nandrolone in skeletal muscle. Int J Sports Med. 2008;29:559-63 pubmed
    ..Training increases tissue turnover in primary motor muscles, which in turn respond differently to AAS treatment. This data may be useful for a better understanding of muscular physiology under AAS use. ..
  19. Pinel G, Rambaud L, Monteau F, Elliot C, Le Bizec B. Estranediols profiling in calves' urine after 17beta-nandrolone laureate ester administration. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;121:626-32 pubmed publisher
    17beta-Nandrolone (17beta-NT) is one of the most recurrent forbidden anabolic steroid used in meat producing animals breeding...
  20. Silva C, Pardi A, Gonçalves T, Borin S. Electrocardiographic profile and muscle glycogen content of rats treated with nandrolone. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95:720-5 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate on the electrocardiographic profile, glycogen content and total-protein profile of skeletal and ..
  21. Sitruk Ware R. New progestagens for contraceptive use. Hum Reprod Update. 2006;12:169-78 pubmed
    ..Given their pharmacological properties, it is likely that the new progestins may have neutral effects on metabolic or vascular risks. However, this hypothesis must be confirmed in large clinical trials. ..
  22. Katayama H, Katayama T, Uematsu K, Hiratsuka M, Kiyomura M, Shimizu Y, et al. Effect of dienogest administration on angiogenesis and hemodynamics in a rat endometrial autograft model. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2851-8 pubmed publisher
    ..DNG inhibited angiogenesis of the ectopic endometrium, with confirmed structural changes in the microvessels. ..
  23. McCormack P. Dienogest: a review of its use in the treatment of endometriosis. Drugs. 2010;70:2073-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, oral dienogest offers an effective, generally well tolerated therapeutic option for the long-term treatment of endometriosis. ..
  24. Jensen J, Parke S, Mellinger U, Machlitt A, Fraser I. Effective treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding with estradiol valerate and dienogest: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117:777-87 pubmed publisher
  25. Bruder Nascimento T, Cordellini S. Vascular adaptive responses to physical exercise and to stress are affected differently by nandrolone administration. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011;44:337-44 pubmed
    ..One group received nandrolone (5 mg/kg, twice per week for 8 weeks, im)...
  26. Endrikat J, Parke S, Trummer D, Schmidt W, Duijkers I, Klipping C. Ovulation inhibition with four variations of a four-phasic estradiol valerate/dienogest combined oral contraceptive: results of two prospective, randomized, open-label studies. Contraception. 2008;78:218-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of these studies identified a four-phasic COC preparation comprising E2V/DNG that provides efficient ovulation inhibition. It is expected that this regimen will lead to an innovative COC containing E2 instead of EE. ..
  27. Tengstrand B, Cederholm T, Söderqvist A, Tidermark J. Effects of protein-rich supplementation and nandrolone on bone tissue after a hip fracture. Clin Nutr. 2007;26:460-5 pubmed was to investigate the effects on bone tissue of protein-rich supplementation alone or in combination with nandrolone decanoate in lean elderly women after a hip fracture...
  28. Penna C, Abbadessa G, Mancardi D, Spaccamiglio A, Racca S, Pagliaro P. Nandrolone-pretreatment enhances cardiac beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression and reverses heart contractile down-regulation in the post-stress period of acute-stressed rats. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;107:106-13 pubmed
    To investigate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND)-pretreatment can modulate (1) beta-adrenoceptor expression and (2) myocardial contractility in response to beta-adrenoceptors stimulation with isoproterenol (ISO), in hearts of both normal ..
  29. Frankenfeld S, de Oliveira L, Ignácio D, Coelho R, Mattos M, Ferreira A, et al. Nandrolone decanoate inhibits gluconeogenesis and decreases fasting glucose in Wistar male rats. J Endocrinol. 2014;220:143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses (SDs) of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) on rat glucose metabolism during fasting. Male Wistar rats were treated with i.m...
  30. Kindlundh A, Rahman S, Lindblom J, Nyberg F. Increased dopamine transporter density in the male rat brain following chronic nandrolone decanoate administration. Neurosci Lett. 2004;356:131-4 pubmed
    ..Several studies indicate that AAS affect the brain reward system. Recently chronic administration with nandrolone decanoate to male rats has been shown to increase the dopamine transporter (DAT) density in the striatum ..
  31. Fraser I, Parke S, Mellinger U, Machlitt A, Serrani M, Jensen J. Effective treatment of heavy and/or prolonged menstrual bleeding without organic cause: pooled analysis of two multinational, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of oestradiol valerate and dienogest. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011;16:258-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction was largely achieved as early as the first withdrawal bleed, with further gradual improvement throughout treatment. ..
  32. Klipping C, Duijkers I, Parke S, Mellinger U, Serrani M, Junge W. Hemostatic effects of a novel estradiol-based oral contraceptive: an open-label, randomized, crossover study of estradiol valerate/dienogest versus ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel. Drugs R D. 2011;11:159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel COC containing estradiol valerate/dienogest had similar or less pronounced effects on hemostatic parameters than ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel. ..
  33. Frisoli A, Chaves P, Pinheiro M, Szejnfeld V. The effect of nandrolone decanoate on bone mineral density, muscle mass, and hemoglobin levels in elderly women with osteoporosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60:648-53 pubmed
    ..randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effect of a 2-year treatment with nandrolone decanoate (ND) on bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter and on vertebral ..
  34. Ichigo S, Takagi H, Matsunami K, Suzuki N, Imai A. Beneficial effects of dienogest on uterine myoma volume: a retrospective controlled study comparing with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;284:667-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration of GnRHa disadvantages may lead to short- or long-term management of women with myoma who are to be managed transiently, and who wish to avoid surgical intervention, especially perimenopausal women. ..
  35. Chaves E, Pereira Junior P, Fortunato R, Masuda M, de Carvalho A, de Carvalho D, et al. Nandrolone decanoate impairs exercise-induced cardioprotection: role of antioxidant enzymes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;99:223-30 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated the impact of exercise and high doses of the AAS nandrolone decanoate (DECA), 10 mgkg(-1) body weight during 8 weeks, in cardiac tolerance to ischemic events as well as on ..
  36. Ahrendt H, Makalová D, Parke S, Mellinger U, Mansour D. Bleeding pattern and cycle control with an estradiol-based oral contraceptive: a seven-cycle, randomized comparative trial of estradiol valerate/dienogest and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel. Contraception. 2009;80:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..E2V releases estradiol (E2), which is identical to endogenously produced 17beta-estradiol...
  37. Karbalay Doust S, Noorafshan A, Ardekani F, Mirkhani H. The reversibility of sperm quality after discontinuing nandrolone decanoate in adult male rats. Asian J Androl. 2007;9:235-9 pubmed
    To investigate the reversibility of the effect of nandrolone decanoate (ND) on sperm parameters after discontinuing the drug. Three groups of rats received peanut oil (control), low and high doses of ND for 14 weeks, respectively...
  38. Momoeda M, Harada T, Terakawa N, Aso T, Fukunaga M, Hagino H, et al. Long-term use of dienogest for the treatment of endometriosis. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009;35:1069-76 pubmed publisher
    ..5% (95/131 cases) at 24 weeks and 90.6% (106/117 cases) at 52 weeks. The long-term effect of dienogest on bone mineral density was slight, whereas the efficacy increased cumulatively. ..
  39. Johansen K, Painter P, Sakkas G, Gordon P, Doyle J, Shubert T. Effects of resistance exercise training and nandrolone decanoate on body composition and muscle function among patients who receive hemodialysis: A randomized, controlled trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:2307-14 pubmed
    ..Interventions included double-blinded weekly nandrolone decanoate (100 mg for women; 200 mg for men) or placebo injections and lower extremity resistance exercise ..
  40. Pozzi R, Fernandes K, DE Moura C, Ferrari R, Fernandes K, Renno A, et al. Nandrolone decanoate induces genetic damage in multiple organs of rats. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;64:514-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the impact potential of nandrolone decanoate on DNA damage in multiple organs of Wistar rats by means of single-cell gel (comet) assay and micronucleus test...
  41. Steensland P, Hallberg M, Kindlundh A, Fahlke C, Nyberg F. Amphetamine-induced aggression is enhanced in rats pre-treated with the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate. Steroids. 2005;70:199-204 pubmed
    ..m.] injections with 15 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate [ND] for 14 days)...
  42. Rosa F, Antequera R, Vásquez J, Romero Vecchione E, Martinez A. Testosterone and nandrolone sensitization of brain anteroventral area of third ventricle to hypertonic NaCl-induced sympathetic response. Pharmacology. 2005;75:5-12 pubmed
    ..Basal systolic blood pressure increased 37.6 and 39.6 mm Hg after testosterone (1 mg/kg/day for 20 days) and nandrolone (1 mg/kg/day for 20 days) treatment respectively; diastolic blood pressure also increased upon testosterone and ..
  43. Macdonald J, Marcora S, Jibani M, Kumwenda M, Ahmed W, Lemmey A. Nandrolone decanoate as anabolic therapy in chronic kidney disease: a randomized phase II dose-finding study. Nephron Clin Pract. 2007;106:c125-35 pubmed
    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving adequate erythropoietin therapy, the ideal dose of nandrolone decanoate (ND) to enhance muscle mass is not known...
  44. Petraglia F, Hornung D, Seitz C, Faustmann T, Gerlinger C, Luisi S, et al. Reduced pelvic pain in women with endometriosis: efficacy of long-term dienogest treatment. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;285:167-73 pubmed publisher
  45. You Y, Uboh C, Soma L, Guan F, Li X, Liu Y, et al. Simultaneous separation and determination of 16 testosterone and nandrolone esters in equine plasma using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for doping control. J Chromatogr A. 2011;1218:3982-93 pubmed publisher
    The potential for using testosterone and nandrolone esters in racehorses to boost the biological concentrations of these steroids and enhance athletic performance is very compelling and should be seriously considered in formulating ..
  46. Storer T, Woodhouse L, Sattler F, Singh A, Schroeder E, Beck K, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of nandrolone decanoate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with mild to moderate weight loss with recombinant human growth hormone as active reference treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:4474-82 pubmed
    We compared the effectiveness of a biweekly regimen of 150 mg nandrolone with placebo in HIV-infected men with mild to moderate weight loss and contrasted its effects against a Food and Drug Administration-approved regimen of recombinant ..
  47. Anielski P, Thieme D, Schlupp A, Grosse J, Ellendorff F, Mueller R. Detection of testosterone, nandrolone and precursors in horse hair. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2005;383:903-8 pubmed veterinary medicines or as so-called nutritional supplements (clenbuterol, different esters or prohormones of nandrolone and testosterone)...
  48. Parr M, Flenker U, Schanzer W. Sports-related issues and biochemistry of natural and synthetic anabolic substances. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2010;39:45-57, viii pubmed publisher
    ..These products represent a major problem to doping control. Recently, clinical trials with selective androgen receptor modulators have been started. ..
  49. Strowitzki T, Faustmann T, Gerlinger C, Seitz C. Dienogest in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;151:193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the efficacy and safety of oral dienogest 2mg compared with placebo in the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain (EAPP)...
  50. do Carmo C, Gonçalves A, Salvadori D, Maistro E. Nandrolone androgenic hormone presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:810-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Nandrolone is an androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) with diverse medical applications but taken indiscriminately by some to rapidly increase muscle mass...
  51. Strowitzki T, Marr J, Gerlinger C, Faustmann T, Seitz C. Dienogest is as effective as leuprolide acetate in treating the painful symptoms of endometriosis: a 24-week, randomized, multicentre, open-label trial. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Dienogest 2 mg/day orally demonstrated equivalent efficacy to depot LA at standard dose in relieving the pain associated with endometriosis, although offering advantages in safety and tolerability. ..
  52. Schindler A, Christensen B, Henkel A, Oettel M, Moore C. High-dose pilot study with the novel progestogen dienogestin patients with endometriosis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006;22:9-17 pubmed
    ..Therefore, long-term high-dose dienogest therapy can be recommended particularly for women with progressive endometriosis. ..
  53. Zeun S, Lu M, Uddin A, Zeiler B, Morrison D, Blode H. Pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing oestradiol valerate and dienogest. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2009;14:221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The pharmacokinetics of DNG were consistent with previous findings. Minimum serum concentrations of DNG increased only slightly during phases of the regimen during which DNG was administered. ..