Summary: A class of organic compounds known as sterols or STEROIDS derived from plants.

Top Publications

  1. Niesor E, Gauthamadasa K, Silva R, Suchankova G, Kallend D, Gylling H, et al. Xanthophylls, phytosterols and pre-β1-HDL are differentially affected by fenofibrate and niacin HDL-raising in a cross-over study. Lipids. 2013;48:1185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..concentration but their effects on levels of potent plasma antioxidant xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) and phytosterols obtained from dietary sources, and any relationship with plasma lipoproteins and pre-β1-HDL levels, have not ..
  2. Lin X, Racette S, Lefevre M, Spearie C, Most M, Ma L, et al. The effects of phytosterols present in natural food matrices on cholesterol metabolism and LDL-cholesterol: a controlled feeding trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:1481-7 pubmed publisher
    Extrinsic phytosterols supplemented to the diet reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol...
  3. Valerio M, Liu H, Heffner R, Zivadinov R, Ramanathan M, Weinstock Guttman B, et al. Phytosterols ameliorate clinical manifestations and inflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Inflamm Res. 2011;60:457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence to support PS as a preventative agent that helps to protect against the development of inflammation-driven disease, such as MS. ..
  4. Valitova J, Minibayeva F, Kotlova E, Novikov A, Shavarda A, Murtazina L, et al. Effects of sterol-binding agent nystatin on wheat roots: the changes in membrane permeability, sterols and glycoceramides. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:1751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that changes in the sphingolipid composition can contribute to the changes in plasma membrane functioning induced by sterol depletion. ..
  5. Caroprese M, Albenzio M, Ciliberti M, Francavilla M, Sevi A. A mixture of phytosterols from Dunaliella tertiolecta affects proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cytokine production in sheep. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;150:27-35 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory role of a mixture of phytosterols extracted from the microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from sheep...
  6. Awaisheh S, Khalifeh M, Al Ruwaili M, Khalil O, Al Ameri O, Al Groom R. Effect of supplementation of probiotics and phytosterols alone or in combination on serum and hepatic lipid profiles and thyroid hormones of hypercholesterolemic rats. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:9-15 pubmed publisher
    Probiotic bacteria and phytosterols are natural hypocholesterolemic agents with potential cardiovascular benefits...
  7. Garaiova I, Muchova J, Nagyová Z, Mislanová C, Oravec S, Dukat A, et al. Effect of a plant sterol, fish oil and B vitamin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents: a pilot study. Nutr J. 2013;12:7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Daily intake of a combination of plant sterols, fish oil and B vitamins may modulate the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic children and adolescents. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89549017. ..
  8. Laitinen K, Gylling H. Dose-dependent LDL-cholesterol lowering effect by plant stanol ester consumption: clinical evidence. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:140 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are called for to provide confirmatory evidence amenable for new health claim applications and dietary recommendations. ..
  9. Briceño Z, Almagro L, Sabater Jara A, Calderón A, Pedreño M, Ferrer M. Enhancement of phytosterols, taraxasterol and induction of extracellular pathogenesis-related proteins in cell cultures of Solanum lycopersicum cv Micro-Tom elicited with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate. J Plant Physiol. 2012;169:1050-8 pubmed publisher
    ..lycopersicum cv Micro-Tom. ..

More Information


  1. Shay C, Evans R, Orchard T. Do plant sterol concentrations correlate with coronary artery disease in type 1 diabetes? A report from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. J Diabetes. 2009;1:112-7 pubmed publisher
  2. Mlayeh L, Chatkaew S, Leonetti M, Homble F. Modulation of plant mitochondrial VDAC by phytosterols. Biophys J. 2010;99:2097-106 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the effect of cholesterol and two abundant phytosterols (sitosterol and stigmasterol) on the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) purified from mitochondria of bean seeds (Phaseolus coccineus)...
  3. Krawczyk M, Lutjohann D, Schirin Sokhan R, Villarroel L, Nervi F, Pimentel F, et al. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease. Hepatology. 2012;55:1507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol ..
  4. Rocha M, Bañuls C, Bellod L, Jover A, Victor V, Hernandez Mijares A. A review on the role of phytosterols: new insights into cardiovascular risk. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17:4061-75 pubmed
    b>Phytosterols, which are structurally related to cholesterol, are found in all plant foods with highest concentration occurring in vegetable oils and nuts...
  5. Sabeva N, McPhaul C, Li X, Cory T, Feola D, Graf G. Phytosterols differentially influence ABC transporter expression, cholesterol efflux and inflammatory cytokine secretion in macrophage foam cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2011;22:777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Individual phytosterols have cell-type specific effects that may be either beneficial or deleterious with respect to atherosclerosis, ..
  6. Lerman R, Minich D, Darland G, Lamb J, Chang J, Hsi A, et al. Subjects with elevated LDL cholesterol and metabolic syndrome benefit from supplementation with soy protein, phytosterols, hops rho iso-alpha acids, and Acacia nilotica proanthocyanidins. J Clin Lipidol. 2010;4:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..All individuals in the PED arm but only one third in the MED arm achieved LDL-C levels < 160 mg/dL. Individuals at high CVD risk benefit from a soy/phytosterol containing medical food and phytochemical supplemented lifestyle program. ..
  7. Kelly E, Plat J, Mensink R, Berendschot T. Effects of long term plant sterol and -stanol consumption on the retinal vasculature: a randomized controlled trial in statin users. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This may constitute an explanation for the suggested effects of plant sterols on vascular function. However, this novel finding needs confirmation and further study. ..
  8. Wewer V, Dombrink I, Vom Dorp K, Dormann P. Quantification of sterol lipids in plants by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:1039-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The Q-TOF method is far more sensitive than GC or HPLC. Therefore, Q-TOF MS/MS provides a comprehensive strategy for sterol lipid quantification that can be adapted to other tandem mass spectrometers. ..
  9. Bradford P, Awad A. Modulation of signal transduction in cancer cells by phytosterols. Biofactors. 2010;36:241-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Phytosterols are biofactors found enriched in plant foods such as seeds, grains, and legumes. Their dietary consumption is associated with numerous health benefits...
  10. Savini S, D Ascenzo R, Biagetti C, Serpentini G, Pompilio A, Bartoli A, et al. The effect of 5 intravenous lipid emulsions on plasma phytosterols in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:312-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Phytosterols are elevated in neonatal cholestasis, but the relation remains controversial...
  11. Sialvera T, Pounis G, Koutelidakis A, Richter D, Yfanti G, Kapsokefalou M, et al. Phytosterols supplementation decreases plasma small and dense LDL levels in metabolic syndrome patients on a westernized type diet. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;22:843-8 pubmed publisher
    ..metabolic syndrome were assigned to consume either 2 plant sterol-enriched yogurt mini drink which provided 4 g phytosterols per day, or a yogurt beverage without phytosterols (control)...
  12. Gupta A, Savopoulos C, Ahuja J, Hatzitolios A. Role of phytosterols in lipid-lowering: current perspectives. QJM. 2011;104:301-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Devaraj S, Jialal I, Rockwood J, Zak D. Effect of orange juice and beverage with phytosterols on cytokines and PAI-1 activity. Clin Nutr. 2011;30:668-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, sterol fortified OJ and OJ Beverage are able to effectively lower biomarkers of inflammation in healthy human volunteers in addition to providing lipid profile benefits and may thus contribute to decreasing cardiovascular risk. ..
  14. Goncalves A, Gleize B, Bott R, Nowicki M, Amiot M, Lairon D, et al. Phytosterols can impair vitamin D intestinal absorption in vitro and in mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55 Suppl 2:S303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..As cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3) ) structure is close to cholesterol structure, we hypothesized that phytosterols, frequently used to decrease cholesterol, intestinal absorption and consequently to reduce hypercholesterolemia,..
  15. Choudhary S, Tran L. Phytosterols: perspectives in human nutrition and clinical therapy. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:4557-67 pubmed
    b>Phytosterols (PSs) are a group of plant derived steroid alcohols, with wide occurrence in vegetables and fruits...
  16. Wang K, Senthil Kumar M, Ryu C, Kang L, Mysore K. Phytosterols play a key role in plant innate immunity against bacterial pathogens by regulating nutrient efflux into the apoplast. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1789-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data implicate the involvement of sterols in plant innate immunity against bacterial infections by regulating nutrient efflux into the apoplast. ..
  17. Misawa E, Tanaka M, Nomaguchi K, Nabeshima K, Yamada M, Toida T, et al. Oral ingestion of aloe vera phytosterols alters hepatic gene expression profiles and ameliorates obesity-associated metabolic disorders in zucker diabetic fatty rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:2799-806 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that aloe sterols could be beneficial in preventing and improving metabolic disorders with obesity and diabetes in rats. ..
  18. Slavin M, Yu L. A single extraction and HPLC procedure for simultaneous analysis of phytosterols, tocopherols and lutein in soybeans. Food Chem. 2012;135:2789-95 pubmed publisher
    ..liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method were developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of phytosterols, tocopherols and lutein (a carotenoid) in soybeans...
  19. Otaegui Arrazola A, Menéndez Carreño M, Ansorena D, Astiasaran I. Oxysterols: A world to explore. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:3289-303 pubmed publisher
    Oxysterols (oxidized derivatives of cholesterol and phytosterols) can be generated in the human organism through different oxidation processes, some requiring enzymes...
  20. Rubis B, Polrolniczak A, Knula H, Potapinska O, Kaczmarek M, Rybczynska M. Phytosterols in physiological concentrations target multidrug resistant cancer cells. Med Chem. 2010;6:184-90 pubmed
    b>Phytosterols have been proposed to act as potent anticancer agents. However the mechanism of their action has not been elucidated yet...
  21. Malinowski J, Gehret M. Phytosterols for dyslipidemia. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010;67:1165-73 pubmed publisher
    The efficacy and safety of phytosterols for the management of dyslipidemia are reviewed. Phytosterols have been evaluated in over 40 clinical trials...
  22. Lin X, Ma L, Racette S, Anderson Spearie C, Ostlund R. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G931-5 pubmed publisher
    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance...
  23. Plana N, Nicolle C, Ferre R, Camps J, Cos R, Villoria J, et al. Plant sterol-enriched fermented milk enhances the attainment of LDL-cholesterol goal in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eur J Nutr. 2008;47:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients on phytosterols attained an average LDL-C reduction of more than 10% (12.2% after 3 weeks; 10.6% after 6 weeks) (P = 0...
  24. Plosch T, Kruit J, Bloks V, Huijkman N, Havinga R, Duchateau G, et al. Reduction of cholesterol absorption by dietary plant sterols and stanols in mice is independent of the Abcg5/8 transporter. J Nutr. 2006;136:2135-40 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that dietary plant sterols and stanols inhibit cholesterol absorption within the intestinal lumen independently of LXR...
  25. Fuhrman B, Plat D, Herzog Y, Aviram M. Consumption of a novel dietary formula of plant sterol esters of canola oil fatty acids, in a canola oil matrix containing 1,3-diacylglycerol, reduces oxidative stress in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:2028-33 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that PS-CO supplementation is beneficial in reducing serum lipid levels, and serum and macrophage oxidative stress, thus contributing to the reduction in atherogenic risk factors. ..
  26. Woyengo T, Ramprasath V, Jones P. Anticancer effects of phytosterols. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63:813-20 pubmed publisher
    Phytosterol and stanol (or phytosterols) consumption reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, leading to decreased blood LDL-cholesterol levels and lowered cardiovascular disease risk...
  27. Beck J, Mathieu D, Loudet C, Buchoux S, Dufourc E. Plant sterols in "rafts": a better way to regulate membrane thermal shocks. FASEB J. 2007;21:1714-23 pubmed
    ..Finally, the role of phytosterols in maintaining plant membranes in a state of dynamics less sensitive to temperature shocks is discussed.
  28. Sabeva N, Liu J, Graf G. The ABCG5 ABCG8 sterol transporter and phytosterols: implications for cardiometabolic disease. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009;16:172-7 pubmed
    ..regulation, and physiology of the ABCG5 ABCG8 (G5G8) transporter and the use of its xenobiotic substrates, phytosterols, as cholesterol lowering agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disease...
  29. Baker W, Baker E, Coleman C. The effect of plant sterols or stanols on lipid parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;84:e33-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon meta-analysis, plant sterols/stanols significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol, with a trend towards improvement in HDL. No beneficial effect on triglycerides was apparent. ..
  30. Demonty I, Ebine N, Jia X, Jones P. Fish oil fatty acid esters of phytosterols alter plasma lipids but not red blood cell fragility in hamsters. Lipids. 2005;40:695-702 pubmed
    ..The present results show that EPA and DHA esters of plant sterols have a hypocholesterolemic effect in hamsters, and that these new esters of plant sterols exert no detrimental effect on erythrocyte fragility. ..
  31. de Jong A, Plat J, Lutjohann D, Mensink R. Effects of long-term plant sterol or stanol ester consumption on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in subjects on statin treatment. Br J Nutr. 2008;100:937-41 pubmed
    ..We conclude that long-term consumption of both plant sterol and stanol esters effectively lowered LDL-cholesterol concentrations in statin users. ..
  32. Metzger B, Barnes D, Reed J. A comparison of pectin, polyphenols, and phytosterols, alone or in combination, to lovastatin for reduction of serum lipids in familial hypercholesterolemic swine. J Med Food. 2009;12:854-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to compare nutritional supplements (pectin, polyphenols, and phytosterols) to lovastatin to reduce serum cholesterol...
  33. Torres Sanchez L, Galvan Portillo M, Wolff M, Lopez Carrillo L. Dietary consumption of phytochemicals and breast cancer risk in Mexican women. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12:825-31 pubmed publisher
    ..051 and OR = 0.19, 95 % CI 0.06, 0.62, P for trend = 0.006, respectively). Our results support a protective role of specific dietary phytochemicals in BC risk by menopausal status, independent of other reproductive factors. ..
  34. Shin M, Lee J, Jang Y, Lee Kim Y, Park E, Kim K, et al. Micellar phytosterols effectively reduce cholesterol absorption at low doses. Ann Nutr Metab. 2005;49:346-51 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of micellar phytosterols on cholesterol absorption in humans...
  35. Marinangeli C, Varady K, Jones P. Plant sterols combined with exercise for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: overview of independent and synergistic mechanisms of action. J Nutr Biochem. 2006;17:217-24 pubmed
    ..In sum, the present review lends further insight as to the metabolic benefits of adopting a healthy lifestyle, including plant sterols and endurance training, in the treatment of dyslipidemia. ..
  36. Liu W, Ding B, Ruan X, Xu H, Yang J, Liu S. Analysis of free and conjugated phytosterols in tobacco by an improved method using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1163:304-11 pubmed
    ..flame ionization detection system (GC-FID) has been developed for quantitative analysis of free and conjugated phytosterols in tobacco...
  37. Jia X, Ebine N, Wang Y, Awad A, Jones P. Effects of different phytosterol analogs on colonic mucosal cell proliferation in hamsters. J Nutr Biochem. 2006;17:396-401 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different phytosterols and their analogs on colonic mucosal cell proliferation in hamsters...
  38. Llop J, Virgili N, Moreno Villares J, Garcia Peris P, Serrano T, Forga M, et al. Phytosterolemia in parenteral nutrition patients: implications for liver disease development. Nutrition. 2008;24:1145-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Phytosterols present in parenteral nutrition (PN) lipid emulsions have been linked to phytosterolemia and cholestatic liver disease, although no direct relation has been established...
  39. Clifton P. Lowering cholesterol - a review on the role of plant sterols. Aust Fam Physician. 2009;38:218-21 pubmed
    ..In animal models, plant sterols have been shown to reduce atherosclerosis despite an elevation in the blood level, however there is no hard end point data for this in humans. ..
  40. Hang J, Dussault P. A concise synthesis of beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols. Steroids. 2010;75:879-83 pubmed publisher
    A convenient synthesis of sidechain-modified phytosterols is achieved via a temporary masking of the stigmasterol 5,6-alkene as an epoxide...
  41. Chen Q, Gruber H, Swist E, Pakenham C, Ratnayake W, Scoggan K. Influence of dietary phytosterols and phytostanols on diastolic blood pressure and the expression of blood pressure regulatory genes in SHRSP and WKY inbred rats. Br J Nutr. 2009;102:93-101 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of increased consumption of phytosterols or phytostanols on blood pressure and renal blood pressure regulatory gene expression in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) and ..
  42. Acuff R, Cai D, Dong Z, Bell D. The lipid lowering effect of plant sterol ester capsules in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Lipids Health Dis. 2007;6:11 pubmed
    Foods enriched with phytosterols have been proven to be an effective therapy to improve blood lipid profiles. However, none of the studies have investigated the efficacy in lipid lowering of plant sterol esters (PSE) in capsule form...
  43. Wu T, Fu J, Yang Y, Zhang L, Han J. The effects of phytosterols/stanols on blood lipid profiles: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18:179-86 pubmed
    The objective of this work is to conduct a systematic review that investigates the efficacy of phytosterols/stanols in lowering lipid concentration in individuals with non-familial hypercholesterolemia...
  44. AbuMweis S, Vanstone C, Ebine N, Kassis A, Ausman L, Jones P, et al. Intake of a single morning dose of standard and novel plant sterol preparations for 4 weeks does not dramatically affect plasma lipid concentrations in humans. J Nutr. 2006;136:1012-6 pubmed
  45. Segura R, Javierre C, Lizarraga M, Ros E. Other relevant components of nuts: phytosterols, folate and minerals. Br J Nutr. 2006;96 Suppl 2:S36-44 pubmed
    ..Nuts do not contain cholesterol, but they are rich in chemically related phytosterols, a class of compounds that interfere with intestinal cholesterol absorption and thus help lower blood ..
  46. Perez C, Falero A, Duc H, Balcinde Y, Hung B. A very efficient bioconversion of soybean phytosterols mixtures to androstanes by mycobacteria. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;33:719-23 pubmed
    ..Three Vietnamese phytosterols mixtures named VN-1, VN-2 and VN-3, isolated from soybean oil may be efficiently converted into these key ..
  47. Sorenson W, Sullivan D. Determination of campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol in saw palmetto raw materials and dietary supplements by gas chromatography: collaborative study. J AOAC Int. 2007;90:670-8 pubmed
    ..The unsaponifiable fraction containing phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol) was extracted with toluene...
  48. Lee S, Choi S, An G. Rice SVP-group MADS-box proteins, OsMADS22 and OsMADS55, are negative regulators of brassinosteroid responses. Plant J. 2008;54:93-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our study demonstrates that all three rice SVP-group genes work as negative regulators of BR responses, but that their spatial and temporal roles are diversified. ..
  49. De Jong N, Zuur A, Wolfs M, Wendel Vos G, Van Raaij J, Schuit A. Exposure and effectiveness of phytosterol/-stanol-enriched margarines. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61:1407-15 pubmed
    ..Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) (data collection of Hartslag Limburg and further data- analyses). ..
  50. Miller M, Nichols P, Carter C. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils. Lipids. 2008;43:549-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.)...
  51. Ohyama K, Suzuki M, Kikuchi J, Saito K, Muranaka T. Dual biosynthetic pathways to phytosterol via cycloartenol and lanosterol in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:725-30 pubmed publisher
    ..plant species including Arabidopsis, suggesting that higher plants possess dual biosynthetic pathways to phytosterols via lanosterol, and through cycloartenol...
  52. Bradford P, Awad A. Phytosterols as anticancer compounds. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51:161-70 pubmed
    ..b>Phytosterols are specific phytochemicals that resemble cholesterol in structure but are found exclusively in plants...
  53. Plat J, Nichols J, Mensink R. Plant sterols and stanols: effects on mixed micellar composition and LXR (target gene) activation. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:2468-76 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that the decreased intestinal absorption of cholesterol and carotenoids by plant sterols and stanols is caused by two distinct mechanisms...