Genomes and Genes
Summary: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
- Cheng J, Zhang W, Zhang X, Li X, Chen J. Efficacy and safety of paricalcitol therapy for chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7:391-400 pubmed publisher..To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of paricalcitol for CKD, we conducted a meta-analysis of the published randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
- Andress D, Coyne D, Kalantar Zadeh K, Molitch M, Zangeneh F, Sprague S. Management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease. Endocr Pract. 2008;14:18-27 pubmed..Early detection of elevated PTH levels with appropriate intervention using active vitamin D therapy, even in the absence of elevated serum phosphorus and reduced serum calcium, is critical. ..
- Thadhani R, Appelbaum E, Pritchett Y, Chang Y, Wenger J, Tamez H, et al. Vitamin D therapy and cardiac structure and function in patients with chronic kidney disease: the PRIMO randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2012;307:674-84 pubmed publisher..Forty-eight week therapy with paricalcitol did not alter left ventricular mass index or improve certain measures of diastolic dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00497146. ..
- Park J, Cho J, Joo S, Kim C, Choi J, Bae E, et al. Paricalcitol prevents cisplatin-induced renal injury by suppressing apoptosis and proliferation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;683:301-9 pubmed publisher..Its underlying mechanisms may include inhibition of TGF-?1, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, p53-induced apoptosis, and augmentation of p27(kip1). ..
- Biancuzzo R, Young A, Bibuld D, Cai M, Winter M, Klein E, et al. Fortification of orange juice with vitamin D(2) or vitamin D(3) is as effective as an oral supplement in maintaining vitamin D status in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:1621-6 pubmed publisher..1). No significant overall difference in parathyroid hormone concentrations was observed between the groups (P = 0.82). Vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) are equally bioavailable in orange juice and capsules. ..
- Biancuzzo R, Clarke N, Reitz R, Travison T, Holick M. Serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in response to vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:973-9 pubmed publisher..Therefore, ingestion of 1000 IU vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 for 11 weeks was effective in raising total serum concentrations of 25(OH)D as well as sustaining serum concentrations of total 1,25(OH)2D. ..
- Heaney R, Recker R, Grote J, Horst R, Armas L. Vitamin D(3) is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E447-52 pubmed publisher..For neither was there evidence of sequestration in fat, as had been postulated for doses in this range. Given its greater potency and lower cost, D3 should be the preferred treatment option when correcting vitamin D deficiency. ..
- Wesseling Perry K, Pereira R, Sahney S, Gales B, Wang H, Elashoff R, et al. Calcitriol and doxercalciferol are equivalent in controlling bone turnover, suppressing parathyroid hormone, and increasing fibroblast growth factor-23 in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney Int. 2011;79:112-9 pubmed publisher..Sevelamer allows the use of higher doses of vitamin D. Implications of these changes on bone and cardiovascular biology remain to be established. ..
- Huang M, Winters D. Application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the measurement of vitamin D in foods and nutritional supplements. J AOAC Int. 2011;94:211-23 pubmed..The method was robust based on the results of changing the parameters of LC separation and MS measurement. This accurate and reliable vitamin D method increased instrument efficiency and analysis productivity significantly. ..
- Hansen D, Rasmussen K, Danielsen H, Meyer Hofmann H, Bacevicius E, Lauridsen T, et al. No difference between alfacalcidol and paricalcitol in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients: a randomized crossover trial. Kidney Int. 2011;80:841-50 pubmed publisher..Thus, alfacalcidol and paricalcitol were equally effective in the suppression of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients while calcium and phosphorus were kept in the desired range. ..
- Mizobuchi M, Morrissey J, Finch J, Martin D, Liapis H, Akizawa T, et al. Combination therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a vitamin D analog suppresses the progression of renal insufficiency in uremic rats. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:1796-806 pubmed..1-fold versus NC). Thus, 19-nor can suppress the progression of renal insufficiency via mediation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway, and this effect is amplified when BP is controlled via renin-angiotensin system blockade. ..
- Kalaras M, Beelman R, Holick M, Elias R. Generation of potentially bioactive ergosterol-derived products following pulsed ultraviolet light exposure of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). Food Chem. 2012;135:396-401 pubmed publisher..This study shows for the first time the production of these photoproducts in UV irradiated mushrooms. A complete understanding of the potential biological significance of these products remains to be seen. ..
- Thacher T, Fischer P, Isichei C, Pettifor J. Early response to vitamin D2 in children with calcium deficiency rickets. J Pediatr. 2006;149:840-4 pubmed..To assess the effect of vitamin D(2) administration on serum vitamin D metabolite concentrations in calcium deficiency rickets...
- Logan V, Gray A, Peddie M, Harper M, Houghton L. Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation is more effective than vitamin D2 in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status over the winter months. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:1082-8 pubmed publisher..No intervention-related changes in PTH were observed. Daily supplementation of vitamin D3 was more effective than D2; however, the functional consequence of the differing metabolic response warrants further investigation. ..
- Pacini S, Morucci G, Punzi T, Gulisano M, Ruggiero M, Amato M, et al. Effect of paricalcitol and GcMAF on angiogenesis and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and signaling. J Nephrol. 2012;25:577-81 pubmed publisher..These results highlight the role of the vitamin D axis in chronic kidney disease, an axis which includes vitamin D, its receptor and vitamin D-binding protein-derived GcMAF. ..
- de Zeeuw D, Agarwal R, Amdahl M, Audhya P, Coyne D, Garimella T, et al. Selective vitamin D receptor activation with paricalcitol for reduction of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes (VITAL study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376:1543-51 pubmed publisher..Addition of 2 ?g/day paricalcitol to RAAS inhibition safely lowers residual albuminuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy, and could be a novel approach to lower residual renal risk in diabetes. Abbott. ..
- Eleftheriadis T, Antoniadi G, Liakopoulos V, Kartsios C, Stefanidis I, Galaktidou G. Paricalcitol reduces basal and lipopolysaccharide-induced (LPS) TNF-alpha and IL-8 production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Int Urol Nephrol. 2010;42:181-5 pubmed publisher..The in vitro inhibition of transforming growth factor alpha and interleukin 8 by paricalcitol confirms the immunomodulatory properties of this vitamin D analogue. ..
- Joy M, Karagiannis P, Peyerl F. Outcomes of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease and the direct costs of treatment. J Manag Care Pharm. 2007;13:397-411 pubmed
- Mathew S, Lund R, Chaudhary L, Geurs T, Hruska K. Vitamin D receptor activators can protect against vascular calcification. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:1509-19 pubmed publisher..We conclude that low, clinically relevant dosages of calcitriol and paricalcitol may protect against CKD-stimulated vascular calcification...
- Tan X, Wen X, Liu Y. Paricalcitol inhibits renal inflammation by promoting vitamin D receptor-mediated sequestration of NF-kappaB signaling. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:1741-52 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that paricalcitol inhibits renal inflammatory infiltration and RANTES expression by promoting VDR-mediated sequestration of NF-kappaB signaling...
- Kato S, Kim M, Yamaoka K, Fujiki R. Mechanisms of transcriptional repression by 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2007;16:297-304 pubmed..Given this, the mechanisms behind vitamin D-induced transcriptional repression are probably more complex than those of vitamin D-induced transactivation. ..
- Husain K, Ferder L, Mizobuchi M, Finch J, Slatopolsky E. Combination therapy with paricalcitol and enalapril ameliorates cardiac oxidative injury in uremic rats. Am J Nephrol. 2009;29:465-72 pubmed publisher..Both mono and combination therapies ameliorated the alterations in cardiac SOD activity seen in uremic rats. Enalapril, paricalcitol and their combined therapy afford protection against cardiac oxidative stress in uremia. ..
- Tan X, Li Y, Liu Y. Paricalcitol attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:3382-93 pubmed..These studies suggest that paricalcitol is able to ameliorate renal interstitial fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy, possibly by preserving tubular epithelial integrity through suppression of EMT. ..
- Abdul Gafor A, Saidin R, Loo C, Mohd R, Zainudin S, Shah S, et al. Intravenous calcitriol versus paricalcitol in haemodialysis patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrology (Carlton). 2009;14:488-92 pubmed publisher..Intravenous paricalcitol may be superior to i.v. calcitriol for the treatment of severe SHPT in our chronic haemodialysis population. A larger randomized controlled trial is indicated to confirm these initial findings. ..
- Greenbaum L, Benador N, Goldstein S, Paredes A, Melnick J, Mattingly S, et al. Intravenous paricalcitol for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in children on hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;49:814-23 pubmed..Paricalcitol decreased iPTH levels in children receiving hemodialysis with no significant changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, or Ca x P product values during the course of the study. ..
- Sochorová K, Budínský V, Rozkova D, Tobiasova Z, Dusilova Sulkova S, Spisek R, et al. Paricalcitol (19-nor-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2) and calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) exert potent immunomodulatory effects on dendritic cells and inhibit induction of antigen-specific T cells. Clin Immunol. 2009;133:69-77 pubmed publisher..The immunomodulatory potency of paricalcitol makes it a drug of interest in the therapy of chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. ..
- Li X, Speer M, Yang H, Bergen J, Giachelli C. Vitamin D receptor activators induce an anticalcific paracrine program in macrophages: requirement of osteopontin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:321-6 pubmed publisher..The ability of VDRA to direct a switch in the paracrine phenotype of macrophages from procalcific to anticalcific may contribute to their observed cardiovascular survival benefits. ..
- Husain K, Suarez E, Isidro A, Ferder L. Effects of paricalcitol and enalapril on atherosclerotic injury in mouse aortas. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32:296-304 pubmed publisher..Combination therapy affords greater protection against aortic inflammatory and oxidative injury in atherosclerosis than monotherapy. ..
- Lambers Heerspink H, Agarwal R, Coyne D, Parving H, Ritz E, Remuzzi G, et al. The selective vitamin D receptor activator for albuminuria lowering (VITAL) study: study design and baseline characteristics. Am J Nephrol. 2009;30:280-6 pubmed publisher..Results will have important clinical implications and are expected in November 2009. ..
- Shinaberger C, Kopple J, Kovesdy C, McAllister C, Van Wyck D, Greenland S, et al. Ratio of paricalcitol dosage to serum parathyroid hormone level and survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3:1769-76 pubmed publisher..Higher weekly paricalcitol dosage per each unit of serum PTH seems to have an incremental association with greater survival in MHD patients. The observed dosage-response phenomenon needs to be confirmed in clinical trials. ..
- Aperis G, Paliouras C, Zervos A, Arvanitis A, Alivanis P. The role of paricalcitol on proteinuria. J Ren Care. 2011;37:80-4 pubmed publisher..However, our study raises a question regarding why some patients do not respond to paricalcitol. Patients with proteinuria due to diabetic nephropathy seem to respond better than patients with glomerulopathy. ..
- Shalhoub V, Shatzen E, Henley C, Boedigheimer M, McNinch J, Manoukian R, et al. Calcification inhibitors and Wnt signaling proteins are implicated in bovine artery smooth muscle cell calcification in the presence of phosphate and vitamin D sterols. Calcif Tissue Int. 2006;79:431-42 pubmed..In this study, exposure of BASMCs to phosphate and active vitamin D sterols induced calcification and changes in expression of genes associated with mineralized tissue. ..
- Stephensen C, Zerofsky M, Burnett D, Lin Y, Hammock B, Hall L, et al. Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults. J Nutr. 2012;142:1246-52 pubmed publisher..6, and -29.5 ± 15.9 nmol/L, respectively. Concentrations did not change in group C. In summary, ergocalciferol was absorbed and metabolized to 25(OH)D2 but did not affect vitamin D status, because 25(OH)D3 decreased proportionally. ..
- Ari E, Kedrah A, Alahdab Y, Bulut G, Eren Z, Baytekin O, et al. Antioxidant and renoprotective effects of paricalcitol on experimental contrast-induced nephropathy model. Br J Radiol. 2012;85:1038-43 pubmed publisher..035) and VEGF immunoexpression (p=0.018) in the paricalcitol plus CIN group were also significantly lower. This study demonstrates the protective effect of paricalcitol in the prevention of CIN in an experimental model. ..
- Tripkovic L, Lambert H, Hart K, Smith C, Bucca G, Penson S, et al. Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:1357-64 pubmed publisher..However, additional research is required to examine the metabolic pathways involved in oral and intramuscular administration of vitamin D and the effects across age, sex, and ethnicity, which this review was unable to verify. ..
- Cozzolino M, Brancaccio D, Cannella G, Messa P, Gesualdo L, Marangella M, et al. VDRA therapy is associated with improved survival in dialysis patients with serum intact PTH ? 150 pg/mL: results of the Italian FARO Survey. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:3588-94 pubmed..3, 95% CI: 0.07-1.31, P = 0.11). Results from this observational study suggest that VDRA therapy was associated with improved survival in dialysis patients, even with low serum iPTH levels. ..
- Agarwal R. Are vitamin D receptor agonists like angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors without side effects?. Kidney Int. 2010;77:943-5 pubmed publisher..Whether VDRAs will accomplish this goal among proteinuric patients with chronic kidney disease needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials. ..
- Mizobuchi M, Nakamura H, Tokumoto M, Finch J, Morrissey J, Liapis H, et al. Myocardial effects of VDR activators in renal failure. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;121:188-92 pubmed publisher..Paricalcitol may prove to have a substantial beneficial effect on cardiac disease and its outcome in patients with CKD. Prospective randomized studies in CKD patients are necessary to confirm these results. ..
- Kalantar zadeh K, Kuwae N, Regidor D, Kovesdy C, Kilpatrick R, Shinaberger C, et al. Survival predictability of time-varying indicators of bone disease in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2006;70:771-80 pubmed
- Stuckey A, Fischer A, Miller D, Hillenmeyer S, Kim K, Ritz A, et al. Integrated genomics of ovarian xenograft tumor progression and chemotherapy response. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:308 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest a new approach to identify candidate genes that are critical for anti-tumor therapy. ..
- Zitman Gal T, Golan E, Green J, Bernheim J, Benchetrit S. Vitamin D receptor activation in a diabetic-like environment: potential role in the activity of the endothelial pro-inflammatory and thioredoxin pathways. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;132:1-7 pubmed publisher..In this in vitro study, it seems that the TRX antioxidant system was not involved. The different effects found between paricalcitol and calcitriol might reflect the selectivity of vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation. ..
- Cardus A, Panizo S, Parisi E, Fernandez E, Valdivielso J. Differential effects of vitamin D analogs on vascular calcification. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22:860-6 pubmed..We conclude that paricalcitol has a different effect than calcitriol in VSMC calcification and that this could explain part of the differences observed in the clinical settings. ..
- Przybelski R, Agrawal S, Krueger D, Engelke J, Walbrun F, Binkley N. Rapid correction of low vitamin D status in nursing home residents. Osteoporos Int. 2008;19:1621-8 pubmed publisher..No hypercalcemia or other adverse effects were observed with ergocalciferol treatment. Four weeks of oral vitamin D(2) supplementation effectively and safely normalizes serum 25(OH)D in nursing home residents. ..
- Lund R, Andress D, Amdahl M, Williams L, Heaney R. Differential effects of paricalcitol and calcitriol on intestinal calcium absorption in hemodialysis patients. Am J Nephrol. 2010;31:165-70 pubmed publisher..In hemodialysis patients, paricalcitol may provide a benefit by lowering the Ca available for removal by dialysis and/or for deposit in bone or soft tissues. ..
- He W, Kang Y, Dai C, Liu Y. Blockade of Wnt/?-catenin signaling by paricalcitol ameliorates proteinuria and kidney injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:90-103 pubmed publisher..In summary, these findings suggest that paricalcitol prevents podocyte dysfunction, proteinuria, and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy by inhibiting Wnt/?-catenin signaling. ..
- Finch J, Tokumoto M, Nakamura H, Yao W, Shahnazari M, Lane N, et al. Effect of paricalcitol and cinacalcet on serum phosphate, FGF-23, and bone in rats with chronic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F1315-22 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, due to its effects on bone and to the hypocalcemia and severe hyperphosphatemia it induces, we believe that cinacalcet should not be used in patients with CKD without further detailed studies. ..