dietary cholesterol


Summary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.

Top Publications

  1. Spence J, Jenkins D, Davignon J. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: not for patients at risk of vascular disease. Can J Cardiol. 2010;26:e336-9 pubmed
    ..It is increasingly believed that consumption of dietary cholesterol and egg yolks is harmless...
  2. Djousse L, Gaziano J, Buring J, Lee I. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:295-300 pubmed publisher
    Whereas limited and inconsistent findings have been reported on the relation between dietary cholesterol or egg consumption and fasting glucose, no previous study has examined the association between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes...
  3. Schreurs B, Smith Bell C, Darwish D, Stankovic G, Sparks D. Classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response is a function of the duration of dietary cholesterol. Nutr Neurosci. 2007;10:159-68 pubmed
    Modifying dietary cholesterol may improve learning and memory but very high cholesterol can cause pathophysiology and death. Rabbits fed 2% cholesterol for 8, 10 or 12 weeks with 0...
  4. Wang D, Schreurs B. Dietary cholesterol modulates the excitability of rabbit hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2010;479:327-31 pubmed publisher
    Previous work has shown high dietary cholesterol can affect learning and memory including rabbit eyeblink conditioning and this effect may be due to increased membrane cholesterol and enhanced hippocampal amyloid beta production...
  5. Kleemann R, Verschuren L, van Erk M, Nikolsky Y, Cnubben N, Verheij E, et al. Atherosclerosis and liver inflammation induced by increased dietary cholesterol intake: a combined transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R200 pubmed
    Increased dietary cholesterol intake is associated with atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis development requires a lipid and an inflammatory component. It is unclear where and how the inflammatory component develops...
  6. Micale V, Scapagnini G, Colombrita C, Mazzola C, Alkon D, Drago F. Behavioral effects of dietary cholesterol in rats tested in experimental models of mild stress and cognition tasks. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18:462-71 pubmed publisher
    ..However, evidence for an influence of dietary cholesterol on behavioral models is poor...
  7. Ronald J, Walcarius R, Robinson J, Hegele R, Rutt B, Rogers K. MRI of early- and late-stage arterial remodeling in a low-level cholesterol-fed rabbit model of atherosclerosis. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;26:1010-9 pubmed
    ..This often-overlooked rabbit model combined with customized MR technology holds tremendous promise for studying the natural progression, regression, and remodeling of atherosclerotic lesions. ..
  8. Ichi I, Nakahara K, Kiso K, Kojo S. Effect of dietary cholesterol and high fat on ceramide concentration in rat tissues. Nutrition. 2007;23:570-4 pubmed
    ..The accumulation of cholesterol caused an increase in ceramides, which might be a new risk factor for atherosclerosis. ..
  9. Darwish D, Wang D, Konat G, Schreurs B. Dietary cholesterol impairs memory and memory increases brain cholesterol and sulfatide levels. Behav Neurosci. 2010;124:115-123 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that dietary cholesterol had an adverse effect on memory recall...

More Information


  1. Alger H, Brown J, Sawyer J, Kelley K, Shah R, Wilson M, et al. Inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) prevents dietary cholesterol-associated steatosis by enhancing hepatic triglyceride mobilization. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..lipid (TG and cholesteryl ester) accumulation, with the greatest differences occurring in situations where dietary cholesterol was elevated...
  2. Wouters K, van Gorp P, Bieghs V, Gijbels M, Duimel H, Lutjohann D, et al. Dietary cholesterol, rather than liver steatosis, leads to hepatic inflammation in hyperlipidemic mouse models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology. 2008;48:474-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of steatosis and dietary cholesterol in the etiology of diet-induced NASH was investigated using hyperlipidemic mouse models fed a Western diet...
  3. Asahina M, Haruyama W, Ichida Y, Sakamoto M, Sato M, Imaizumi K. Identification of SMEK2 as a candidate gene for regulation of responsiveness to dietary cholesterol in rats. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..identified RGD1309450_predicted, a homologous gene of SMEK2, as a strong candidate for responsiveness to dietary cholesterol. Our finding provides new insights into the pathway underlying the individual responsiveness to dietary ..
  4. Nissinen M, Gylling H, Miettinen T. Effects of dietary cholesterol and fat on serum non-cholesterol sterols according to different apolipoprotein E subgroups among healthy men. Br J Nutr. 2008;100:373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Surrogate sterol markers of cholesterol metabolism reflected absolute ones (especially in the apo E4 group) and apo E phenotypes despite variable amounts of dietary cholesterol and fat.
  5. Subramanian S, Han C, Chiba T, McMillen T, Wang S, Haw A, et al. Dietary cholesterol worsens adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and atherosclerosis in obese LDL receptor-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:685-91 pubmed publisher
    Chronic systemic inflammation accompanies obesity and predicts development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase inflammation and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice...
  6. Mutungi G, Ratliff J, Puglisi M, Torres Gonzalez M, Vaishnav U, Leite J, et al. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases plasma HDL cholesterol in overweight men consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet. J Nutr. 2008;138:272-6 pubmed
    ..Increasing intake of dietary cholesterol from eggs in the context of a low-fat diet maintains the LDL cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C for both hyper- and ..
  7. Basciano H, Miller A, Naples M, Baker C, Kohen R, Xu E, et al. Metabolic effects of dietary cholesterol in an animal model of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E462-73 pubmed publisher
    Although the atherogenic role of dietary cholesterol has been well established, its diabetogenic potential and associated metabolic disturbances have not been reported...
  8. Mutungi G, Torres Gonzalez M, McGrane M, Volek J, Fernandez M. Carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol modulate the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor in mononuclear cells from adult men. Lipids Health Dis. 2007;6:34 pubmed
    ..Subjects were randomly assigned to either EGG (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol) or SUB groups [equivalent amount of egg substitute (0 dietary cholesterol contributions) per day] for 12 ..
  9. Vinaixa M, Rodriguez M, Rull A, Beltran R, Bladé C, Brezmes J, et al. Metabolomic assessment of the effect of dietary cholesterol in the progressive development of fatty liver disease. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:2527-38 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dietary cholesterol increased the hepatic concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and oleic acid but also decreased the [..
  10. Yasutake K, Nakamuta M, Shima Y, Ohyama A, Masuda K, Haruta N, et al. Nutritional investigation of non-obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the significance of dietary cholesterol. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A characteristic feature was that dietary cholesterol intake was significantly higher, while the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly ..
  11. Schreurs B, Smith Bell C, Darwish D, Stankovic G, Sparks D. High dietary cholesterol facilitates classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response. Nutr Neurosci. 2007;10:31-43 pubmed
    Studies have shown that modifying dietary cholesterol may improve learning and that serum cholesterol levels can be positively correlated with cognitive performance. Rabbits fed a 0, 0.5, 1 or 2% cholesterol diet for eight weeks and 0...
  12. Deng J, Huang J, Lu L, Hung L. Impairment of cardiac insulin signaling and myocardial contractile performance in high-cholesterol/fructose-fed rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H978-87 pubmed
    ..The cardiac metabolic alterations that impair contractile functions may lead to the development of cardiomyopathy. ..
  13. Kennedy D, Kuchibhotla S, Guy E, Park Y, Nimako G, Vanegas D, et al. Dietary cholesterol plays a role in CD36-mediated atherogenesis in LDLR-knockout mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1481-7 pubmed publisher
  14. Rull A, Rodriguez F, Aragones G, Marsillach J, Beltran R, Alonso Villaverde C, et al. Hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is upregulated by dietary cholesterol and contributes to liver steatosis. Cytokine. 2009;48:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that dietary cholesterol upregulation of hepatic MCP-1 may help to understand the role of circulating MCP-1 in conditions where ..
  15. Chan Y, Merkens L, Connor W, Roullet J, Penfield J, Jordan J, et al. Effects of dietary cholesterol and simvastatin on cholesterol synthesis in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:681-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of dietary cholesterol and simvastatin on cholesterol synthesis in SLOS has not been reported...
  16. Subramanian S, Chait A. The effect of dietary cholesterol on macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue: implications for systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2009;20:39-44 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes current evidence regarding dietary cholesterol on adipose tissue macrophage accrual, systemic inflammation and its potential link to atherosclerosis...
  17. Harman N, Leeds A, Griffin B. Increased dietary cholesterol does not increase plasma low density lipoprotein when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet and weight loss. Eur J Nutr. 2008;47:287-93 pubmed publisher
    Diets enriched with dietary cholesterol, frequently from eggs, have been shown to produce a small but variable increase in plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol...
  18. Djousse L, Gaziano J. Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Physicians' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:964-9 pubmed
    A reduction in dietary cholesterol is recommended to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
  19. Chan J, Kushwaha R, VandeBerg J, Vandeberg J. Effect of ezetimibe on plasma cholesterol levels, cholesterol absorption, and secretion of biliary cholesterol in laboratory opossums with high and low responses to dietary cholesterol. Metabolism. 2008;57:1645-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Because ezetimibe's target is NPC1L1 and NPC1L1 is expressed in the intestine of opossums, its effect on cholesterol absorption may be mediated by inhibiting NPC1L1 function in the intestine...
  20. Pond W, Mersmann H, Su D, McGlone J, Wheeler M, Smith E. Neonatal dietary cholesterol and alleles of cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase affect piglet cerebrum weight, cholesterol concentration, and behavior. J Nutr. 2008;138:282-6 pubmed
    ..designed to test the effect of polymorphism in the cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7) gene locus and dietary cholesterol (C) on cerebrum C in neonatal pigs fed sow's milk formulas...
  21. Ichi I, Takashima Y, Adachi N, Nakahara K, Kamikawa C, Harada Shiba M, et al. Effects of dietary cholesterol on tissue ceramides and oxidation products of apolipoprotein B-100 in ApoE-deficient mice. Lipids. 2007;42:893-900 pubmed
    ..In apoE-/- mice, dietary cholesterol significantly increased several ceramides and degradation products of apoB in plasma compared to those fed ..
  22. Leon C, Sachs Barrable K, Wasan K. Does p-glycoprotein play a role in gastrointestinal absorption and cellular transport of dietary cholesterol?. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2006;32:779-82 pubmed
    ..the potential role of p-glycoprotein (Pgp) on the gastrointestinal absorption and cellular transport of dietary cholesterol. This is currently a controversial issue due to the conflicting evidence about the role of this ABC ..
  23. Robitaille J, Houde A, Lemieux S, Gaudet D, Perusse L, Vohl M. The lipoprotein/lipid profile is modulated by a gene-diet interaction effect between polymorphisms in the liver X receptor-alpha and dietary cholesterol intake in French-Canadians. Br J Nutr. 2007;97:11-8 pubmed
    ..0 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol (>3.5 mmol/l) concentrations. dietary cholesterol was obtained from a food-frequency questionnaire. The LXRalpha c.-115G>A, c.-840C>A and c...
  24. Herron K, McGrane M, Waters D, Lofgren I, Clark R, Ordovas J, et al. The ABCG5 polymorphism contributes to individual responses to dietary cholesterol and carotenoids in eggs. J Nutr. 2006;136:1161-5 pubmed
    The ATP binding cassette G5 (ABCG5) polymorphisms have been postulated to play a role in the response to dietary cholesterol. The objective of this study was to examine the contribution of the ABCG5 polymorphism on the plasma response to ..
  25. Yokozawa T, Cho E, Sasaki S, Satoh A, Okamoto T, Sei Y. The protective role of Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu extract on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:760-5 pubmed
    ..The present study suggests that Kangen-karyu could play a protective role against hypercholesterolemia through the regulation of cholesterol levels and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. ..
  26. Klass D, Buhrmann K, Sauter G, Del Puppo M, Scheibner J, Fuchs M, et al. Biliary lipids, cholesterol and bile synthesis: different adaptive mechanisms to dietary cholesterol in lean and obese subjects. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;23:895-905 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether processing of dietary cholesterol is altered in obesity, we enrolled eight lean and seven obese subjects in a double-blind crossover study...
  27. Mathison R, Shaffer E. Increased cholinergic contractions of jejunal smooth muscle caused by a high cholesterol diet are prevented by the 5-HT4 agonist--tegaserod. BMC Gastroenterol. 2006;6:8 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms by which these effects of cholesterol are reversed by tegaserod are unknown, but relate to removal of an inhibitory effect of cholesterol on enteric nerves. ..
  28. Fernandez M. Dietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006;9:8-12 pubmed
    ..The lack of connection between heart disease and egg intake could partially be explained by the fact that dietary cholesterol increases the concentrations of both circulating LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in ..
  29. Herron K, Lofgren I, Adiconis X, Ordovas J, Fernandez M. Associations between plasma lipid parameters and APOC3 and APOA4 genotypes in a healthy population are independent of dietary cholesterol intake. Atherosclerosis. 2006;184:113-20 pubmed
    ..The presence of individual alleles in this population was associated with differences in plasma lipids and LDL size. However, these relationships were independent of dietary cholesterol.
  30. Greene C, Zern T, Wood R, Shrestha S, Aggarwal D, Sharman M, et al. Maintenance of the LDL cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio in an elderly population given a dietary cholesterol challenge. J Nutr. 2005;135:2793-8 pubmed
    We previously evaluated the responses to dietary cholesterol in children and young adults...
  31. Khoury J, Henriksen T, Christophersen B, Tonstad S. Effect of a cholesterol-lowering diet on maternal, cord, and neonatal lipids, and pregnancy outcome: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193:1292-301 pubmed
    ..The marked observed effect of this diet on the reduction of preterm delivery in low-risk pregnancies should encourage future larger studies to clarify the role of such a diet in the prevention of preterm birth. ..
  32. Tous M, Ferre N, Rull A, Marsillach J, Coll B, Alonso Villaverde C, et al. Dietary cholesterol and differential monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in aorta and liver of apo E-deficient mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:1078-84 pubmed
    ..Both tissues respond in a similar way when dietary cholesterol is provided for a few weeks but differently if the conditions persist for a protracted period of time...
  33. Kleemann R, Kooistra T. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: effects on chronic subacute inflammation and onset of atherosclerosis induced by dietary cholesterol. Curr Drug Targets Cardiovasc Haematol Disord. 2005;5:441-53 pubmed
    ..We review the evidence and suggest mechanisms by which dietary cholesterol can induce an atherogenic inflammatory response in liver and vessel wall, with particular emphasis on the ..
  34. Hsu H, Culley N. Effects of dietary calcium on atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus in rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet. Lipids Health Dis. 2006;5:16 pubmed
    ..001). Ca supplementation to an atherogenic diet inhibits atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus, whereas a Ca deficient-diet promotes them. ..
  35. Wu L, Vikramadithyan R, Yu S, Pau C, Hu Y, Goldberg I, et al. Addition of dietary fat to cholesterol in the diets of LDL receptor knockout mice: effects on plasma insulin, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:2215-22 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that when lipoprotein profiles are similar, addition of fat to a cholesterol-rich diet does not increase atherosclerotic lesion formation in Ldlr(-/-) mice. ..
  36. Hashimoto M, Hossain S, Shido O. Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid withstands dietary cholesterol-induced decreases in platelet membrane fluidity. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;293:1-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that DHA is a more potent membrane-fluidizer than EPA in withstanding cholesterol-induced decreases in platelet membrane fluidity and a stronger ameliorative modulator of platelet hyperaggregation. ..
  37. Shreve S, Yi S, Lee R. Increased dietary cholesterol enhances cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster. Cryo Letters. 2007;28:33-7 pubmed
    ..7+/-4.4 percent) compared to flies on a control diet (20.0+/-2.9 percent). These results suggest a mechanistic link between protection from chilling or cold shock injury and modifications to the cellular membrane. ..
  38. Damy S, Higuchi M, Timenetsky J, Reis M, Palomino S, Ikegami R, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and/or Chlamydophila pneumoniae inoculation causing different aggravations in cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in apoE KO male mice. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:194 pubmed publisher
    ..The plaque area/intimal surface ratio was obtained by measuring all three segments. The adventitial inflammation was semiquantified (0 absent, 1 mild, 2 moderate, and 3 diffuse)...
  39. Herbert B, Patel D, Waddington S, Eden E, McAleenan A, Sun X, et al. Increased secretion of lipoproteins in transgenic mice expressing human D374Y PCSK9 under physiological genetic control. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1333-9 pubmed publisher
  40. Volk M. An examination of the evidence supporting the association of dietary cholesterol and saturated fats with serum cholesterol and development of coronary heart disease. Altern Med Rev. 2007;12:228-45 pubmed
    ..It offers alternative interpretations of the use of statins in controlling CHD. Finally, it provides an historical context suggesting different causes of CHD that have no relation to fat intake. ..
  41. Birkner E, Grucka Mamczar E, Kasperczyk S, Kasperczyk A, Stawiarska Pieta B, Zalejska Fiolka J, et al. The influence of fluoride ions upon selected enzymes of protein metabolism in blood plasma of rabbits with hypercholesterolemia. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008;124:118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..On the one hand, fluoride ions result in probable lesion of hepatocytes membranes; on the other hand, they inhibit the atheromatosic changes in the aorta. ..
  42. Paulo D, Paulo I, Morais A, Kalil M, Guerra A, Colnago G, et al. Is splenectomy a dyslipidemic intervention? Experimental response of serum lipids to different diets and operations. Microsurgery. 2009;29:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..9 +/- 10.0 vs. 62.3 +/- 7.8, P = 0.002). After splenectomy, hyperlipidemia occurred with both diets. Preservation of the upper pole tended to correct dyslipidemia in modality A and to attenuate it in subgroup B. ..
  43. Xu H, Xu H, Ryan D. A study of the comparative effects of hawthorn fruit compound and simvastatin on lowering blood lipid levels. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37:903-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover a reduction of LDL-C was evident in Group D, whereas a similar effect did not occur in Group C. The results indicate that HFC can be considered for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of atherosclerosis. ..
  44. Stoletov K, Fang L, Choi S, Hartvigsen K, Hansen L, Hall C, et al. Vascular lipid accumulation, lipoprotein oxidation, and macrophage lipid uptake in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. Circ Res. 2009;104:952-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the novel zebrafish model is suitable for studying temporal characteristics of certain inflammatory processes of early atherogenesis and the in vivo function of vascular cells. ..
  45. Kim M, Cheong S, Lee J, Kim M, Sok D, Kim M. Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. J Med Food. 2010;13:420-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with Spirulina may be useful to protect the cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. ..
  46. Scoggan K, Gruber H, Chen Q, Plouffe L, Lefebvre J, Wang B, et al. Increased incorporation of dietary plant sterols and cholesterol correlates with decreased expression of hepatic and intestinal Abcg5 and Abcg8 in diabetic BB rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20:177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, lower expression levels of Abcg5/Abcg8 in diabetic rats may account for the increased accumulation of plant sterols and cholesterol in these rats...
  47. Tsuda K. [Nutritional recommendation for hypertension]. Nihon Rinsho. 2008;66:1547-51 pubmed
  48. Matsumoto S, Hashimoto K, Yamada M, Satoh T, Hirato J, Mori M. Liver X receptor-alpha regulates proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transcription in the pituitary. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:47-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide the first evidence that LXR-alpha positively regulates the POMC gene promoter at the transcriptional level and suggest LXR-alpha to be a coordinator for cross talk between lipid metabolism and neuroendocrinology. ..
  49. Ratliff J, Mutungi G, Puglisi M, Volek J, Fernandez M. Carbohydrate restriction (with or without additional dietary cholesterol provided by eggs) reduces insulin resistance and plasma leptin without modifying appetite hormones in adult men. Nutr Res. 2009;29:262-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional dietary cholesterol and protein provided by whole eggs while following a CRD on insulin resistance and appetite hormones...
  50. Bae I, Kim S, Lee S, Lee H. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on cholesterol-lowering activity of oat beta-glucan. N Biotechnol. 2010;27:85-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the hydrolysate was more effective at increasing the excretion of fecal cholesterol and triglyceride than the native beta-glucan, showing its effectiveness in improving the lipid profile. ..
  51. Chen G, Luo Y, Li B, Li B, Guo Y, Li Y, et al. Effect of polysaccharide from Auricularia auricula on blood lipid metabolism and lipoprotein lipase activity of ICR mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. J Food Sci. 2008;73:H103-8 pubmed
    ..These conclusions revealed the beneficial effects ofAAP on the preventive actions against hypercholesterolemia. ..
  52. Spielmann J, Noatsch A, Brandsch C, Stangl G, Eder K. Effects of various dietary arginine and lysine concentrations on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;53:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The present study does not support the hypothesis that an increase in the dietary arginine:lysine ratio causes hypocholesterolaemic effects in rats. ..
  53. Liu Y, Zhang H, Jia Y, Li X. Panax notoginseng saponins attenuate atherogenesis accelerated by zymosan in rabbits. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:1324-30 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, PNS attenuates atherogenesis through an antiinflammatory action and regulation of the blood lipid profile...