Genomes and Genes
Summary: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
- Haka A, Grosheva I, Chiang E, Buxbaum A, Baird B, Pierini L, et al. Macrophages create an acidic extracellular hydrolytic compartment to digest aggregated lipoproteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4932-40 pubmed publisher..A detailed understanding of these processes is essential for developing strategies to prevent atherosclerosis...
- Castellano J, Aledo R, Sendra J, Costales P, Juan Babot O, Badimon L, et al. Hypoxia stimulates low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 expression through hypoxia-inducible factor-1? in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:1411-20 pubmed publisher..Hypoxia upregulates LRP1 expression and agLDL-derived intracellular CE accumulation in human VSMC through HIF-1? induction. ..
- Mulas M, Abete C, Pulisci D, Pani A, Massidda B, Dessi S, et al. Cholesterol esters as growth regulators of lymphocytic leukaemia cells. Cell Prolif. 2011;44:360-71 pubmed publisher..As compared to normal lymphocytes, freshly isolated leukaemic cells showed increased levels of cholesterol esters and reduction in free cholesterol...
- Puk C, Bocchi E, Lo Prete A, Ferreira S, Stolf N, Maranhão R. Transfer of cholesterol and other lipids from a lipid nanoemulsion to high-density lipoprotein in heart transplant patients. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2009;28:1075-80 pubmed publisher..7 +/- 1.2%, respectively). The transfer of free cholesterol and cholesteryl esters to HDL is diminished in HT patients; disturbance in the ability of HDL to receive lipids may affect the anti-atherogenic properties of the lipoprotein. ..
- Sieber M, Thummel C. Coordination of triacylglycerol and cholesterol homeostasis by DHR96 and the Drosophila LipA homolog magro. Cell Metab. 2012;15:122-7 pubmed publisher..Expression of magro in intestinal cells is required to hydrolyze cholesterol esters and promote cholesterol clearance...
- da Silva J, Vinagre C, Morikawa A, Alves M, Mesquita C, Maranhão R. Resistance training changes LDL metabolism in normolipidemic subjects: a study with a nanoemulsion mimetic of LDL. Atherosclerosis. 2011;219:532-7 pubmed publisher..RT also changed the balance of free and esterified cholesterol FCR's. However, RT had no effect on HDL metabolism related parameters. ..
- Matthan N, Ip B, Resteghini N, Ausman L, Lichtenstein A. Long-term fatty acid stability in human serum cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fractions. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:2826-32 pubmed publisher..Thus, our data demonstrate that storage at -80 degrees C up to 10 years does not significantly influence serum CE, TG, or PL fatty acid profiles. ..
- Kim J, Ee S, Jittiwat J, Ong E, Farooqui A, Jenner A, et al. Increased expression of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 and elevated cholesteryl esters in the hippocampus after excitotoxic injury. Neuroscience. 2011;185:125-34 pubmed publisher..Together, our results show elevated ACAT1 expression and increased cholesteryl esters after KA excitotoxicity. Further studies are necessary to determine a possible role of ACAT1 in acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. ..
- Sekiya M, Osuga J, Nagashima S, Ohshiro T, Igarashi M, Okazaki H, et al. Ablation of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 accelerates atherosclerosis. Cell Metab. 2009;10:219-28 pubmed publisher..Mice lacking both Nceh1 and Lipe aggravated atherosclerosis in an additive manner. Thus, Nceh1 is a promising target for the treatment of atherosclerosis...
- Cal R, Castellano J, Revuelta L pez E, Aledo R, Barriga M, Farr J, et al. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediates hypoxia-induced very low density lipoprotein-cholesteryl ester uptake and accumulation in cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;94:469-79 pubmed publisher..Our results demonstrate that hypoxia increases LRP1 expression through HIF-1? and that LRP1 overexpression mediates hypoxia-induced VLDL-CE uptake and accumulation in cardiomyocytes...
- Brundert M, Heeren J, Bahar Bayansar M, Ewert A, Moore K, Rinninger F. Selective uptake of HDL cholesteryl esters and cholesterol efflux from mouse peritoneal macrophages independent of SR-BI. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:2408-21 pubmed..SR-BI KO-HDL is an inferior donor for selective CE uptake compared with WT-HDL, whereas SR-BI KO-HDL more efficiently promotes cholesterol efflux. ..
- Boyanovsky B, van der Westhuyzen D, Webb N. Group V secretory phospholipase A2-modified low density lipoprotein promotes foam cell formation by a SR-A- and CD36-independent process that involves cellular proteoglycans. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32746-52 pubmed..Our data point to a physiological modification of LDL that has the potential to promote macrophage foam cell formation independent of scavenger receptors. ..
- Heikelä M, Vattulainen I, Hyvönen M. Atomistic simulation studies of cholesteryl oleates: model for the core of lipoprotein particles. Biophys J. 2006;90:2247-57 pubmed..g., in ordered domains of lipid membranes rich in sphingomyelin and cholesterol. Analysis of the rotational diffusion rates and trans-to-gauche transition rates yield results consistent with experiments. ..
- Subramanian A, Shankar Joshi B, Roy A, Roy R, Gupta V, Dang R. NMR spectroscopic identification of cholesterol esters, plasmalogen and phenolic glycolipids as fingerprint markers of human intracranial tuberculomas. NMR Biomed. 2008;21:272-88 pubmed..Furthermore, phenolic glycolipids present in intracranial tuberculomas may have diagnostic significance in differentiating them from other disease conditions of the central nervous system such as malignant tumors. ..
- Brown B, Rashid I, van Reyk D, Davies M. Glycation of low-density lipoprotein results in the time-dependent accumulation of cholesteryl esters and apolipoprotein B-100 protein in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. FEBS J. 2007;274:1530-41 pubmed
- Bell T, Kelley K, Wilson M, Sawyer J, Rudel L. Dietary fat-induced alterations in atherosclerosis are abolished by ACAT2-deficiency in ApoB100 only, LDLr-/- mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:1396-402 pubmed..The results indicate that in apoB100 only, LDLr-/- mice, ACAT2 plays an essential role in facilitating dietary fat type-specific atherosclerosis through its various effects on plasma lipoprotein concentration and composition. ..
- Llorente Cortes V, Costales P, Bernues J, Camino Lopez S, Badimon L. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 negatively regulates low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein transcription. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:950-60 pubmed..SRE sequence (+225 to +233) plays a pivotal role for the down-regulatory effect of SREBP-2 on LRP1 promoter activity. ..
- Do T, Moshkani S, Castillo P, Anunta S, Pogosyan A, Cheung A, et al. Lipids including cholesteryl linoleate and cholesteryl arachidonate contribute to the inherent antibacterial activity of human nasal fluid. J Immunol. 2008;181:4177-87 pubmed..These data suggest that host-derived lipids contribute to mucosal defense. The emerging concept of host-derived antimicrobial lipids unveils novel roads to a better understanding of the immunology of infectious diseases. ..
- Frank P, Cheung M, Pavlides S, Llaverias G, Park D, Lisanti M. Caveolin-1 and regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H677-86 pubmed
- Hodson L, Skeaff C, Fielding B. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and blood in humans and its use as a biomarker of dietary intake. Prog Lipid Res. 2008;47:348-80 pubmed publisher..The relationship between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and total plasma fatty acid composition, and the use of fatty acid ratios as indices of enzyme activity are also addressed. ..
- Okazaki H, Igarashi M, Nishi M, Sekiya M, Tajima M, Takase S, et al. Identification of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase, a key enzyme removing cholesterol from macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33357-64 pubmed publisher..These data indicate that NCEH is responsible for a major part of nCEH activity in macrophages and may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis. ..
- Moore K, Kunjathoor V, Koehn S, Manning J, Tseng A, Silver J, et al. Loss of receptor-mediated lipid uptake via scavenger receptor A or CD36 pathways does not ameliorate atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2192-201 pubmed
- Xiang G, Wu J, Lu Y, Liu Z, Lee R. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel ligand for folate-mediated targeting liposomes. Int J Pharm. 2008;356:29-36 pubmed publisher..34 h) showed more rapid plasma clearance than L-DOX (t(1/2)=17.10h). These results suggest that F-PEG-CHEMS is effective as a novel ligand for the synthesis of FR-targeted liposomes...
- Cai L, Ji A, de Beer F, Tannock L, van der Westhuyzen D. SR-BI protects against endotoxemia in mice through its roles in glucocorticoid production and hepatic clearance. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:364-75 pubmed..We conclude that SR-BI in mice is required for the antiinflammatory response to LPS-induced endotoxic shock, likely through its essential role in facilitating glucocorticoid production and LPS hepatic clearance. ..
- King I, Lemaitre R, Kestin M. Effect of a low-fat diet on fatty acid composition in red cells, plasma phospholipids, and cholesterol esters: investigation of a biomarker of total fat intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:227-36 pubmed..We compared FA changes in red cells (RCs), plasma phospholipids (PLs), and cholesterol esters (CEs) in response to a low-fat diet (LFD) and a moderate-fat diet (MFD) and assessed whether individual or ..
- Griffin E, Ullery J, Cox B, Jerome W. Aggregated LDL and lipid dispersions induce lysosomal cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophage foam cells. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:2052-60 pubmed..Thus, lysosomal accumulation of FC and CE can be attributable to more general mechanisms than just the inhibition of hydrolysis by oxidized lipids. ..
- Seo T, Qi K, Chang C, Liu Y, Worgall T, Ramakrishnan R, et al. Saturated fat-rich diet enhances selective uptake of LDL cholesteryl esters in the arterial wall. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2214-22 pubmed..These studies suggest that arterial LDL-CE delivery via SU can be an important mechanism in vivo and that dietary influences on arterial LPL levels and atherogenesis modulate arterial LDL-CE delivery, cholesterol deposition, and SU. ..
- Takahashi Y, Zhu H, Xu W, Murakami T, Iwasaki T, Hattori H, et al. Selective uptake and efflux of cholesteryl linoleate in LDL by macrophages expressing 12/15-lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:128-35 pubmed..These results strongly suggest that LRP contributes to the LDL oxidation by 12/15-LOX in macrophages by selective uptake and efflux of cholesteryl ester in the LDL particle. ..
- Pani A, Norfo C, Abete C, Mulas C, Putzolu M, Laconi S, et al. Antiprion activity of cholesterol esterification modulators: a comparative study using ex vivo sheep fibroblasts and lymphocytes and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:4141-7 pubmed..on the role of cholesterol homeostasis in the pathogenesis of scrapie revealed abnormal accumulation of cholesterol esters in ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and skin fibroblasts from healthy and scrapie-affected ..
- Tachi M, Iwamori M. Mass spectrometric characterization of cholesterol esters and wax esters in epidermis of fetal, adult and keloidal human skin. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:318-23 pubmedMass spectrometry (MS) with chemical ionization was found to be a useful tool for characterizing epidermal cholesterol esters (CE) and wax esters (WE), and was applied to analyse them in the epidermis of fetal, adult and keloidal human ..
- Liebisch G, Binder M, Schifferer R, Langmann T, Schulz B, Schmitz G. High throughput quantification of cholesterol and cholesteryl ester by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761:121-8 pubmed
- Sendra J, Llorente Cortes V, Costales P, Huesca Gomez C, Badimon L. Angiotensin II upregulates LDL receptor-related protein (LRP1) expression in the vascular wall: a new pro-atherogenic mechanism of hypertension. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;78:581-9 pubmed publisher..The in vitro and in vivo data reported here indicate that Ang II upregulates LRP1 receptor expression and LRP1-mediated aggregated LDL uptake in vascular cells. ..
- van der Hoogt C, de Haan W, Westerterp M, Hoekstra M, Dallinga Thie G, Romijn J, et al. Fenofibrate increases HDL-cholesterol by reducing cholesteryl ester transfer protein expression. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:1763-71 pubmed..01). We conclude that fenofibrate increases HDL-cholesterol by reducing the CETP-dependent transfer of cholesterol from HDL to (V)LDL, as related to lower hepatic CETP expression and a reduced plasma (V)LDL pool. ..
- Qiu X, Mistry A, Ammirati M, Chrunyk B, Clark R, Cong Y, et al. Crystal structure of cholesteryl ester transfer protein reveals a long tunnel and four bound lipid molecules. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:106-13 pubmed..Point mutations blocking the middle of the tunnel abolish lipid-transfer activities, suggesting that neutral lipids pass through this continuous tunnel. ..
- Sekiya M, Osuga J, Yahagi N, Okazaki H, Tamura Y, Igarashi M, et al. Hormone-sensitive lipase is involved in hepatic cholesteryl ester hydrolysis. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:1829-38 pubmed publisher..Incubation with LDL further augmented the accumulation of CE in the HSL-deficient hepatocytes. From these results, we conclude that HSL is involved in the hydrolysis of CE in hepatocyes. ..
- Ullery Ricewick J, Cox B, Griffin E, Jerome W. Triglyceride alters lysosomal cholesterol ester metabolism in cholesteryl ester-laden macrophage foam cells. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:2014-26 pubmed publisher..Ullery-Ricewick, J. C., B. E. Cox, E. E. Griffin, and W. G. Jerome. Triglyceride alters lysosomal cholesterol ester metabolism in cholesteryl ester-laden macrophage foam cells. ..
- Reiss K, Cornelsen I, Husmann M, Gimpl G, Bhakdi S. Unsaturated fatty acids drive disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-dependent cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration by modulating membrane fluidity. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:26931-42 pubmed publisher..We propose that FFA represent critical regulators of ADAM function that may assume relevance in many biological settings through their influence on mobility of enzyme and substrate in lipid bilayers. ..
- Ghosh S. Macrophage cholesterol homeostasis and metabolic diseases: critical role of cholesteryl ester mobilization. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2011;9:329-40 pubmed publisher..Targeting reduction in macrophage CE levels and focusing on enhancing cholesterol flux from peripheral tissues to liver for final elimination is proposed. ..
- Subbaiah P, Jiang X, Belikova N, Aizezi B, Huang Z, Reardon C. Regulation of plasma cholesterol esterification by sphingomyelin: effect of physiological variations of plasma sphingomyelin on lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:908-13 pubmed publisher..These results show that SM is a physiological modulator of LCAT activity as well as plasma CE composition, and this may contribute to the previously reported pro-atherogenic effect of high plasma SM levels. ..
- Lee E, Shon H, Lee T, Kim S, Moon D. The regional ratio of cholesteryl palmitate to cholesteryl oleate measured by ToF-SIMS as a key parameter of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2013;226:378-84 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that the regional ratio of CEs as measured by ToF-SIMS might be a valuable new marker of atherosclerotic progression. ..
- Eguchi K, Fujiwara Y, Hayashida A, Horlad H, Kato H, Rotinsulu H, et al. Manzamine A, a marine-derived alkaloid, inhibits accumulation of cholesterol ester in macrophages and suppresses hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in vivo. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:3831-8 pubmed publisher..Although manzamine A has been reported to show several biological activities, this is the first report of a suppressive effect of manzamine A on atherosclerosis in vivo. ..
- Ogawa S, Kakiyama G, Muto A, Hosoda A, Mitamura K, Ikegawa S, et al. A facile synthesis of C-24 and C-25 oxysterols by in situ generated ethyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane. Steroids. 2009;74:81-7 pubmed publisher..e., 25-hydroxycholesterol, as well as its 3-sulfate (overall yield of the sulfate, 24%) and 24-oxocholesterol (16%), starting from cholesterol. ..
- de Goede J, Verschuren W, Boer J, Verberne L, Kromhout D, Geleijnse J. N-6 and N-3 fatty acid cholesteryl esters in relation to fatal CHD in a Dutch adult population: a nested case-control study and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59408 pubmed publisher..Our data, together with findings from previous prospective studies, support that linoleic acid in plasma cholesteryl is inversely associated with CHD. ..
- Duivenvoorden R, van Wijk D, Klimas M, Kastelein J, Stroes E, Nederveen A. Detection of liquid phase cholesteryl ester in carotid atherosclerosis by 1H-MR spectroscopy in humans. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013;6:1277-84 pubmed publisher..Seventeen of the 35 (1)H-MRS spectra were of adequate quality for analysis. In vivo image-guided (1)H-MRS for detection of liquid phase cholesteryl ester in carotid atherosclerotic plaques in humans is feasible. ..
- Ryabova N, Kiselev M, Dante S, Hauss T, Balagurov A. Investigation of stratum corneum lipid model membranes with free fatty acid composition by neutron diffraction. Eur Biophys J. 2010;39:1167-76 pubmed publisher..The substitution of cholesterol sulfate by cholesterol in the membrane composition decreases membrane swelling and leads to phase separation in the model system. ..
- Millar T, King Smith P. Analysis of Comparison of Human Meibomian Lipid Films and Mixtures with Cholesteryl Esters In Vitro Films using High Resolution Color Microscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:4710-9 pubmed publisher..The films often resemble the appearance of the lipid layer of in vivo films. The data indicate that the lipid layer might be modeled best as a duplex film containing an array of liquid crystals. ..
- Rantamäki A, Javanainen M, Vattulainen I, Holopainen J. Do lipids retard the evaporation of the tear fluid?. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:6442-7 pubmed..In multi-component lipid layers, the evaporation-retardant interactions between carbon chains decrease and, therefore, these lipid layers do not retard evaporation. ..
- Sansone A, Melchiorre M, Chatgilialoglu C, Ferreri C. Hexadecenoic fatty acid isomers: a chemical biology approach for human plasma biomarker development. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013;26:1703-9 pubmed publisher..These findings open new perspectives for plasma lipidomics involving monounsaturated fatty acids, highlighting future developments for their evaluation in different health conditions including free radical stress. ..
- Kiss R, You Z, Genest J, Behm D, Giaid A. Urotensin II differentially regulates macrophage and hepatic cholesterol homeostasis. Peptides. 2011;32:956-63 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate a fundamental difference between macrophages and hepatocytes in terms of cholesterol homeostasis, and suggest an important role for UII in modulating cholesterol regulation. ..
- Meyer J, Graf G, van der Westhuyzen D. New developments in selective cholesteryl ester uptake. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2013;24:386-92 pubmed publisher..The intracellular trafficking of cholesterol in these pathways appears to be critical to their normal function and is a major subject of ongoing studies. ..