Summary: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.

Top Publications

  1. Cakouros D, Daish T, Mills K, Kumar S. An arginine-histone methyltransferase, CARMER, coordinates ecdysone-mediated apoptosis in Drosophila cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18467-71 pubmed
    ..During Drosophila metamorphosis, the removal of larval tissues is dependent on the steroid hormone ecdysone, which controls the levels of pro- and anti-death molecules...
  2. Ward R, Evans J, Thummel C. Genetic modifier screens in Drosophila demonstrate a role for Rho1 signaling in ecdysone-triggered imaginal disc morphogenesis. Genetics. 2003;165:1397-415 pubmed
    ..A pulse of the steroid hormone ecdysone at the onset of metamorphosis triggers the rapid transformation of a flat leg imaginal disc into an immature ..
  3. Zotti M, Christiaens O, Rouge P, Grutzmacher A, Zimmer P, Smagghe G. Sequencing and structural homology modeling of the ecdysone receptor in two chrysopids used in biological control of pest insects. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:906-18 pubmed publisher a steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) that specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain (EcR-LBD)...
  4. Dinan L. Phytoecdysteroids: biological aspects. Phytochemistry. 2001;57:325-39 pubmed
    ..In the present review, the distribution, biosynthesis, biological significance and potential applications of phytoecdysteroids are summarised. ..
  5. Lin J, Mitchell N, Kalcina M, Tchoubrieva E, Stewart M, Marygold S, et al. Drosophila ribosomal protein mutants control tissue growth non-autonomously via effects on the prothoracic gland and ecdysone. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002408 pubmed publisher
    ..a mechanism extrinsic to the eye, whereby reduced Rp levels in the prothoracic gland decreases the activity of ecdysone, the steroid hormone, delaying developmental timing and hence allowing time for tissue and organ overgrowth...
  6. Padidam M, Gore M, Lu D, Smirnova O. Chemical-inducible, ecdysone receptor-based gene expression system for plants. Transgenic Res. 2003;12:101-9 pubmed
    We have developed an inducible gene expression system with potential for field application using the ecdysone receptor (EcR) from the spruce budworm and the non-steroidal EcR agonist, methoxyfenozide...
  7. Kuo C, Jan L, Jan Y. Dendrite-specific remodeling of Drosophila sensory neurons requires matrix metalloproteases, ubiquitin-proteasome, and ecdysone signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15230-5 pubmed
    ..This process is controlled by both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms: The ecdysone pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are cell-intrinsic signals that initiate dendrite breakage, and ..
  8. Liu J, Shi G, Zhang W, Zhang G, Xu W. Cathepsin L function in insect moulting: molecular cloning and functional analysis in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Insect Mol Biol. 2006;15:823-34 pubmed
    ..armigera larval cuticle and epidermis layer. Har-CL gene expression, which is correlated closely with ecdysone, was higher during larval moulting...
  9. Cooper D, Thi E, Chamberlain C, Pio F, Lowenberger C. Aedes Dronc: a novel ecdysone-inducible caspase in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Insect Mol Biol. 2007;16:563-72 pubmed
    ..Exposure of third instar larvae to ecdysone resulted in a significant increase in both transcript levels and caspase activity...

More Information


  1. Marin E, Watts R, Tanaka N, Ito K, Luo L. Developmentally programmed remodeling of the Drosophila olfactory circuit. Development. 2005;132:725-37 pubmed
    ..As with MB gamma neurons, PN pruning requires cell-autonomous reception of the nuclear hormone ecdysone. Thus, these synaptic partners are independently programmed to prune their dendrites and axons.
  2. Yin V, Thummel C. Mechanisms of steroid-triggered programmed cell death in Drosophila. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2005;16:237-43 pubmed
    ..In addition, genetic studies are providing new insights into the control of autophagic cell death and revealing how this response is related to, but distinct from, apoptosis. ..
  3. Tu M, Yin C, Tatar M. Impaired ovarian ecdysone synthesis of Drosophila melanogaster insulin receptor mutants. Aging Cell. 2002;1:158-60 pubmed
  4. Gilbert L. Halloween genes encode P450 enzymes that mediate steroid hormone biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;215:1-10 pubmed
    ..We have shown that two of these genes code for enzymes responsible for specific steps in the synthesis of ecdysone, a polyhydroxylated sterol that is the precursor of the major molting hormone of all arthropods, 20-..
  5. Minakuchi C, Nakagawa Y, Kamimura M, Miyagawa H. Binding affinity of nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists against the ecdysone receptor complex determines the strength of their molting hormonal activity. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:4095-104 pubmed
    N-tert-Butyl-N,N'-dibenzoylhydrazine and its analogs are nonsteroidal ecdysone agonists that exhibit insect molting hormonal and larvicidal activities...
  6. Barchuk A, Bitondi M, Simões Z. Effects of juvenile hormone and ecdysone on the timing of vitellogenin appearance in hemolymph of queen and worker pupae of Apis mellifera. J Insect Sci. 2002;2:1 pubmed
    ..In contrast, queen and worker pupae that were treated with ecdysone showed a delay in the appearance of vitellogenin...
  7. Hentze J, Moeller M, Jørgensen A, Bengtsson M, Bordoy A, Warren J, et al. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55131 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands ..
  8. Awasaki T, Ito K. Engulfing action of glial cells is required for programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis. Curr Biol. 2004;14:668-77 pubmed
    ..During metamorphosis of Drosophila, selective pruning of larval axons is developmentally regulated by ecdysone and caused by local axon degeneration...
  9. Chavez V, Marques G, Delbecque J, Kobayashi K, Hollingsworth M, Burr J, et al. The Drosophila disembodied gene controls late embryonic morphogenesis and codes for a cytochrome P450 enzyme that regulates embryonic ecdysone levels. Development. 2000;127:4115-26 pubmed
    ..In addition, we find that dib mutant embryos have very low titers of ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and fail to express IMP-E1 and L1, two 20E-inducible genes, in certain tissues of ..
  10. Caldwell P, Walkiewicz M, Stern M. Ras activity in the Drosophila prothoracic gland regulates body size and developmental rate via ecdysone release. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1785-95 pubmed
    In Drosophila, each of the three larval instars ends with a molt, triggered by release of steroid molting hormone ecdysone from the prothoracic gland (PG)...
  11. Zraly C, Middleton F, Dingwall A. Hormone-response genes are direct in vivo regulatory targets of Brahma (SWI/SNF) complex function. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:35305-15 pubmed
    ..We found the hormone-responsive Ecdysone-induced genes (Eig) were strongly misregulated and that the Brm complex is directly associated with the promoter ..
  12. Plows D, Briassouli P, Owen C, Zoumpourlis V, Garrett M, Pintzas A. Ecdysone-inducible expression of oncogenic Ha-Ras in NIH 3T3 cells leads to transient nuclear localization of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1. Biochem J. 2002;362:305-15 pubmed
  13. Vorobyeva N, Nikolenko J, Krasnov A, Kuzmina J, Panov V, Nabirochkina E, et al. SAYP interacts with DHR3 nuclear receptor and participates in ecdysone-dependent transcription regulation. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:1821-7 pubmed
    The role of metazoan coactivator SAYP in nuclear receptor-driven gene activation in the ecdysone cascade of Drosophila is considered...
  14. Retnakaran A, Krell P, Feng Q, Arif B. Ecdysone agonists: mechanism and importance in controlling insect pests of agriculture and forestry. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2003;54:187-99 pubmed
    ..Benzoyl hydrazine analogs of 20E act like the native molting hormone at the molecular level by binding with the ecdysone receptor complex and transactivating a succession of molt initiating transcription factors that, in turn, induce ..
  15. Ghbeish N, Tsai C, Schubiger M, Zhou J, Evans R, McKeown M. The dual role of ultraspiracle, the Drosophila retinoid X receptor, in the ecdysone response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3867-72 pubmed
    The Drosophila homolog of the retinoid X receptor, ultraspiracle (USP), heterodimerizes with the ecdysone receptor (EcR) to form a functional complex that mediates the effects of the steroid molting hormone ecdysone by activating and ..
  16. Gissendanner C, Crossgrove K, Kraus K, Maina C, Sluder A. Expression and function of conserved nuclear receptor genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev Biol. 2004;266:399-416 pubmed
    ..Functional studies confirm a role for most of these 'ecdysone cascade' NR orthologs during the continuous growth and dauer molts...
  17. Luan J, Ghanim M, Liu S, Czosnek H. Silencing the ecdysone synthesis and signaling pathway genes disrupts nymphal development in the whitefly. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;43:740-6 pubmed publisher
    Sap-sucking insects are important pests in agriculture and good models to study insect biology. The role of ecdysone pathway genes in the life history of this group of insects is largely unknown likely due to a lack of efficient gene ..
  18. Koch P, Merk R, Reinhardt R, Weber P. Localization of ecdysone receptor protein during colour pattern formation in wings of the butterfly Precis coenia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and co-expression with Distal-less protein. Dev Genes Evol. 2003;212:571-84 pubmed
    ..We have sequenced a fragment of the common regions of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) from the butterflies Precis coenia and Bicyclus anynanaand found high identities (83...
  19. Cherbas L, Hu X, Zhimulev I, Belyaeva E, Cherbas P. EcR isoforms in Drosophila: testing tissue-specific requirements by targeted blockade and rescue. Development. 2003;130:271-84 pubmed
    ..a dominant-negative mutant EcR (EcR-DN), expressed it in flies with the GAL4/UAS system, and used it to block ecdysone signaling in eight tissues or groups of tissues...
  20. Sempere L, Sokol N, Dubrovsky E, Berger E, Ambros V. Temporal regulation of microRNA expression in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by hormonal signals and broad-Complex gene activity. Dev Biol. 2003;259:9-18 pubmed
    ..of these miRNAs (mir-100, mir-125, and let-7), and the downregulation of a fourth (mir-34) requires the hormone ecdysone (Ecd) and the activity of the Ecd-inducible gene Broad-Complex...
  21. Jiang C, Lamblin A, Steller H, Thummel C. A steroid-triggered transcriptional hierarchy controls salivary gland cell death during Drosophila metamorphosis. Mol Cell. 2000;5:445-55 pubmed
    The steroid hormone ecdysone signals the stage-specific programmed cell death of the larval salivary glands during Drosophila metamorphosis...
  22. Garelli A, Gontijo A, Miguela V, Caparros E, Dominguez M. Imaginal discs secrete insulin-like peptide 8 to mediate plasticity of growth and maturation. Science. 2012;336:579-82 pubmed publisher
    ..DILP8 delays metamorphosis by inhibiting ecdysone biosynthesis, slowing growth in the imaginal discs, and generating normal-sized animals...
  23. Delanoue R, Slaidina M, Leopold P. The steroid hormone ecdysone controls systemic growth by repressing dMyc function in Drosophila fat cells. Dev Cell. 2010;18:1012-21 pubmed publisher
    How steroid hormones shape animal growth remains poorly understood. In Drosophila, the main steroid hormone, ecdysone, limits systemic growth during juvenile development...
  24. Spindler K, Hönl C, Tremmel C, Braun S, Ruff H, Spindler Barth M. Ecdysteroid hormone action. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:3837-50 pubmed publisher
    Several reviews devoted to various aspects of ecdysone research have been published during the last few years...
  25. Ninov N, Chiarelli D, Martin Blanco E. Extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms directing epithelial cell sheet replacement during Drosophila metamorphosis. Development. 2007;134:367-79 pubmed
    ..that the proliferation of histoblasts and the death of larval cells are triggered by two independent extrinsic Ecdysone hormonal pulses...
  26. Hock T, Cottrill T, Keegan J, Garza D. The E23 early gene of Drosophila encodes an ecdysone-inducible ATP-binding cassette transporter capable of repressing ecdysone-mediated gene activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9519-24 pubmed
    At the onset of Drosophila metamorphosis, the steroid hormone 20-OH ecdysone directly induces a small number of early puffs in the polytene chromosomes of the larval salivary gland...
  27. Ali M, Iwanaga M, Kawasaki H. Ecdysone-responsive transcription factors determine the expression region of target cuticular protein genes in the epidermis of Bombyx mori. Dev Genes Evol. 2012;222:89-97 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we found that different ecdysone-responsive transcription factors were expressed differentially in different regions of the epidermis at around pupation...
  28. Cakouros D, Daish T, Martin D, Baehrecke E, Kumar S. Ecdysone-induced expression of the caspase DRONC during hormone-dependent programmed cell death in Drosophila is regulated by Broad-Complex. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:985-95 pubmed
    The steroid hormone ecdysone regulates both cell differentiation and cell death during insect metamorphosis, by hierarchical transcriptional regulation of a number of genes, including the Broad-Complex (BR-C), the zinc finger family of ..
  29. Van Craenenbroeck K, Vanhoenacker P, Leysen J, Haegeman G. Evaluation of the tetracycline- and ecdysone-inducible systems for expression of neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14:968-76 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we compare the efficiency, the advantages and the drawbacks of a tetracycline- and an ecdysone-inducible system for expression of the reporter protein chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and of different G-..
  30. Wang C, Ma Z, Scott M, Huang X. The cholesterol trafficking protein NPC1 is required for Drosophila spermatogenesis. Dev Biol. 2011;351:146-55 pubmed publisher
    ..studies indicated that a sterol shortage that in turn leads to a shortage of steroid hormones (for example, ecdysone in Drosophila) is likely to be the cause of NPC disease pathology...
  31. Genta F, Souza R, Garcia E, Azambuja P. Phenol oxidases from Rhodnius prolixus: temporal and tissue expression pattern and regulation by ecdysone. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:1253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these activities are dependent on the release of ecdysone, as feeding blood meal containing azadirachtin suppresses them and ecdysone treatment counteracts this effect...
  32. Hoopfer E, Penton A, Watts R, Luo L. Genomic analysis of Drosophila neuronal remodeling: a role for the RNA-binding protein Boule as a negative regulator of axon pruning. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6092-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Developmental axon degeneration is initiated by the steroid hormone ecdysone, acting through a nuclear receptor complex composed of USP (ultraspiracle) and EcRB1 (ecdysone receptor B1) to ..
  33. Gilbert L, Warren J. A molecular genetic approach to the biosynthesis of the insect steroid molting hormone. Vitam Horm. 2005;73:31-57 pubmed
    ..Further, the sequence of these hydroxylations has been determined, and developmental alterations in the expression of each of these genes have been quantified during both embryonic and postembryonic life. ..
  34. Nair P, Choi J. Modulation in the mRNA expression of ecdysone receptor gene in aquatic midge, Chironomus riparius upon exposure to nonylphenol and silver nanoparticles. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;33:98-106 pubmed publisher
    ..riparius ecdysone receptor (CrEcR) was identified from the Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) database and expression of the ..
  35. Giesen K, Lammel U, Langehans D, Krukkert K, Bunse I, Klämbt C. Regulation of glial cell number and differentiation by ecdysone and Fos signaling. Mech Dev. 2003;120:401-13 pubmed
    ..During pupal stages apoptosis of all midline glial cells is initiated by ecdysone signaling...
  36. Retnakaran A, Gelbic I, Sundaram M, Tomkins W, Ladd T, Primavera M, et al. Mode of action of the ecdysone agonist tebufenozide (RH-5992), and an exclusion mechanism to explain resistance to it. Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:951-7 pubmed
    ..We are currently cloning PDR5 (pleiotropic drug resistance 5), which is an essential step in studying the resistance mechanism. ..
  37. Rewitz K, Rybczynski R, Warren J, Gilbert L. The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006;34:1256-60 pubmed
    ..phm, dib and sad, which encode P450s that mediate the final hydroxylations in the biosynthesis of ecdysone, were selectively expressed in the prothoracic gland, the primary source of ecdysone during larval and pupal ..
  38. Neubueser D, Warren J, Gilbert L, Cohen S. molting defective is required for ecdysone biosynthesis. Dev Biol. 2005;280:362-72 pubmed
    ..A second smaller group of low ecdysone mutants do not encode enzymes...
  39. Sun J, Liang P, Gao X. Inheritance of resistance to a new non-steroidal ecdysone agonist, fufenozide, in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:406-11 pubmed publisher a cosmopolitan pest of cruciferous crops. Fufenozide, a novel non-steroidal ecdysone agonist, exhibits good efficacy and plays an increasingly important role in the control of Lepidopterous pests in ..
  40. Kato Y, Kobayashi K, Oda S, Tatarazako N, Watanabe H, Iguchi T. Cloning and characterization of the ecdysone receptor and ultraspiracle protein from the water flea Daphnia magna. J Endocrinol. 2007;193:183-94 pubmed
    cDNAs encoding the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultra spiracle (USP) protein were cloned from the water flea Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera)...
  41. Bai H, Gelman D, Palli S. Mode of action of methoprene in affecting female reproduction in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:936-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Ecdysteroid titers and expression profiles of ecdysone-regulated genes were determined before and after a blood meal...
  42. Sempere L, Dubrovsky E, Dubrovskaya V, Berger E, Ambros V. The expression of the let-7 small regulatory RNA is controlled by ecdysone during metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2002;244:170-9 pubmed
    ..In Drosophila, pulses of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) control the timing of the transition from larval to pupal to adult stages...
  43. Namiki T, Niwa R, Sakudoh T, Shirai K, Takeuchi H, Kataoka H. Cytochrome P450 CYP307A1/Spook: a regulator for ecdysone synthesis in insects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:367-74 pubmed
    The prothoracic gland (PG) has essential roles in synthesizing and secreting a steroid hormone called ecdysone that is critical for molting and metamorphosis of insects...
  44. Layalle S, Arquier N, Leopold P. The TOR pathway couples nutrition and developmental timing in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2008;15:568-77 pubmed publisher
    ..modifies the timing of development by acting on the prothoracic gland (PG), which secretes the molting hormone ecdysone. When activity of the Target of Rapamycin (TOR), a core component of the nutrient-responsive pathway, is reduced ..
  45. Monier B, Astier M, Semeriva M, Perrin L. Steroid-dependent modification of Hox function drives myocyte reprogramming in the Drosophila heart. Development. 2005;132:5283-93 pubmed
    ..Finally, the steroid hormone ecdysone controls cardiac tube remodelling by impinging on both the regulation of Ubx expression and the modification of ..
  46. Yamanaka N, Rewitz K, O Connor M. Ecdysone control of developmental transitions: lessons from Drosophila research. Annu Rev Entomol. 2013;58:497-516 pubmed publisher
    The steroid hormone ecdysone is the central regulator of insect developmental transitions...
  47. Ward R, Reid P, Bashirullah A, D Avino P, Thummel C. GFP in living animals reveals dynamic developmental responses to ecdysone during Drosophila metamorphosis. Dev Biol. 2003;256:389-402 pubmed
    ..This approach provides a new tool for characterizing the dynamic morphological changes that occur during metamorphosis in both wild-type and mutant animals. ..
  48. Wyborski D, Bauer J, Vaillancourt P. Bicistronic expression of ecdysone-inducible receptors in mammalian cells. Biotechniques. 2001;31:618-20, 622, 624 pubmed
    ..The ecdysone-inducible expression system is particularly attractive because of (i) extremely low basal expression and high-..
  49. Rharrabe K, Alla S, Maria A, Sayah F, Lafont R. Diversity of detoxification pathways of ingested ecdysteroids among phytophagous insects. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2007;65:65-73 pubmed
    ..These data point out the great diversity of detoxification mechanisms used by phytophagous insects in order to overcome the potential harmful effects of ecdysteroids present in their food. ..
  50. Lindmo K, Simonsen A, Brech A, Finley K, Rusten T, Stenmark H. A dual function for Deep orange in programmed autophagy in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:2018-27 pubmed
    ..Here, autophagy is induced by the hormone ecdysone through down-regulation of the autophagy-suppressive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway...
  51. Park Y, Fujioka M, Kobayashi M, Jaynes J, Datta S. even skipped is required to produce a trans-acting signal for larval neuroblast proliferation that can be mimicked by ecdysone. Development. 2001;128:1899-909 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the effect of an eve mutation can be rescued both in vivo and in culture by the hormone ecdysone. These results suggest that eve is required to produce a trans-acting factor that stimulates cell division in the ..
  52. Ali M, Iwanaga M, Kawasaki H. Ecdysone-responsive transcriptional regulation determines the temporal expression of cuticular protein genes in wing discs of Bombyx mori. Gene. 2013;512:337-47 pubmed publisher
    ..BHR3 showed different ecdysone responsiveness from other ecdysone-responsive transcription factors (ERTFs) and was induced by ecdysone addition ..
  53. Sedkov Y, Cho E, Petruk S, Cherbas L, Smith S, Jones R, et al. Methylation at lysine 4 of histone H3 in ecdysone-dependent development of Drosophila. Nature. 2003;426:78-83 pubmed
    Steroid hormones fulfil important functions in animal development. In Drosophila, ecdysone triggers moulting and metamorphosis through its effects on gene expression...