Summary: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.

Top Publications

  1. do Nascimento A, Cuvillier Hot V, Barchuk A, Simões Z, Hartfelder K. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) transferrin-gene structure and the role of ecdysteroids in the developmental regulation of its expression. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:415-24 pubmed
    ..The negative regulation of AmTRF by ecdysteroids deduced from the developmental expression profile was confirmed by experimental treatment of spinning-stage ..
  2. Kumpun S, Girault J, Dinan L, Blais C, Maria A, Dauphin Villemant C, et al. The metabolism of 20-hydroxyecdysone in mice: relevance to pharmacological effects and gene switch applications of ecdysteroids. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;126:1-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Ecdysteroids exert many pharmacological effects in mammals (including humans), most of which appear beneficial, but their mechanism of action is far from understood...
  3. Schubiger M, Truman J. The RXR ortholog USP suppresses early metamorphic processes in Drosophila in the absence of ecdysteroids. Development. 2000;127:1151-9 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that silencing by the unliganded EcR/USP receptor and the subsequent release of silencing by moderate steroid levels may play an important role in coordinating early phases of steroid driven development. ..
  4. Lin J, Gu S. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by the prothoracicotropic hormone in prothoracic gland cells and its developmental regulation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:622-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that development-specific changes in ERK phosphorylation may play a role in PTTH stimulation of ecdysteroidogenesis...
  5. Rybczynski R, Gilbert L. Protein kinase C modulates ecdysteroidogenesis in the prothoracic gland of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;251:78-87 pubmed
    The prothoracic gland is the primary source of ecdysteroid hormones in the immature insect. Ecdysteroids coordinate gene expression necessary for growth, molting and metamorphosis...
  6. Sieglaff D, Duncan K, Brown M. Expression of genes encoding proteins involved in ecdysteroidogenesis in the female mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;35:471-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of these genes likely supports the low level of ecdysteroids produced in vitro (7-10 pg /tissue/6 h) by tissues other than ovaries...
  7. Zotti M, De Geyter E, Swevers L, Braz A, Scott L, Roug P, et al. A cell-based reporter assay for screening for EcR agonist/antagonist activity of natural ecdysteroids in Lepidoptera (Bm5) and Diptera (S2) cell cultures, followed by modeling of ecdysteroid-EcR interactions and normal mode analysis. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2013;107:309-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Natural ecdysteroids were assayed with ecdysteroid-responsive cell line cultures that were transiently transfected with the reporter ..
  8. Niwa R, Namiki T, Ito K, Shimada Niwa Y, Kiuchi M, Kawaoka S, et al. Non-molting glossy/shroud encodes a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that functions in the 'Black Box' of the ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway. Development. 2010;137:1991-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the phenotypes caused by the loss of function of these genes are restored by the application of ecdysteroids and their precursor 5beta-ketodiol, but not by cholesterol or 7-dehydrocholesterol...
  9. Gu S, Lin J, Lin P, Chen C. Insulin stimulates ecdysteroidogenesis by prothoracic glands in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that in silkworm prothoracic glands, in addition to the PTTH and an autocrine factor, ecdysteroidogenesis is also stimulated by insulin during development...

More Information


  1. Hirashima A, Rauschenbach IYu -, Sukhanova MJh -. Ecdysteroids in stress responsive and nonresponsive Drosophila virilis lines under stress conditions. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000;64:2657-62 pubmed
    ..A role of the ecdysteroids in the control of reproduction of D. virilis under stress is discussed.
  2. Dinan L, Bourne P, Meng Y, Sarker S, Tolentino R, Whiting P. Assessment of natural products in the Drosophila melanogaster B(II) cell bioassay for ecdysteroid agonist and antagonist activities. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001;58:321-42 pubmed
    ..Possible reasons for the prevalence of antagonists and for the low potency of the majority of them are discussed. ..
  3. Futahashi R, Fujiwara H. Regulation of 20-hydroxyecdysone on the larval pigmentation and the expression of melanin synthesis enzymes and yellow gene of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:855-64 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that cuticular pigmentation is controlled by the exposure to 20E and its removal. ..
  4. Neubueser D, Warren J, Gilbert L, Cohen S. molting defective is required for ecdysone biosynthesis. Dev Biol. 2005;280:362-72 pubmed
    ..Here, we report identification of one such gene, which we call molting defective, on the basis of its lethal phenotype. molting defective encodes a nuclear zinc finger protein required for ecdysone biosynthesis. ..
  5. Pascual N, Belles X, Delbecque J, Hua Y, Koolman J. Quantification of ecdysteroids by immunoassay: comparison of enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay. Z Naturforsch C. 1995;50:862-7 pubmed
    The performance of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in the quantitative analysis of ecdysteroids was compared...
  6. Ono H, Morita S, Asakura I, Nishida R. Conversion of 3-oxo steroids into ecdysteroids triggers molting and expression of 20E-inducible genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;421:561-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Ecdysteroids, steroid hormones in insects, coordinate major developmental transitions. During postembryonic development, ecdysone is biosynthesized from dietary cholesterol in the prothoracic gland (PG)...
  7. Mu X, LeBlanc G. Developmental toxicity of testosterone in the crustacean Daphnia magna involves anti-ecdysteroidal activity. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2002;129:127-33 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrated that (1). ecdysteroids regulate critical processes in daphnid embryo development, (2)...
  8. Wegener J, Huang Z, Lorenz M, Lorenz J, Bienefeld K. New insights into the roles of juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids in honey bee reproduction. J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:655-61 pubmed publisher
    In workers of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids regulate many aspects of age polyphenism...
  9. Niwa R, Matsuda T, Yoshiyama T, Namiki T, Mita K, Fujimoto Y, et al. CYP306A1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, is essential for ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the prothoracic glands of Bombyx and Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:35942-9 pubmed
    b>Ecdysteroids mediate a wide variety of developmental and physiological events in insects. In the postembryonic development of insects, ecdysone is synthesized in the prothoracic gland (PG)...
  10. Gu S, Young S, Lin J, Lin P. Involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis by prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..mori prothoracic glands between insulin and PTTH signaling, which may play a critical role in precisely regulated ecdysteroidogenesis during development...
  11. Lafont R, Dinan L. Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals including humans: an update. J Insect Sci. 2003;3:7 pubmed
    b>Ecdysteroids are widely used as inducers for gene-switch systems based on insect ecdysteroid receptors and genes of interest placed under the control of ecdysteroid-response elements...
  12. Okamoto N, Yamanaka N, Yagi Y, Nishida Y, Kataoka H, O Connor M, et al. A fat body-derived IGF-like peptide regulates postfeeding growth in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2009;17:885-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that DILP6 is a functional, as well as a structural, counterpart of vertebrate IGFs. Our data provide in vivo evidence for a role of ILPs in determining adult body size through the regulation of postfeeding growth...
  13. Palma P, Palma V, Matos C, Fernandes R, Bohn A, Soares A, et al. Effects of atrazine and endosulfan sulphate on the ecdysteroid system of Daphnia magna. Chemosphere. 2009;74:676-81 pubmed publisher
    ..if the toxic effects observed with the isolated pesticides were promoted or not by the disruption of the ecdysteroids system of the crustacean, by co-administrating of them with 20-hydroxyecdysone hormone...
  14. Ganter G, Desilets J, Davis Knowlton J, Panaitiu A, Sweezy M, Sungail J, et al. Drosophila female precopulatory behavior is modulated by ecdysteroids. J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:413-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that ecdysteroids modulate female sexual behavior, perhaps acting as a regulator of sexual motivation, and as a component ..
  15. Gu S, Yeh W, Young S, Lin P, Li S. TOR signaling is involved in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis by prothoracic glands in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;42:296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PTTH/PI3K/TOR/4E-BP (S6K) signaling is involved in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis by prothoracic glands in B. mori. ..
  16. Bigot L, Shaik H, Bozzolan F, Party V, Lucas P, Debernard S, et al. Peripheral regulation by ecdysteroids of olfactory responsiveness in male Egyptian cotton leaf worms, Spodoptera littoralis. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;42:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these molecular, electrophysiological, and behavioral results suggest a hormonal regulation of the peripheral olfactory processing in S. littoralis. ..
  17. Warren J, Bachmann J, Dai J, Gilbert L. Differential incorporation of cholesterol and cholesterol derivatives into ecdysteroids by the larval ring glands and adult ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster: a putative explanation for the l(3)ecd1 mutation. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1996;26:931-43 pubmed
    ..Emulsified 7d25C was incorporated directly into ecdysteroids by these tissue preparations at a much greater rate than was 7d25C made in situ from 25C...
  18. Mizoguchi A, Ohashi Y, Hosoda K, Ishibashi J, Kataoka H. Developmental profile of the changes in the prothoracicotropic hormone titer in hemolymph of the silkworm Bombyx mori: correlation with ecdysteroid secretion. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:349-58 pubmed
    ..However, some unexpected aspects of PTTH dynamics in hemolymph have also been disclosed. Based on these observations, the significance of PTTH secretion in the control of insect development is discussed. ..
  19. Gorelick Feldman J, Cohick W, Raskin I. Ecdysteroids elicit a rapid Ca2+ flux leading to Akt activation and increased protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells. Steroids. 2010;75:632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect was inhibited by a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) inhibitor, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, and a phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI3K) inhibitor. ..
  20. Berreur P, Porcheron P, Moriniere M, Berreur Bonnenfant J, Belinski Deutsch S, Busson D, et al. Ecdysteroids during the third larval instar in 1(3)ecd-1ts, a temperature-sensitive mutant of Drosophila melanogaster. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1984;54:76-84 pubmed
    ..b>Ecdysteroids were studied during the third larval instar by HPLC analysis and radioimmunoassays...
  21. Kostyukovsky M, Chen B, Atsmi S, Shaaya E. Biological activity of two juvenoids and two ecdysteroids against three stored product insects. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;30:891-7 pubmed
    ..The percentage reductions of F(1) adults for S- and R-strains of T. castaneum at a concentration of 20 ppm were 80 and 99%, respectively. ..
  22. Dinan L, Lafont R. Effects and applications of arthropod steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) in mammals. J Endocrinol. 2006;191:1-8 pubmed
    ..of this short review is to summarise findings on the occurrence, metabolism and pharmacological effects of ecdysteroids in mammalian systems and to draw attention to their potential applications, particularly in gene-switch ..
  23. Richard D, Rybczynski R, Wilson T, Wang Y, Wayne M, Zhou Y, et al. Insulin signaling is necessary for vitellogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster independent of the roles of juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids: female sterility of the chico1 insulin signaling mutation is autonomous to the ovary. J Insect Physiol. 2005;51:455-64 pubmed
    ..Homozygous chico(1) females exhibit approximately wild-type rates of JH biosynthesis, ovarian release of ecdysteroids and haemolymph ecdysteroid levels, suggesting that these two major hormone systems play no role in producing ..
  24. Badenhorst P, Xiao H, Cherbas L, Kwon S, Voas M, Rebay I, et al. The Drosophila nucleosome remodeling factor NURF is required for Ecdysteroid signaling and metamorphosis. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2540-5 pubmed
    ..Moreover, purified NURF binds EcR in an ecdysone-dependent manner, suggesting it is a direct effector of nuclear receptor activity. The conservation of NURF in mammals has broad implications for steroid signaling. ..
  25. Mirth C, Truman J, Riddiford L. The role of the prothoracic gland in determining critical weight for metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1796-807 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that in Drosophila, a component of the ring gland, the prothoracic gland (PG), assesses growth to determine when critical weight has been achieved...
  26. Kholodova Y. Phytoecdysteroids: biological effects, application in agriculture and complementary medicine (as presented at the 14-th Ecdysone Workshop, July, 2000, Rapperswil, Switzerland). Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2001;73:21-9 pubmed
    Serratula coronata and Serratula inermis (fam. Asteraceae) have been chosen as the most perspective sources for ecdysteroids from the flora of Ukraine. Ecdysterone was the major component in both species (approximately 2%)...
  27. Cai Y, Dai J, Fang J, Ma L, Hou L, Yang L, et al. Antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects of ecdysteroids from Serratula strangulata. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;80:1187-94 pubmed
    The antioxidative and free radical scavenging effects of four ecdysteroids, 20-hydroxyecdysone (E1), 25-deoxy-11,20-dihydroxyecdysone (E2), 24-(2-hydroxyethyl)-20-hydroxyecdysone (E3), and 20-hydroxyecdysone-20,22-monoacetonide (E4), ..
  28. Sonobe H, Yamada R. Ecdysteroids during early embryonic development in silkworm Bombyx mori: metabolism and functions. Zoolog Sci. 2004;21:503-16 pubmed
    ..that eggs of insects, including those of the silkworm Bombyx mori, contain various molecular species of ecdysteroids in free and conjugated forms. In B. mori eggs, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a physiologically active molecule...
  29. König A, Yatsenko A, WEISS M, Shcherbata H. Ecdysteroids affect Drosophila ovarian stem cell niche formation and early germline differentiation. EMBO J. 2011;30:1549-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that ecdysteroids regulate progression through the early steps of germ cell lineage...
  30. Toth N, Hunyadi A, Bathori M, Zádor E. Phytoecdysteroids and vitamin D analogues--similarities in structure and mode of action. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17:1974-94 pubmed
    ..The ecdysteroids exert several beneficial effects on mammals, from which the most cited and deeply examined one is the increase ..
  31. Elias Neto M, Soares M, Simoes Z, Hartfelder K, Bitondi M. Developmental characterization, function and regulation of a Laccase2 encoding gene in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apinae). Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that Amlac2 expression is controlled by ecdysteroids and has a critical role in the differentiation of the adult exoskeleton of honey bees.
  32. Charles J. The regulation of expression of insect cuticle protein genes. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..genes encoding cuticle proteins are therefore good models to study the molecular mechanisms of signalling by ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones, which regulate molting and metamorphosis in insects...
  33. Gu S, Lin J, Lin P. PTTH-stimulated ERK phosphorylation in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: role of Ca(2+)/calmodulin and receptor tyrosine kinase. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:93-101 pubmed publisher
  34. Pfister Wilhelm R, Lanzrein B. Stage dependent influences of polydnaviruses and the parasitoid larva on host ecdysteroids. J Insect Physiol. 2009;55:707-15 pubmed publisher
    ..e. immediately before egression of the parasitoid. In vitro experiments showed that late 2nd instar parasitoids release ecdysteroids and are thus very likely responsible for the rise in host ecdysteroids.
  35. Soares M, Elias Neto M, Simoes Z, Bitondi M. A cuticle protein gene in the honeybee: expression during development and in relation to the ecdysteroid titer. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:1272-82 pubmed
    ..Such developmental pattern suggested that AmelCPR14 gene might be regulated by the titer of ecdysteroids. We confirmed this hypothesis using different experimental strategies...
  36. Miyata Y, Diyabalanage T, Amsler C, McClintock J, Valeriote F, Baker B. Ecdysteroids from the Antarctic tunicate Synoicum adareanum. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:1859-64 pubmed
    Five new ecdysteroids, hyousterones A-D (2-5) and abeohyousterone (6), have been isolated from the Antarctic tunicate Synoicum adareanum along with the known ecdysteroid diaulusterol B (1)...
  37. Warren J, Petryk A, Marques G, Jarcho M, Parvy J, Dauphin Villemant C, et al. Molecular and biochemical characterization of two P450 enzymes in the ecdysteroidogenic pathway of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11043-8 pubmed
    ..Expression of dib and sad continues to be localized in this endocrine compartment during larval development, being maximal in both the late second and third instar larvae, about the time of the premolt peaks in the ecdysteroid titer. ..
  38. Liktor Busa E, Simon A, Toth G, Fekete G, Kele Z, Bathori M. Ecdysteroids from Serratula wolffii roots. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:884-6 pubmed
    Two new natural ecdysteroids, 20,22-didehydrotaxisterone (1) and 1-hydroxy-20,22-didehydrotaxisterone (2), were isolated from the roots of Serratula wolffii...
  39. Toth N, Simon A, Toth G, Kele Z, Hunyadi A, Bathori M. 26-Hydroxylated ecdysteroids from Silene viridiflora. J Nat Prod. 2008;71:1461-3 pubmed publisher
  40. Hansen B, Altin D, Hessen K, Dahl U, Breitholtz M, Nordtug T, et al. Expression of ecdysteroids and cytochrome P450 enzymes during lipid turnover and reproduction in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;158:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..we observed that ecdysteroid concentrations were higher in females with large egg sacs, suggesting that ecdysteroids may be involved in egg maturation and reproduction...
  41. Bathori M. Phytoecdysteroids effects on mammalians, isolation and analysis. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2002;2:285-93 pubmed
    b>Ecdysteroids are known insect moulting hormones, regulating the insects' metamorphosis. At the same time, ecdysteroids reveal beneficial effects on humans and animals alike...
  42. Wismar J, Habtemichael N, Warren J, Dai J, Gilbert L, Gateff E. The mutation without children(rgl) causes ecdysteroid deficiency in third-instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2000;226:1-17 pubmed
    ..The woc protein shows considerable homology to human proteins which have been implicated in both mental retardation and a leukemia/lymphoma syndrome. ..
  43. Ványolós A, Simon A, Toth G, Polgar L, Kele Z, Ilku A, et al. C-29 ecdysteroids from Ajuga reptans var. reptans. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:929-32 pubmed publisher
    ..reptans resulted in the isolation of three new ecdysteroids, named reptanslactone A (2), reptanslactone B (3), and sendreisterone (5), and the known 24-..
  44. Simon A, Pongracz Z, Toth G, Mák M, Mathe I, Bathori M. A new ecdysteroid with unique 9beta-OH and four other ecdysteroids from Silene italica ssp. nemoralis. Steroids. 2004;69:389-94 pubmed
    ..nemoralis. Compound 1 is the C-9 epimer of the known 9alpha,20-dihydroxyecdysone (6) and represents a peculiar steroid skeleton. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, IR and MS spectroscopy. ..
  45. Rybczynski R, Bell S, Gilbert L. Activation of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by the insect prothoracicotropic hormone. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;184:1-11 pubmed
    ..The predominant source of ecdysteroids in pre-adult insects is the prothoracic gland, which is under the acute control of the neuropeptide hormone ..
  46. Suksamrarn A, Jankam A, Tarnchompoo B, Putchakarn S. Ecdysteroids from a Zoanthus sp. J Nat Prod. 2002;65:1194-7 pubmed
    A new ecdysteroid, zoanthusterone, has been isolated from a marine zoanthid, Zoanthus sp. Ten known ecdysteroids, ponasterone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone 2-acetate, viticosterone E, integristerone A 25-acetate, 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone, ..
  47. Champlin D, Truman J. Ecdysteroids govern two phases of eye development during metamorphosis of the moth, Manduca sexta. Development. 1998;125:2009-18 pubmed
    The eye primordium of the moth, Manduca sexta, shows two different developmental responses to ecdysteroids depending on the concentration to which it is exposed...
  48. Lapenna S, Dinan L, Friz J, Hopfinger A, Liu J, Hormann R. Semi-synthetic ecdysteroids as gene-switch actuators: synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and prospective ADME properties. ChemMedChem. 2009;4:55-68 pubmed publisher
    ..However, potent natural ecdysteroids possess absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties that have not been optimised for ..
  49. Warren J, O Connor M, Gilbert L. Studies on the Black Box: incorporation of 3-oxo-7-dehydrocholesterol into ecdysteroids by Drosophila melanogaster and Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:677-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In this manner, 3-oxo-7dC is quickly and efficiently incorporated into ecdysteroids by adult male and female Drosophila raised on a diet containing the PSKB ketals and in prothoracic glands of ..
  50. Pérez Hedo M, Goodman W, Schafellner C, Martini A, Sehnal F, Eizaguirre M. Control of larval-pupal-adult molt in the moth Sesamia nonagrioides by juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:602-7 pubmed publisher
    ..that the prothoracic glands (PGs) and the corpora allata (CA) of debrained larvae continue to produce ecdysteroids and JHs, respectively...
  51. De Loof A. Ecdysteroids, juvenile hormone and insect neuropeptides: Recent successes and remaining major challenges. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;155:3-13 pubmed
    ..Substantial progress has been realized in identifying the Halloween genes, a membrane receptor(s) for ecdysteroids, a nuclear receptor for methylfarnesoate, and dozens of GPCRs for insect neuropeptides...
  52. Sena Filho J, Duringer J, Maia G, Tavares J, Xavier H, da Silva M, et al. Ecdysteroids from Vitex species: distribution and compilation of their 13C-NMR spectral data. Chem Biodivers. 2008;5:707-13 pubmed publisher
    Iridoids and ecdysteroids are found in some genera of the family Verbenaceae...
  53. Kingan T, Adams M. Ecdysteroids regulate secretory competence in Inka cells. J Exp Biol. 2000;203:3011-8 pubmed
    Ecdysis, or molting behavior, in insects requires the sequential action of high levels of ecdysteroids, which induce accumulation of ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH) in Inka cells, followed by low levels of ecdysteroids, permissive for ..