desmosterol

Summary

Summary: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.

Top Publications

  1. Rodriguez Acebes S, de la Cueva P, Fernandez Hernando C, Ferruelo A, Lasunción M, Rawson R, et al. Desmosterol can replace cholesterol in sustaining cell proliferation and regulating the SREBP pathway in a sterol-Delta24-reductase-deficient cell line. Biochem J. 2009;420:305-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway is controlled by cholesterol and cholesterol-derived oxysterols. J774 cells cannot convert desmosterol into cholesterol, a defect resulting from the absence of mRNA for sterol-Delta24-reductase...
  2. Bourre J, Clement M, Gerard D, Chaudiere J. Alterations of cholesterol synthesis precursors (7-dehydrocholesterol, 7-dehydrodesmosterol, desmosterol) in dysmyelinating neurological mutant mouse (quaking, shiverer and trembler) in the PNS and the CNS. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989;1004:387-90 pubmed
    In brain, levels of cholesterol, desmosterol and 7-dehydrodesmosterol are reduced in shiverer and quaking, but not in trembler 60-day-old dysmyelinating mutant mice. Very interestingly, 7-dehydrocholesterol is not altered in any mutant...
  3. Zerenturk E, Sharpe L, Ikonen E, Brown A. Desmosterol and DHCR24: unexpected new directions for a terminal step in cholesterol synthesis. Prog Lipid Res. 2013;52:666-80 pubmed publisher
    3?-Hydroxysterol ?(24)-reductase (DHCR24) catalyzes the conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol...
  4. Simonen M, Männistö V, Leppänen J, Kaminska D, Kärjä V, Venesmaa S, et al. Desmosterol in human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology. 2013;58:976-82 pubmed publisher
    ..6 ± 5.8 years, BMI 27.1 ± 4.0 kg/m(2) ). Serum desmosterol levels and the desmosterol-to-cholesterol ratio were higher in individuals with NASH, but not in individuals ..
  5. Jansen M, Pietiäinen V, Pölönen H, Rasilainen L, Koivusalo M, Ruotsalainen U, et al. Cholesterol substitution increases the structural heterogeneity of caveolae. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14610-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the structure and function of caveolae, we replaced cholesterol in mammalian cells with its immediate precursor desmosterol by inhibiting 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase...
  6. Vainio S, Jansen M, Koivusalo M, Rog T, Karttunen M, Vattulainen I, et al. Significance of sterol structural specificity. Desmosterol cannot replace cholesterol in lipid rafts. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:348-55 pubmed
    b>Desmosterol is an immediate precursor of cholesterol in the Bloch pathway of sterol synthesis and an abundant membrane lipid in specific cell types...
  7. Huster D, Scheidt H, Arnold K, Herrmann A, Muller P. Desmosterol may replace cholesterol in lipid membranes. Biophys J. 2005;88:1838-44 pubmed
    ..For these animals, synthesis of cholesterol was interrupted at the level of its immediate precursor, desmosterol. Since cholesterol is a major and essential constituent of mammalian cellular membranes, we asked whether ..
  8. Westover E, Covey D. First synthesis of ent-desmosterol and its conversion to ent-deuterocholesterol. Steroids. 2003;68:159-66 pubmed
    We report the first synthesis of the unnatural enantiomer of desmosterol (ent-desmosterol). The sterol nucleus was constructed enantiospecifically, followed by stepwise addition of the side chain...
  9. Connor W, Lin D, Wolf D, Alexander M. Uneven distribution of desmosterol and docosahexaenoic acid in the heads and tails of monkey sperm. J Lipid Res. 1998;39:1404-11 pubmed
    Previously we demonstrated high concentrations of desmosterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) in monkey testes and sperm. Desmosterol, a cholesterol precursor, is not present elsewhere in the body...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Bourre J, Clement M, Gerard D, LeGrand R, Chaudiere J. Precursors for cholesterol synthesis (7-dehydrocholesterol, 7-dehydrodesmosterol, and desmosterol): cholesterol/7-dehydrocholesterol ratio as an index of development and aging in PNS but not in CNS. J Neurochem. 1990;54:1196-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the 7-dehydrodesmosterol content peaked at 14 days and was nearly undetectable after 60 days. The desmosterol content peaked at 21 days and was nearly undetectable after 1 year...
  2. Wang N, Yvan Charvet L, Lutjohann D, Mulder M, Vanmierlo T, Kim T, et al. ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 and G4 mediate cholesterol and desmosterol efflux to HDL and regulate sterol accumulation in the brain. FASEB J. 2008;22:1073-82 pubmed
    ..mice, levels of several sterol intermediates in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, namely desmosterol, lathosterol, and lanosterol, as well as 27-OH cholesterol, were increased 2- to 3-fold...
  3. Heverin M, Meaney S, Brafman A, Shafir M, Olin M, Shafaati M, et al. Studies on the cholesterol-free mouse: strong activation of LXR-regulated hepatic genes when replacing cholesterol with desmosterol. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2191-7 pubmed
    Characterization of cholesterol homeostasis in male mice with a genetic inactivation of 3beta-hydroxysteroid-delta24-reductase, causing replacement of almost all cholesterol with desmosterol.
  4. Wechsler A, Brafman A, Shafir M, Heverin M, Gottlieb H, Damari G, et al. Generation of viable cholesterol-free mice. Science. 2003;302:2087 pubmed
  5. Singh P, Saxena R, Paila Y, Jafurulla M, Chattopadhyay A. Differential effects of cholesterol and desmosterol on the ligand binding function of the hippocampal serotonin(1A) receptor: implications in desmosterolosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:2169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of cholesterol, we depleted cholesterol from native hippocampal membranes followed by replenishment with desmosterol. Desmosterol is an immediate biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol in the Bloch pathway differing only in a ..
  6. Andersson H, Kratz L, Kelley R. Desmosterolosis presenting with multiple congenital anomalies and profound developmental delay. Am J Med Genet. 2002;113:315-9 pubmed
    b>Desmosterol (cholesta-5,24-dien-3beta-ol) is a minor sterol that forms as an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway when the 24-unsaturated sterol bond is reduced as the last step rather than earlier in the conversion of ..
  7. Connor W, Lin D, Neuringer M. Biochemical markers for puberty in the monkey testis: desmosterol and docosahexaenoic acid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:1911-6 pubmed
    We previously reported that the sperm of rhesus monkeys and humans uniquely contain large amounts of desmosterol not found in other tissues and have a high concentration of the highly polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (..
  8. Lin D, Connor W, Wolf D, Neuringer M, Hachey D. Unique lipids of primate spermatozoa: desmosterol and docosahexaenoic acid. J Lipid Res. 1993;34:491-9 pubmed
    ..Two sterols were identified: cholesterol, 41%, and desmosterol, 59% of total sterols. Desmosterol was found only in the free form...
  9. Ciufo L, Murray P, Thompson A, Rigden D, Rees H. Characterisation of a desmosterol reductase involved in phytosterol dealkylation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21316 pubmed publisher
    ..The final step of this dealkylation pathway involves desmosterol reductase (DHCR24)-catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol...
  10. Zhang S, Sakuradani E, Shimizu S. Identification of a sterol Delta7 reductase gene involved in desmosterol biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina 1S-4. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:1736-41 pubmed
    ..Delta7 reductase from the filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina 1S-4, which accumulates cholesta-5,24-dienol (desmosterol) as the main sterol, revealed that the open reading frame of this gene, designated MoDelta7SR, consists of 1,..
  11. Waterham H, Koster J, Romeijn G, Hennekam R, Vreken P, Andersson H, et al. Mutations in the 3beta-hydroxysterol Delta24-reductase gene cause desmosterolosis, an autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;69:685-94 pubmed
    ..Patients with desmosterolosis have elevated levels of the cholesterol precursor desmosterol, in plasma, tissue, and cultured cells; this abnormality suggests a deficiency of the enzyme 3beta-..
  12. Rodriguez Acebes S, Cueva P, Ferruelo A, Fernandez Hernando C, Lasunción M, Martinez Botas J, et al. Dose-dependent dual effects of cholesterol and desmosterol on J774 macrophage proliferation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:484-488 pubmed publisher
    ..ability of native, oxidized and acetylated low-density lipoproteins (nLDL, oxLDL and acLDL, respectively) and desmosterol to act as sources of sterol for the proliferation of J774A.1 macrophages. Treatment with 0...
  13. Spann N, Garmire L, McDonald J, Myers D, Milne S, Shibata N, et al. Regulated accumulation of desmosterol integrates macrophage lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses. Cell. 2012;151:138-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that regulated accumulation of desmosterol underlies many of the homeostatic responses, including activation of LXR target genes, inhibition of SREBP ..
  14. Rodgers M, Villareal V, Schaefer E, Peng L, Corey K, Chung R, et al. Lipid metabolite profiling identifies desmosterol metabolism as a new antiviral target for hepatitis C virus. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:6896-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of the HCV JFH1 cell culture infection model, we identified a significant steady-state accumulation of desmosterol, an immediate precursor to cholesterol...
  15. Fliesler S, Richards M, Miller C, Cenedella R. Cholesterol synthesis in the vertebrate retina: effects of U18666A on rat retinal structure, photoreceptor membrane assembly, and sterol metabolism and composition. Lipids. 2000;35:289-96 pubmed
    Treatment of neonatal rats with U18666A, an inhibitor of desmosterol delta24-reductase, results in accumulation of desmosterol (delta5,24) and depletion of cholesterol (delta5) in various bodily tissues and also causes cataracts...
  16. Wisniewski T, Newman K, Javitt N. Alzheimer's disease: brain desmosterol levels. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;33:881-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Desmosterol is a C27 sterol intermediate in cholesterol synthesis generated during the metabolic pathway that transforms lanosterol into cholesterol...
  17. Yang C, McDonald J, Patel A, Zhang Y, Umetani M, Xu F, et al. Sterol intermediates from cholesterol biosynthetic pathway as liver X receptor ligands. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:27816-26 pubmed
    ..the sterol was necessary and sufficient for activity, with the C-24 unsaturated cholesterol precursor sterols desmosterol and zymosterol exerting the largest effects...
  18. Goh E, Colles S, Otte K. HPLC analysis of desmosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, and cholesterol. Lipids. 1989;24:652-5 pubmed
    A simple and sensitive method to analyze mixtures of desmosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol and cholesterol is described...
  19. Samuli Ollila O, Rog T, Karttunen M, Vattulainen I. Role of sterol type on lateral pressure profiles of lipid membranes affecting membrane protein functionality: Comparison between cholesterol, desmosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ketosterol. J Struct Biol. 2007;159:311-23 pubmed
    ..We find that the lateral pressure profile is altered when cholesterol is replaced by either desmosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, or ketosterol...
  20. Rog T, Vattulainen I, Jansen M, Ikonen E, Karttunen M. Comparison of cholesterol and its direct precursors along the biosynthetic pathway: effects of cholesterol, desmosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol on saturated and unsaturated lipid bilayers. J Chem Phys. 2008;129:154508 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we elucidate this issue through atomic-scale simulations of desmosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC), which are immediate precursors of cholesterol in its two distinct biosynthetic ..
  21. Saraiva D, Semedo R, Castilho M, Silva J, Ramos F. Selection of the derivatization reagent--the case of human blood cholesterol, its precursors and phytosterols GC-MS analyses. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011;879:3806-11 pubmed publisher
    Phytosterols (PS; ?-sitosterol and campesterol) and cholesterol precursors (CP; desmosterol and lathosterol) have been suggested as important biochemical markers of cholesterol intestinal absorption and liver biosynthesis, respectively...
  22. Johnston J, Goodall M, Yoder C, Furcolow C, Goldade D, Kimball B, et al. Desmosterol: a biomarker for the efficient development of 20,25-diazacholesterol as a contraceptive for pest wildlife. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:140-5 pubmed
    ..change in chromatographic peak area associated with 20,25-diazacholesterol administration was observed for desmosterol, a cholesterol precursor...
  23. Stevenson J, Brown A. How essential is cholesterol?. Biochem J. 2009;420:e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Rodríguez-Acebes et al. show that a cholesterol precursor, desmosterol, can support cell proliferation in the absence of cholesterol in a murine macrophage-like model (J774-D cells)...
  24. Stranberg T, Salomaa V, Vanhanen H, Miettinen T. Associations of fasting blood glucose with cholesterol absorption and synthesis in nondiabetic middle-aged men. Diabetes. 1996;45:755-61 pubmed
    ..05) but not to LDL cholesterol (P = 0.19). Significantly higher serum lathosterol and desmosterol-to-cholesterol proportions and lower plant sterol and cholestanol proportions in the highest rather than the ..
  25. Awano M, Kawaguchi A, Mohri H. Lipid composition of hamster epididymal spermatozoa. J Reprod Fertil. 1993;99:375-83 pubmed
    ..the transit of spermatozoa through the epididymis: the amount of cholesterol decreased, while the amount of desmosterol and cholesta-7,24-dien-3 beta-ol increased...
  26. Hakala K, Vuoristo M, Miettinen T. Serum cholesterol, cholesterol precursors and plant sterols in different inflammatory bowel diseases. Digestion. 1996;57:83-9 pubmed
    ..The sterols included cholesterol precursors (delta 8-cholestenol, desmosterol and lathosterol), markers of cholesterol synthesis, cholestanol and plant sterols (campesterol and sitosterol), ..
  27. Nissinen M, Miettinen T, Gylling H, Miettinen T. Applicability of non-cholesterol sterols in predicting response in cholesterol metabolism to simvastatin and fluvastatin treatment among hypercholesterolemic men. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20:308-16 pubmed publisher
    ..of serum cholestanol/cholesterol was 11% lower but those of lathosterol/cholesterol, lathosterol/cholestanol, desmosterol/cholesterol, desmosterol/cholestanol were 36-65% higher among good than poor responders (p<0.05 for each)...
  28. van Himbergen T, Otokozawa S, Matthan N, Schaefer E, Buchsbaum A, Ai M, et al. Familial combined hyperlipidemia is associated with alterations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma levels of squalene, desmosterol, and lathosterol (cholesterol synthesis markers) and campesterol, sitosterol, and cholestanol (cholesterol ..
  29. Fujimoto Y, Morisaki M, Ikekawa N. [Studies on the biosynthesis of sterol side chain in higher plants]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2000;120:863-73 pubmed
    ..4), typical C28-sterols in higher plants, are biosynthesized from a steroidal 24-ene precursor (desmosterol 1) via 24-methylenecholesterol (2) and 24-methyldesmosterol (5)...
  30. Zolotushko J, Flusser H, Markus B, Shelef I, Langer Y, Heverin M, et al. The desmosterolosis phenotype: spasticity, microcephaly and micrognathia with agenesis of corpus callosum and loss of white matter. Eur J Hum Genet. 2011;19:942-6 pubmed publisher
    Desmosterolosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of elevated levels of the cholesterol precursor desmosterol in plasma, tissue and cultured cells...
  31. Miettinen T, Tilvis R, Kesaniemi Y. Serum plant sterols and cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol absorption and synthesis in volunteers of a randomly selected male population. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;131:20-31 pubmed
    ..Serum levels of cholesterol precursors, desmosterol and lathosterol (in terms of micrograms/mg cholesterol), were negatively related to both the fractional and ..
  32. Haldar S, Kanaparthi R, Samanta A, Chattopadhyay A. Differential effect of cholesterol and its biosynthetic precursors on membrane dipole potential. Biophys J. 2012;102:1561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we explored the effects of immediate (7-DHC and desmosterol) and evolutionary (ergosterol) precursors of cholesterol on membrane dipole potential, monitored by the dual ..
  33. Schaaf C, Koster J, Katsonis P, Kratz L, Shchelochkov O, Scaglia F, et al. Desmosterolosis-phenotypic and molecular characterization of a third case and review of the literature. Am J Med Genet A. 2011;155A:1597-604 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of desmosterolosis was established by detection of significant elevation of plasma desmosterol levels and reduced enzyme activity of DHCR24 upon expression of the patient's DHCR24 cDNA in yeast...
  34. Hallikainen M, Toppinen L, Mykkanen H, Agren J, Laaksonen D, Miettinen T, et al. Interaction between cholesterol and glucose metabolism during dietary carbohydrate modification in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:1385-92 pubmed
    ..on cholesterol synthesis and absorption by measuring the ratios of surrogate markers of precursor (cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol) and absorption (cholestanol and plant sterols) sterols to cholesterol and their association ..
  35. Berring E, Borrenpohl K, Fliesler S, Serfis A. A comparison of the behavior of cholesterol and selected derivatives in mixed sterol-phospholipid Langmuir monolayers: a fluorescence microscopy study. Chem Phys Lipids. 2005;136:1-12 pubmed
    ..In this study, the interactions of CHOL and the related sterols desmosterol (DES) and 7DHC with l-alpha-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers were compared...
  36. Nimmo M, Cross N. Structural features of sterols required to inhibit human sperm capacitation. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:1308-17 pubmed
    ..Human sperm also contain much desmosterol, which is lost from sperm during capacitation...
  37. Sion B, Grizard G, Boucher D. Quantitative analysis of desmosterol, cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate in semen by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2001;935:259-65 pubmed
    A simple, rapid and accurate method to separate and quantify cholesterol, desmosterol and cholesterol sulfate in human spermatozoa and seminal plasma (SP) is described...
  38. Miettinen T, Strandberg T, Gylling H. Noncholesterol sterols and cholesterol lowering by long-term simvastatin treatment in coronary patients: relation to basal serum cholestanol. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:1340-6 pubmed
    ..Subjects with high cholesterol absorption and low synthesis may need a combination therapy to lower more effectively their serum cholesterol levels and prevent an increase in the levels of plant sterols. ..
  39. Rajaratnam R, Gylling H, Miettinen T. Independent association of serum squalene and noncholesterol sterols with coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:1185-91 pubmed
    ..In addition to conventional coronary risk factors, fasting serum squalene, delta8-cholestenol, desmosterol, lathosterol (indicators of cholesterol synthesis), cholestanol, campesterol and sitosterol (indicators of ..
  40. Awano M, Kawaguchi A, Morisaki M, Mohri H. Identification of cholesta-7,24-dien-3 beta-ol and desmosterol in hamster cauda epididymal spermatozoa. Lipids. 1989;24:662-4 pubmed
    ..b>Desmosterol and cholesta-7,24-dien-3 beta-ol account for as much as 90% of the total sterols...
  41. Likhodii S, Cunnane S. Utilization of carbon from dietary polyunsaturates for brain cholesterol synthesis during early postnatal development in the rat: a 13C NMR study. Magn Reson Med. 1995;34:803-13 pubmed
    ..b>Desmosterol, an intermediate of cholesterol synthesis, was identified in the spectra of brain lipids...
  42. Weete J, Gandhi S. Sterols of the phylum zygomycota: phylogenetic implications. Lipids. 1997;32:1309-16 pubmed
    ..Ergosterol, 22-dihydroergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, cholesterol, and desmosterol were detected as the major sterols among the species studied...
  43. Singh P, Jafurulla M, Paila Y, Chattopadhyay A. Desmosterol replaces cholesterol for ligand binding function of the serotonin(1A) receptor in solubilized hippocampal membranes: support for nonannular binding sites for cholesterol?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1808:2428-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of cholesterol requirement, we solubilized native hippocampal membranes followed by replenishment with desmosterol. Desmosterol is the immediate biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol in the Bloch pathway differing only in a ..
  44. Phillips J, Rodrigueza W, Johnson W. Basis for rapid efflux of biosynthetic desmosterol from cells. J Lipid Res. 1998;39:2459-70 pubmed
    Previous work shows that the efflux of biosynthetic desmosterol from cells is three times more efficient than that of cholesterol...
  45. Juvet L, Andresen S, Schuster G, Dalen K, Tobin K, Hollung K, et al. On the role of liver X receptors in lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:172-82 pubmed
    ..These findings imply a role for LXR in controlling lipid storage capacity in mature adipocytes and point to an intriguing physiological interplay between LXR and PPARgamma in controlling pathways in lipid handling. ..
  46. Okumura K, Nakamura Y, Takeuchi S, Kato I, Fujimoto Y, Ikekawa N. Formal synthesis of squalamine from desmosterol. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003;51:1177-82 pubmed
    ..was synthesized from the 3-O-acetyl-24R,25-dihydroxy derivative of desmosterol via 10 steps in 16% overall yield and squalamine was also prepared via two further steps in 7...
  47. Hallikainen M, Vidgren H, Agren J, Kiviniemi V, Miettinen T, Gylling H. Postprandial behavior of plasma squalene and non-cholesterol sterols in men with varying cholesterol absorption. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;374:63-8 pubmed
    ..evaluated with plasma levels of cholesterol absorption (cholestanol and plant sterols) and synthesis markers (desmosterol and lathosterol)...
  48. Chevy F, Illien F, Wolf C, Roux C. Limb malformations of rat fetuses exposed to a distal inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:1192-200 pubmed
    Triparanol, an inhibitor of desmosterol Delta24 reductase, produces a high rate of limb malformations in rat fetuses exposed at gestational day 10 (gd 10) to a single oral dose (150-200 mg/kg) given to the pregnant dam...
  49. Fitzpatrick D, Keeling J, Evans M, Kan A, Bell J, Porteous M, et al. Clinical phenotype of desmosterolosis. Am J Med Genet. 1998;75:145-52 pubmed
    We describe a child with lethal multiple malformations and generalised accumulation of desmosterol. The infant had macrocephaly, a hypoplastic nasal bridge, thick alveolar ridges, gingival nodules, cleft palate, total anomalous pulmonary ..
  50. Pentchev P, Comly M, Kruth H, Patel S, Proestel M, Weintroub H. The cholesterol storage disorder of the mutant BALB/c mouse. A primary genetic lesion closely linked to defective esterification of exogenously derived cholesterol and its relationship to human type C Niemann-Pick disease. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:2772-7 pubmed
    ..Homozygous-affected fibroblasts took up and converted [3H]desmosterol to [3H]cholesterol at a normal rate indicating that the murine mutation does not compromise the transport of ..
  51. Evans R, Weaver D, Clegg E. Effects of in utero and in vitro incubation on the lipid-bound fatty acids and sterols of porcine spermatozoa. Gamete Res. 1987;18:153-62 pubmed
    ..43.5% to 36.0%; and 11.1% to 15.8%, respectively). Two major sterols, cholesterol (73%) and desmosterol (27%) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mole ratio of phospholipid to sterol (2...
  52. Roberts K. Sterol sulfates in the epididymis; synthesis and possible function in the reproductive process. J Steroid Biochem. 1987;27:337-41 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that the removal of this inhibition occurs within the female tract via sulfatase activity in order to enable the acrosome reaction and ovum penetration to occur. ..