Summary: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.

Top Publications

  1. Krishnan A, Swami S, Feldman D. Equivalent anticancer activities of dietary vitamin D and calcitriol in an animal model of breast cancer: importance of mammary CYP27B1 for treatment and prevention. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:289-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3], the hormonally active form of vitamin D exerts anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory effects and other anticancer actions in breast cancer (BCa) cell cultures and animal models of BCa...
  2. Huang C, Zheng C, Wu C, Lo L, Lu K, Chu P. Effects of pamidronate and calcitriol on the set point of the parathyroid gland in postmenopausal hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephron Clin Pract. 2012;122:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of coadministration of calcitriol and pamidronate on dynamic parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion...
  3. Ding N, Yu R, Subramaniam N, Sherman M, Wilson C, Rao R, et al. A vitamin D receptor/SMAD genomic circuit gates hepatic fibrotic response. Cell. 2013;153:601-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the findings suggest VDR ligands as a potential therapy for liver fibrosis. ..
  4. Saito H, Takeda S, Amizuka N. Eldecalcitol and calcitriol stimulates 'bone minimodeling,' focal bone formation without prior bone resorption, in rat trabecular bone. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:178-82 pubmed publisher
    Vitamin D is known as a potent stimulator of bone resorption. The active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol (1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), stimulates release of calcium (Ca) from bone in ex vivo organ culture, and treatment with large amounts ..
  5. Doig C, Singh P, Dhiman V, Thorne J, Battaglia S, Sobolewski M, et al. Recruitment of NCOR1 to VDR target genes is enhanced in prostate cancer cells and associates with altered DNA methylation patterns. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:248-56 pubmed publisher
  6. Bang U, Kolte L, Hitz M, Schierbeck L, Nielsen S, Benfield T, et al. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males: results of a clinical trial. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:658-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The main objective of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers...
  7. Jung S, Querfeld U, Muller D, Rudolph B, Peters H, Kramer S. Submaximal suppression of parathyroid hormone ameliorates calcitriol-induced aortic calcification and remodeling and myocardial fibrosis in uremic rats. J Hypertens. 2012;30:2182-91 pubmed publisher
    In subtotally nephrectomized rats, we studied to what extent high-dose calcitriol-induced cardiovascular disease can be modulated by almost complete suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH), mediated by either cinacalcet (CINA) or ..
  8. Mutt S, Karhu T, Lehtonen S, Lehenkari P, Carlberg C, Saarnio J, et al. Inhibition of cytokine secretion from adipocytes by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D? via the NF-?B pathway. FASEB J. 2012;26:4400-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibits LPS-stimulated IL-6 secretion in two human adipocyte models via interference with NF-?B signaling. ..
  9. Seuter S, Heikkinen S, Carlberg C. Chromatin acetylation at transcription start sites and vitamin D receptor binding regions relates to effects of 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and histone deacetylase inhibitors on gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:110-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings hold true also for other HDAC inhibitors and may have implications on dual therapies using chromatin modifiers and nuclear receptor ligands. ..

More Information


  1. Kirby B, Ma Y, Martin H, Buckle Favaro K, Karaplis A, Kovacs C. Upregulation of calcitriol during pregnancy and skeletal recovery after lactation do not require parathyroid hormone. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:1987-2000 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum calcitriol increased fivefold during pregnancy in both genotypes whereas vitamin D binding protein levels were unchanged...
  2. Cayo A, Yen T, Misustin S, Wall K, Wilson S, Evans D, et al. Predicting the need for calcium and calcitriol supplementation after total thyroidectomy: results of a prospective, randomized study. Surgery. 2012;152:1059-67 pubmed publisher
    ..received no supplementation unless symptomatic; if <10, patients were randomized to calcium, calcium and calcitriol, or no supplementation. Of 143 patients, 112 (78%) had a POD1 PTH ? 10...
  3. Seuter S, Pehkonen P, Heikkinen S, Carlberg C. The gene for the transcription factor BHLHE40/DEC1/stra13 is a dynamically regulated primary target of the vitamin D receptor. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:62-7 pubmed publisher
    ..9h. The identification of the widely expressed BHLHE40 gene as a primary VDR target may explain secondary effects of 1?,25(OH)2D3 on BHLHE40 responding genes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. ..
  4. Ikeuchi T, Nakamura T, Fukumoto S, Takada H. A vitamin D3 analog augmented interleukin-8 production by human monocytic cells in response to various microbe-related synthetic ligands, especially NOD2 agonistic muramyldipeptide. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;15:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that NOD2, NF-?B and MAPK pathways are involved in the activity of OCT to augment the response of human monocytic cells to MDP. ..
  5. Noyola Martínez N, Díaz L, Avila E, Halhali A, Larrea F, Barrera D. Calcitriol downregulates TNF-? and IL-6 expression in cultured placental cells from preeclamptic women. Cytokine. 2013;61:245-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In preeclampsia (PE), placental calcitriol synthesis is low; whereas pro-inflammatory cytokines levels are increased, threatening pregnancy outcome...
  6. Villaggio B, Soldano S, Cutolo M. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 downregulates aromatase expression and inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30:934-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the influence of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25(OH)2D3) on aromatase expression in cultures of human macrophages, as a new ..
  7. Di Rosa M, Malaguarnera G, De Gregorio C, Palumbo M, Nunnari G, Malaguarnera L. Immuno-modulatory effects of vitamin D3 in human monocyte and macrophages. Cell Immunol. 2012;280:36-43 pubmed publisher
  8. Alkharfy K, Al Daghri N, Yakout S, Ahmed M. Calcitriol attenuates weight-related systemic inflammation and ultrastructural changes in the liver in a rodent model. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013;112:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of calcitriol treatment on inflammation, insulin resistance and liver changes induced by increased body-weight...
  9. García Quiroz J, García Becerra R, Barrera D, Santos N, Avila E, Ordaz Rosado D, et al. Astemizole synergizes calcitriol antiproliferative activity by inhibiting CYP24A1 and upregulating VDR: a novel approach for breast cancer therapy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45063 pubmed publisher
    b>Calcitriol antiproliferative effects include inhibition of the oncogenic ether-à-go-go-1 potassium channel (Eag1) expression, which is necessary for cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis...
  10. Sung J, Chung W, Kim A, Kim H, Ro H, Chang J, et al. Calcitriol treatment increases serum levels of the soluble receptor of advanced glycation end products in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013;230:59-66 pubmed
    ..of sRAGE, EN-RAGE, and other inflammatory marker, interleukin-6 (IL-6), before and at the end of the 8-week calcitriol treatment...
  11. Salehi Tabar R, Nguyen Yamamoto L, Tavera Mendoza L, Quail T, Dimitrov V, An B, et al. Vitamin D receptor as a master regulator of the c-MYC/MXD1 network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18827-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, 1,25D and the VDR regulate the c-MYC/MXD1 network to suppress c-MYC function, providing a molecular basis for cancer preventive actions of vitamin D. ..
  12. Campos L, Brentani H, Roela R, Katayama M, Lima L, Rolim C, et al. Differences in transcriptional effects of 1?,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on fibroblasts associated to breast carcinomas and from paired normal breast tissues. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;133:12-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-expression network and interactome analysis of genes commonly regulated by 1,25D in NAFs and CAFs revealed differences in their co-expression values, suggesting that 1,25D effects in NAFs are distinct from those triggered in CAFs. ..
  13. Pereira F, Barbachano A, Silva J, Bonilla F, Campbell M, Munoz A, et al. KDM6B/JMJD3 histone demethylase is induced by vitamin D and modulates its effects in colon cancer cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4655-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate for the first time that an epigenetic gene coding for a histone demethylase such as JMJD3 is a VDR co-target that partially mediates the effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on human colon. ..
  14. Dong J, Wong S, Lau C, Lee H, Ng C, Zhang L, et al. Calcitriol protects renovascular function in hypertension by down-regulating angiotensin II type 1 receptors and reducing oxidative stress. Eur Heart J. 2012;33:2980-90 pubmed publisher
    The present study investigated whether or not calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, protects against renovascular dysfunction in hypertension and, if so, whether or not such protection alters the expression of key proteins involved in ..
  15. Mayne C, Spanier J, Relland L, Williams C, Hayes C. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 acts directly on the T lymphocyte vitamin D receptor to inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:822-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a model wherein 1,25-(OH)(2) D(3) acts directly on pathogenic CD4(+) T cells to inhibit EAE. ..
  16. Brodell R, Bruce S, Hudson C, Weiss J, Colón L, Johnson L, et al. A multi-center, open-label study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a sequential treatment regimen of clobetasol propionate 0.05% spray followed by Calcitriol 3 mg/g ointment in the management of plaque psoriasis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011;10:158-64 pubmed
    ..To date, very few studies exist evaluating the use of clobetasol propionate in a regimen with calcitriol to manage moderate-to-severe disease over time...
  17. Bergwitz C, Juppner H. Regulation of phosphate homeostasis by PTH, vitamin D, and FGF23. Annu Rev Med. 2010;61:91-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Most insights gained into the regulation of phosphate homeostasis by these factors are derived from human genetic disorders and genetically engineered mice, which are reviewed in this paper. ..
  18. Chadha M, Tian L, Mashtare T, Payne V, Silliman C, Levine E, et al. Phase 2 trial of weekly intravenous 1,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol (calcitriol) in combination with dexamethasone for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer. 2010;116:2132-9 pubmed publisher
    Preclinical data indicate that there is substantial antitumor activity and synergy between calcitriol and dexamethasone...
  19. Lisse T, Liu T, Irmler M, Beckers J, Chen H, Adams J, et al. Gene targeting by the vitamin D response element binding protein reveals a role for vitamin D in osteoblast mTOR signaling. FASEB J. 2011;25:937-47 pubmed publisher
    ..DDIT4, an inhibitor of mTOR signaling, is a direct target for 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and VDRE-BP, and functions to suppress cell proliferation in response to vitamin D. ..
  20. Bizzarri C, Pitocco D, Napoli N, Di Stasio E, Maggi D, Manfrini S, et al. No protective effect of calcitriol on beta-cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes: the IMDIAB XIII trial. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1962-3 pubmed publisher
    We investigated whether supplementation of the active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) in recent-onset type 1 diabetes can protect beta-cell function evaluated by C-peptide and improve glycemic control assessed by A1C and insulin ..
  21. An B, Tavera Mendoza L, Dimitrov V, Wang X, Calderon M, Wang H, et al. Stimulation of Sirt1-regulated FoxO protein function by the ligand-bound vitamin D receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies link 1,25D signaling through the VDR directly to Sirt1 and FoxO function and provide a molecular basis for the cancer chemopreventive actions of 1,25D. ..
  22. Bahar Shany K, Ravid A, Koren R. Upregulation of MMP-9 production by TNFalpha in keratinocytes and its attenuation by vitamin D. J Cell Physiol. 2010;222:729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha), a key mediator of cutaneous inflammation, is a powerful inducer of MMP-9. Calcitriol, the hormonally active vitamin D metabolite, and its analogs are known to attenuate epidermal inflammation...
  23. Adams J, Hewison M. Update in vitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:471-8 pubmed publisher
  24. Asberg C, Hjalmarson O, Alm J, Martinsson T, Waldenström J, Hellerud C. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency: enzyme and mutation analysis performed on calcitriol-stimulated monocytes with a note on long-term prognosis. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2010;33 Suppl 3:S113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..a diagnostic system for FBPase deficiency consisting of enzyme activity measurement and mutation detection in calcitriol-stimulated monocytes...
  25. Isakova T, Xie H, Barchi Chung A, Smith K, Sowden N, Epstein M, et al. Daily variability in mineral metabolites in CKD and effects of dietary calcium and calcitriol. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7:820-8 pubmed publisher
    ..daily fluctuations in mineral metabolites in patients with CKD stages 3 and 4 before and after short-term calcitriol treatment and tested the effects of dietary calcium and calcitriol supplementation on these parameters in the ..
  26. Meyer M, Goetsch P, Pike J. A downstream intergenic cluster of regulatory enhancers contributes to the induction of CYP24A1 expression by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:15599-610 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a more complex mechanism is responsible for the striking CYP24A1 up-regulation induced by the vitamin D hormone in target cells. ..
  27. Eftekharian M, Zarnani A, Moazzeni S. In vivo effects of calcitriol on phenotypic and functional properties of dendritic cells. Iran J Immunol. 2010;7:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of calcitriol (active form of vitamin D3) on DCs. 0...
  28. Barrera D, Noyola Martínez N, Avila E, Halhali A, Larrea F, Díaz L. Calcitriol inhibits interleukin-10 expression in cultured human trophoblasts under normal and inflammatory conditions. Cytokine. 2012;57:316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-10 and calcitriol inhibit proinflammatory cytokines expression in human placenta helping to fetal allograft toleration...
  29. Shalhoub V, Shatzen E, Ward S, Young J, Boedigheimer M, Twehues L, et al. Chondro/osteoblastic and cardiovascular gene modulation in human artery smooth muscle cells that calcify in the presence of phosphate and calcitriol or paricalcitol. J Cell Biochem. 2010;111:911-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Cultured CASMCs were exposed to phosphate-containing differentiation medium (DM) with and without calcitriol, paricalcitol, or the calcimimetic R-568 (10(-11)-10(-7)?M) for 7 days...
  30. Avila E, García Becerra R, Rodríguez Rasgado J, Díaz L, Ordaz Rosado D, Zugel U, et al. Calcitriol down-regulates human ether a go-go 1 potassium channel expression in cervical cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:2667-72 pubmed
    Human ether à-go-go-1 (EAG1) potassium channels are promising anticancer targets. Calcitriol has antitumoural properties. This study investigated EAG1 regulation by calcitriol in normal and cancer cells...
  31. Lee J, Park S, Cheon S, Lee J, Kim S, Hur D, et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D? enhances NK susceptibility of human melanoma cells via Hsp60-mediated FAS expression. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..1?,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment may therefore have a preventive role in melanoma occurrence or potentiate the anticancer effects of NK-cell immune therapy. ..
  32. Swami S, Krishnan A, Wang J, Jensen K, Peng L, Albertelli M, et al. Inhibitory effects of calcitriol on the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts in nude mice: selective modulation of aromatase expression in vivo. Horm Cancer. 2011;2:190-202 pubmed publisher
    b>Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)), the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D, exerts many anticancer effects in breast cancer (BCa) cells...
  33. Kemmochi S, Fujimoto H, Woo G, Hirose M, Nishikawa A, Mitsumori K, et al. Preventive effects of calcitriol on the development of capsular invasive carcinomas in a rat two-stage thyroid carcinogenesis model. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:655-64 pubmed
    ..To examine the potency of calcitriol, a synthetic vitamin D3 analog, on the development or progression of CICs, male F344 rats were injected with ..
  34. Dusso A, Tokumoto M. Defective renal maintenance of the vitamin D endocrine system impairs vitamin D renoprotection: a downward spiral in kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2011;79:715-29 pubmed publisher
    In kidney disease, the progressive loss of renal capacity to produce calcitriol, the vitamin D hormone, is a key contributor to elevations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and mineral and skeletal disorders predisposing to renal and ..
  35. Egan J, Thompson P, Vitanov M, Bartik L, Jacobs E, Haussler M, et al. Vitamin D receptor ligands, adenomatous polyposis coli, and the vitamin D receptor FokI polymorphism collectively modulate beta-catenin activity in colon cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2010;49:337-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings strengthen evidence favoring a direct effect on the Wnt-signaling molecule beta-catenin as one anti-cancer target of 1,25D-VDR action in the colorectum. ..
  36. Scher H, Jia X, Chi K, de Wit R, Berry W, Albers P, et al. Randomized, open-label phase III trial of docetaxel plus high-dose calcitriol versus docetaxel plus prednisone for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:2191-8 pubmed publisher
    To compare the efficacy and safety of docetaxel plus high-dose calcitriol (DN-101) to docetaxel plus prednisone in an open-label phase III trial...
  37. Finch J, Tokumoto M, Nakamura H, Yao W, Shahnazari M, Lane N, et al. Effect of paricalcitol and cinacalcet on serum phosphate, FGF-23, and bone in rats with chronic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F1315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, due to its effects on bone and to the hypocalcemia and severe hyperphosphatemia it induces, we believe that cinacalcet should not be used in patients with CKD without further detailed studies. ..
  38. Thorne J, Maguire O, Doig C, Battaglia S, Fehr L, Sucheston L, et al. Epigenetic control of a VDR-governed feed-forward loop that regulates p21(waf1/cip1) expression and function in non-malignant prostate cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:2045-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Dissection of this feed-forward loop in a non-malignant prostate cell system illuminates mechanisms of sensitivity and therefore possible resistance in prostate and other VDR responsive cancers. ..
  39. Mansell J, Nowghani M, Pabbruwe M, Paterson I, Smith A, Blom A. Lysophosphatidic acid and calcitriol co-operate to promote human osteoblastogenesis: requirement of albumin-bound LPA. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2011;95:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..for both bone development and post-natal bone growth and homeostasis is the active metabolite of vitamin D3, calcitriol (D3)...
  40. Heikkinen S, Väisänen S, Pehkonen P, Seuter S, Benes V, Carlberg C. Nuclear hormone 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 elicits a genome-wide shift in the locations of VDR chromatin occupancy. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:9181-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ligand binding shifts the locations of VDR occupation to DR3-type REs that surround its target genes and occur in a large variety of regulatory constellations. ..
  41. Yalamanchili V, Gallagher J. Treatment with hormone therapy and calcitriol did not affect depression in older postmenopausal women: no interaction with estrogen and vitamin D receptor genotype polymorphisms. Menopause. 2012;19:697-703 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of hormone therapy and calcitriol on depression in older postmenopausal women and to determine whether the response was associated with polymorphisms of estrogen receptor ? and vitamin D ..
  42. Kavandi L, Collier M, Nguyen H, Syed V. Progesterone and calcitriol attenuate inflammatory cytokines CXCL1 and CXCL2 in ovarian and endometrial cancer cells. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:3143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown inhibition of ovarian and endometrial cancer cell growth with progesterone and calcitriol. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of these two agents on the expression of inflammatory genes...
  43. Toropainen S, Väisänen S, Heikkinen S, Carlberg C. The down-regulation of the human MYC gene by the nuclear hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is associated with cycling of corepressors and histone deacetylases. J Mol Biol. 2010;400:284-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that dynamically composed protein complexes that dock via VDR to the two VDREs may explain the repression of the MYC gene. ..
  44. Bristol M, Di X, Beckman M, Wilson E, Henderson S, Maiti A, et al. Dual functions of autophagy in the response of breast tumor cells to radiation: cytoprotective autophagy with radiation alone and cytotoxic autophagy in radiosensitization by vitamin D 3. Autophagy. 2012;8:739-53 pubmed publisher
  45. Uhmann A, Niemann H, Lammering B, Henkel C, Hess I, Nitzki F, et al. Antitumoral effects of calcitriol in basal cell carcinomas involve inhibition of hedgehog signaling and induction of vitamin D receptor signaling and differentiation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2011;10:2179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the application of the physiologically active form of vitamin D(3), calcitriol, inhibits proliferation and growth of BCC of Ptch mutant mice in vitro and in vivo...
  46. Garcia L, King K, Ferrini M, Norris K, Artaza J. 1,25(OH)2vitamin D3 stimulates myogenic differentiation by inhibiting cell proliferation and modulating the expression of promyogenic growth factors and myostatin in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2976-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies key vitamin D-related molecular pathways for muscle regulation and supports the rationale for vitamin D intervention studies in select muscle disorder conditions. ..
  47. Cass W, Peters L, Fletcher A, Yurek D. Evoked dopamine overflow is augmented in the striatum of calcitriol treated rats. Neurochem Int. 2012;60:186-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D, has been shown to have significant effects on the brain...
  48. Wu C, Chang J, Chen C, Su S, Yang L, Ma W, et al. Calcitriol treatment attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2011;223:153-9 pubmed
    ..Twenty-five patients (mean age 58 ± 12 years, 13 males and 12 females) were enrolled in the study to receive calcitriol treatment for 16 weeks...
  49. Rostkowska Nadolska B, Sliupkas Dyrda E, Potyka J, Kusmierz D, Fraczek M, Krecicki T, et al. Vitamin D derivatives: calcitriol and tacalcitol inhibits interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 expression in human nasal polyp fibroblast cultures. Adv Med Sci. 2010;55:86-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and 1alpha,24(R)-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (tacalcitol) on the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by fibroblasts derived from ..
  50. Winer K, Sinaii N, Reynolds J, Peterson D, Dowdy K, Cutler G. Long-term treatment of 12 children with chronic hypoparathyroidism: a randomized trial comparing synthetic human parathyroid hormone 1-34 versus calcitriol and calcium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2680-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first randomized controlled study in children comparing treatment with synthetic human PTH 1-34 and calcitriol. The primary objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of long-term PTH 1-34 vs...
  51. Eftekhari M, Akbarzadeh M, Dabbaghmanesh M, Hasanzadeh J. Impact of treatment with oral calcitriol on glucose indices in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20:521-6 pubmed
    ..One group received two capsules of calcitriol (0.25 ?g 1,25-dihydroxy cholecalciferol per each capsule) per day. The second group received placebo tablets...
  52. Kiattisunthorn K, Wutyam K, Indranoi A, Vasuvattakul S. Randomized trial comparing pulse calcitriol and alfacalcidol for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in haemodialysis patients. Nephrology (Carlton). 2011;16:277-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Calcitriol and alfacalcidol are used extensively for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Unfortunately, there is limited published data comparing the efficacy and tolerability of both active vitamin D sterols...
  53. Chang J, Cha H, Lee D, Seo K, Kweon M. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the differentiation and migration of T(H)17 cells to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12925 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present results in an experimental murine model suggest that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can directly regulate T cell differentiation and could be applied in preventive and therapeutic strategies for T(H)17-mediated autoimmune diseases. ..